Guntur district

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Guntur district
మంగళగిరి లో లక్ష్మీనరసింహస్వామి ఆలయ గోపురం.JPG
Annamayya Library - Gunturu - A.P -2.jpg
Pedavadlapudi Over Bridge - panoramio.jpg
Vykuntapuram temple entrance, Tenali.jpg
Chuttugunta center, Guntur.jpg
Clockwise from top-left: Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Mangalagiri, Annamayya Library, Vaikuntapuram temple in Tenali, Chuttugunta centre in Guntur, Flyover in Pedavadlapudi
Location of Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh
Location of Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates (Guntur): 16°18′N 80°27′E / 16.300°N 80.450°E / 16.300; 80.450Coordinates: 16°18′N 80°27′E / 16.300°N 80.450°E / 16.300; 80.450
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
HeadquartersGuntur
Mandals58
Government
 • District collectorSri Vivek Yadav, IAS[1]
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesGuntur
 • MPGalla Jayadev
 • Assembly constituencies07
Area
 • Total2,443 km2 (943 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total2,091,075
 • Density860/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
 • Urban
51.29%
Demographics
 • Literacy67.40%
 • Sex ratio1003
Vehicle registrationAP-07 (former)
AP39 (from 30 January 2019)[2]
Major highwaysNH-16
Websiteguntur.ap.gov.in

Guntur district is one of the nine districts in the Coastal Andhra region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The administrative seat of the district is located at Guntur, the largest city of the district in terms of area and with a population of 670,073.[3] It has a coastline of approximately 100 km (62 mi) on the right bank of Krishna River, that separates it from Krishna district and NTR district. It is bounded on the south by Bapatla district and on the west by Palnadu district.[4] It has an area of 2,443 km2 (943 sq mi) and with a population of 20,91,075 as per 2011 census of India.[5][6]

The district is often referred to as the Land of Chillies.[7] It is also a major centre for agriculture, education and learning. It exports large quantities of chillies and tobacco.[8]

Etymology[edit]

The district derives its name from its district headquarters, Guntur.[9]

There are several opinions on the meaning and origin of the word Guntur. The word owes its origin to words like gundu (a rock), gunta (a pond) and kunta (1/3 of an acre). In Sanskrit Guntur is called Garthapuri (Guntlapuri).

The earliest reference to Guntur, a variant of Guntur, comes from the Idern plates of Ammaraja I (922-929 AD), the Vengichalakyan King. Guntur also appears in another two inscriptions dated 1147 AD and 1158 AD.

History[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
19011,133,968—    
19111,299,257+1.37%
19211,385,050+0.64%
19311,563,095+1.22%
19411,755,986+1.17%
19511,975,395+1.18%
19612,327,246+1.65%
19712,844,488+2.03%
19813,434,724+1.90%
19914,106,999+1.80%
20014,465,144+0.84%
20114,887,813+0.91%
source:[10]

The original Sanskrit name (ancient Vedic culture) for Guntur was Garthapuri. The 'Agasthyeswara Sivalayam' in the old city of Guntur is an ancient temple for Siva.[citation needed] It has inscriptions on two stones in 'Naga Lipi' (ancient script). It is said that Agastya built the temple in the last Treta Yuga around the Swayambhu Linga and hence the name. The 'Nagas' were said to have ruled the region. The place of Sitanagaram and the Guthikonda Caves can be traced (through Vedic Puranas) back to the traditional timescale Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga.[citation needed] Guntur District is home to the second oldest evidence of human habitation in India, in the form of Palaeolithic (old Stone Age) implements. Ancient history can be traced from the time of Sala kings who ruled during the 5th century BCE. The earliest reference to Guntur, a variant of Guntur, comes from the Idern plates of Ammaraja I (922–929 CE), the Vengi Chalukyan King. Guntur also appears in two inscriptions dated 1147 and 1158 CE.[citation needed]

Brahmi Script inscribed on a Railing Pillar at Velpuru

Since the beginning of Buddhist time, Guntur stood in the forefront in matters of culture, education and civilisation. Gautama Buddha preached at Dharanikota/Dhanyakatakam near Guntur and conducted Kalachakra ceremony, which takes its antiquity to 500 BCE.[11] Taranatha, a Buddhist monk writes: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of "The Glorious Lunar Mansions" (Kalachakra).[12] Buddhists established universities in ancient times at Dhanyakataka and Amaravathi. Scores of Buddhist stupas were excavated in the villages of Guntur district. Acharya Nagarjuna, an influential Buddhist philosopher taught at Nagarjunakonda and is said to have discovered Mica in 200 BCE. Chinese traveller and Buddhist monk Hiuen Tsang (Xuanzang) visited Amaravati in 640 C.E., stayed for sometime and studied 'Abhidhammapitakam'. He observed that there were many Viharas and some of them were deserted, which points out that Hinduism was gaining ground at that time. Xuanzang wrote a glorious account of the place, Viharas and monasteries that existed.[13]

Guntur was successively ruled by famous dynasties such as the Satavahanas, Andhra Ikshvakus, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Vishnukundina, Kota Vamsa, Chalukyas, Cholas, Kakatiyas, Musunuris, Reddys, Vijayanagara and Qutb Shahis during ancient and medieval times. The famous battle of Palnadu which is enshrined in legend and literature as Palnati Yuddham was fought in Guntur district in 1180 CE.

Qutb Shahis, Nizams and later[edit]

During the 16th century Guntur became part of the Mughal empire. In 1687 CE when the emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Qutb Shahi sultanate of Golconda, of which Guntur was then a part. In 1724 CE, Asaf Jah, viceroy of the empire's southern provinces, declared his independence as the Nizam of Hyderabad. The coastal districts of Hyderabad, known as the Northern Circars, were occupied by the French in 1750. During this time, the Manur Rao family of Deshastha Brahmin community, the Vasireddi family of Kamma community and the Manik Rao family of Velama community were prominent Zamindar families in the present day Guntur district. The Manur Rao family were rulers of Chilakaluripet Zamindari and Sattenapalle Zamindari, The Vasireddi family were rulers of Amaravathi Zamindari and The Manik Rao family were the rulers of Repalle Zamindari.[14]

Post Independence[edit]

The Guntur region played a significant role in the struggle for independence and the formation of Andhra Pradesh. The northern, Telugu- speaking districts of Madras State, including Guntur, advocated to become a separate state after independence. The new state of Andhra region named Andhra State, was created in 1953 from the eleven northern districts of Madras State. In 1970, part of Guntur district was split off to become part of the Prakasam district.[15]

The district suffers from Naxalite insurgency and is a part of the Red corridor.[16]

Geography[edit]

Guntur Coast by NASA

Guntur district occupies an area of approximately 2,443 square kilometres (943 sq mi),[17] [18] The Krishna River forms the northeastern and eastern boundary of the district, separating it from Krishna district. The district is bounded on the southeast by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Bapatla district, on the west by Palnadu district and on the northwest by NTR district and north east Krishna district.

Guntur Coast is located on the south east coast of India (also known as the Coromandel Coast) (quotes from NASA site). Krishna river merges into Bay of Bengal at the coastal area of Guntur district. The braided stream channels, broad floodplain, and extensive sandbars suggest that this part of the Krishna river flows through relatively flat terrain and carries substantial amounts of sediment, especially during the monsoon season. Suryalanka Beach near Bapatla, Bobbarrlanka in Repalle, Nizampatnam Beach in Nizampatnam are tourist beaches in Guntur coastline.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 census of India, the district had a population of 4,887,813 with a density of 193 inhabitants per square kilometre (500/sq mi). The total population constitute, 2,440,521 males and 2,447,292 females – a sex ratio of 1003 females per 1000 males. The total urban population is 16,52,738 (33.81%).[6]: 19  There are 29,60,441 literates with a literacy rate of 67.40%. After bifurcation the district had a population of 20,91,075. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 4,21,861 (20.17%) and 69,017 (3.30%) of the population respectively.[19]: 77–82 

Religions in Guntur district (2011)[20]
Religion Percent
Hindus
83.94%
Muslims
13.37%
Christians
2.21%
Other or not stated
0.48%
Distribution of religions

At the time of the 2011 census, 86.14% of the population spoke Telugu and 12.32% Urdu as their first language.[21]

Administrative Setup[edit]

Collectorate[edit]

The Collectorate play a pivotal role in the district administration. Collector in the cadre of IAS heads the district. He acts as the District Magistrate for maintaining Law and order in his jurisdiction. He deals mainly with planning and development. Law and Order, scheduled areas/ agency areas, general elections, arms licensing etc.

The Joint Collector, who also belongs to the IAS cadre, runs the Revenue administration under various enactments in the district. He is also designated as Additional District Magistrate. He mainly deals with civil supplies,land matters, mines and minerals,village officers etc.

The District Revenue Officer (DRO), in the cadre of Special Grade Deputy Collectors, assists the Collector and Joint Collector in discharging their duties. The District Revenue Officer looks after all the branches of the Collectorate. He deals mainly with general administration and is vested with supervision of day-to-day functions of the collectorate.

The administrative officer in the rank of a Tahsildar is the general assistant to the collector. He directly supervises all the sections in the collectorate and most of the files are routed through him.

The collectorate is divided into 8 sections as per the administrative reforms taken up by the Government of Andhra Pradesh.

  • Section A:: Deals with Establishment and Office Procedures
  • Section B:: Deals with Accounts and audit
  • Section C:: Deals with Magisterial (Court/Legal) matters.
  • Section D:: Deals with land Revenue and relief
  • Section E:: Deals with Land Administration
  • Section F:: Deals with Land Reforms
  • Section G:: Deals with Land Acquisition
  • Section H:: Deals with Protocol, elections and Residual work.

Administrative Divisions[edit]

The district is divided into four Revenue divisions, namely, Guntur, Tenali, Narasaraopet and Gurazala. These are sub-divided into 58 mandals,[22] which are in turn divided as 57 Panchayat Samiti (Block)s, 712 villages and 16 towns. These 16 towns includes, 1 municipal corporation, 14 municipalities[23] and 1 census town. Gurazala revenue division was newly formed in the year 2013.[24][25] Guntur city is the only municipal corporation and district headquarter. Vaddeswaram is categorised as a census town.[26] The 14 municipalities in the district are Mangalagiri, Sattenapalle, Tadepalle, Tenali, Ponnur, Bapatla, Repalle, Narasaraopet, Chilakaluripet, Vinukonda, Macherla, Piduguralla, Dachepalle and Gurazala.[27][23]



Mandals[edit]

The below table categorises the 18 mandals into their respective revenue divisions in the district:[28]

# Guntur Division Tenali Division
1 Guntur East Mangalagiri
2 Guntur West Tadepalle
3 Medikonduru Duggirala
4 Pedakakani Kollipara
5 Pedanandipadu Chebrolu
6 Phirangipuram Kakumanu
7 Prathipadu Ponnur
8 Tadikonda Tenali
9 Thullur
10 Vatticherukuru

Parliament segment[edit]

Guntur (Lok Sabha constituency)

Assembly segments[edit]

Guntur constituency presently comprises the following legislative assembly segments:[29]

Name Reserved for (SC/ST/None)
Tadikonda SC
Mangalagiri None
Ponnuru None
Tenali None
Prathipadu SC
Guntur West None
Guntur East None

Village Panchayats[edit]

Guntur district has 1022 Gram Panchayats covering 58 mandals including seized mandals. Panchayat secretaries have been working for the cluster Headquarter Gram Panchayats. The main objective of the Panchayat Raj Department is to provide civic amenities to the rural public.

Erstwhile Talukas[edit]

  • Before Formation of mandals, Administration was done through Taluka system.
  • Guntur District had 8 Talukas in 1971, later in 1978 they were increased to 21 Talukas.
  • In 1985, Mandal system was created and 57 mandals were formed in the district.
  • In 2018, Guntur mandal is split into Guntur East and Guntur West mandals making a total of 58 mandals.[30]
S.No. Erstwhile Talukas

in 1971

Newly formed Talukas

in 1978

Newly formed Mandals

in 1985

1 Guntur Guntur Guntur, Pedakakani, Chebrolu [part]
Prathipadu Prathipadu, Vatticherukuru, Pedanandipadu [part]
Tadikonda Tadikonda, Thullur, Amaravathi [part]
Mangalagiri Mangalagiri, Tadepalli,
2 Tenali Tenali Tenali, Tsundur,Vemuru [part], Chebrolu [part]
Emani Duggirala, Kollipara,
Amruthalur Amruthalur, Kolluru, Vemuru [part]
3 Repalle Repalle Repalle, Bhattiprolu,
Pallapatla Cherukupalli, Nagaram, Nizampatnam,
4 Bapatla Bapatla Bapatla, Karlapalem, Pittalavanipalem
Ponnur Ponnuru, Kakumanu,
5 Narsaraopeta Narsaraopeta Narasaraopeta, Nakirekallu, Rompicherla,
Chilakaluripeta Chilakaluripeta, Edlapadu, Nadendla, Pedanandipadu [part],
6 Vinukonda Vinukonda Vinukonda, Nuzendla, Savalyapuram [part]
Ipur Ipur, Bollapalle, Savalyapuram [part]
7 Palnadu Palnadu Gurajala, Karempudi, Rentachintala [part],
Macherla Macherla, Durgi, Veldurthy, Rentachintala [part],
Piduguralla Piduguralla, Dachepalle, Machavaram,
8 Sattenapalle Sattenapalle Sattenapalle, Phirangipuram, Medikonduru,
Rajupalem Rajupalem, Bellamkonda, Muppala, Krosuru [part]
Talluru Atchampet, Pedakurapadu, Amaravathi [part], Krosuru [part]

Cities and towns[edit]

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Guntur District
As per the 2011 Census
Rank Division Pop.
Guntur
Guntur
Mangalagiri Tadepalli Municipal Corporation
Mangalagiri Tadepalli Municipal Corporation
1 Guntur Guntur Division 670,073 Tenali
Tenali
2 Mangalagiri Tadepalli Municipal Corporation Tenali Division 300,891
3 Tenali Tenali Division 164,937
4 Ponnur Tenali Division 59,913
5 [[{{{city_5}}}]] [[{{{div_5}}}]] {{{pop_5}}}
6 [[{{{city_6}}}]] [[{{{div_6}}}]] {{{pop_6}}}
7 [[{{{city_7}}}]] [[{{{div_7}}}]] {{{pop_7}}}
8 [[{{{city_8}}}]] [[{{{div_8}}}]] {{{pop_8}}}
9 [[{{{city_9}}}]] [[{{{div_9}}}]] {{{pop_9}}}
10 [[{{{city_10}}}]] [[{{{div_10}}}]] {{{pop_10}}}
Municipal Bodies in Guntur District
S.No. City / Town Civic Status of Town Municipality

Formation Year

2011 Census

Population

2001 Census

Population

1991 Census

Population

1981 Census

Population

1971 Census

Population

1961 Census

Population

1951 Census

Population

1 Guntur Municipal Corporation 1866 670,073 514,461 417,051 367,699 2,69,991 1,87,122 1,25,255
2 Mangalagiri-Tadepalle Municipal Corporation 1969 300,497 63,349 59,152 46,172 32,850 22,182 17,586
3 Tenali Municipality Grade - Special 1912 164,937 153,756 143,726 119,257 102,937 78,525 58,116
4 Ponnur Municipality Grade - 2 1964 59,913 57,640 54,363 50,206 31,463 22,872 17,972

Note -

  • Dachepalli Nagar Panchayat includes Dachepalli and Nadikudi.
  • Gurazala Nagar Panchayat includes Gurazala and Jangamaheswaram.
Erstwhile Talukas [Non-Municipalities] Population.
S.No Town Civic Status of Town 2011 Census

Population

1 Prathipadu Grama Panchayat 14,305
2 Tadikonda Grama Panchayat 18,505


Culture[edit]

Lord Hanuman temple, Ponnur

The district has many festivals such as Rama Navami,[31] Maha Sivaratri,[32] Vinayaka Chavithi,[33] Vijaya Dasami,[34] Deepawali,[35] Holi,[36] Ugadi,[37] Eid,[38] Krishnastami,[39] Christmas.[40] There are hill temple festivals at Kotappakonda, Mangalagiri.

Tourism[edit]

Places of historical importance in the district include Ponnur, Undavalli Caves, Gurazala, Mangalagiri, Tadepalle, Tenali and the archaeological museum in Guntur. There are many places of interest like Undavalli Caves.

Tradition and spirituality[edit]

Prolaya Vema Reddi built number of Lord Shiva temples during his reign. Number of temples were constructed in Krishna valley during the reign of Vasireddy Venkatadri Nayudu. Tall towers (Gaali Gopuram) of these temples in many villages and towns of Guntur district stand testimony to his devotion and munificence. Some of the famous destinations are Nadivelamma Talli Temple in Rajavolu, and there will be annual festival on Full moon day in the month of Chaitra maas. Amaravathi temple, the abode of Lord Shiva, present in the form of a 15 ft (4.6 m) Shiva Linga. The Auspicious Hill of Mangalagiri town, is dedicated to Lord Narasimha with three temples of Panakala Narasimha Swamy on the hill, Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy at the foot of the temple, Gandala Narasimha Swamy at the top of the hill, are also famous. Other famous temples are Bhavanarayanaswami temple in Bapatla, Sri Laxmi Chennakesava Swamy Temple in Macherla, Kotappakonda,[41] Pedakakani, Vykuntapuram in Tenali.and also subramaneswara Swamy temple,polleramathalli temple, agastheswaraswamy temple (which was built in 8 century by agasthaya mahrashi and rebuilt by Sri Krishna Devaraya)

Panorama of a cultural heritage museum
Amaravathi Cultural Heritage Museum

Economy[edit]

Tobacco Drying at Grandhasiri village in Guntur district

The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of the district is 49,722 crore (US$6.2 billion) and it contributes 9.5% to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the FY 2013–14, the per capita income at current prices was 82,026 (US$1,000). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute 16,111 crore (US$2.0 billion), 8,770 crore (US$1.1 billion) and 24,841 crore (US$3.1 billion) respectively to the GDDP.[42]

The major products contributing to the GVA of the district from agriculture and allied services are paddy, cotton kapas, chillies, banana, milk, meat and fisheries. The GVA to the industrial and service sector is contributed from construction, electricity, manufacturing, transport and education.[42]

Healthcare[edit]

General Hospital in Guntur

Healthcare is provided by government and private institutions. The Guntur Government Hospital provides free healthcare.[43] All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) is situated in Mangalagiri.[44] The nonprofit or charity hospitals are the Sankara Eye Hospital.[45][46]

Transport[edit]

The total road length of state highways in the district is 1,258 km (782 mi).[47] There exists 406 km (252 mi) of rail network in the district.[42]

Education and research[edit]

A college campus
A university campus

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[48][49] As per the school information report for the academic year 2015–16, there are a total of 4,739 schools. They include, 32 government, 2,839 mandal and zilla parishads, 2 residential, 1329 private, 14 model, 24 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), 296 municipal and 203 other types of schools.[50] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district are 637,031.[51] The district being home to the capital city, it is experiencing a growth in private international schools as well.[52] The Central Board of Secondary Education, Secondary School Certificate or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education are the different types of syllabus followed by different schools. The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu and Urdu.[53][54]

There are several junior colleges which are under government, residential, social welfare, disabled welfare, private aided and unaided for the purpose of imparting (10+2) education and the students sit for the certificate of Board of Intermediate Education.[55] AC college is the oldest private aided college of the district, established in 1885.[55] The higher education colleges have various fields of study like medical, nursing, degree, post graduate, polytechnic, law, teaching, pharmacy, engineering, veterinary etc.[56] The Acharya Nagarjuna University is a state university which has fourteen autonomous colleges as per Universities Grant Commission.[57][58] The KMC, GMC, AIIMS are some of the premier medical institutes in Guntur. There are also many private universities like Vignan University, KL University in the district. The Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University at Lam is a public agricultural university, equipped with a Regional Agricultural Research Station.[59][60]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Vivek Yadav posted as Collector of Guntur". The Hindu. 4 February 2021. Archived from the original on 6 April 2021. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  2. ^ "New 'AP 39' code to register vehicles in Andhra Pradesh launched". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  3. ^ "District – Guntur". Andhra Pradesh Online Portal. Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  4. ^ "District Profile". National Informatics Centre. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  5. ^ "Guntur district". AP state portal. Archived from the original on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  6. ^ a b "District Census Handbook – Guntur" (PDF). Census of India. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  7. ^ "Guntur district a role model for development". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  8. ^ "About Guntur". AP Capital Region Development Authority. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  9. ^ Babu 2009, p. 77.
  10. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  11. ^ Buddha's Preaching of the Kalachakra Tantra at the Stupa of Dhanyakataka, H. Hoffman, in: German Scholars on India, Vol. I, 1973, pp. 136–140, Varanasi
  12. ^ Taranatha; The history of the Kālacakra tradition in Sambhala and India
  13. ^ "Xuanzang's Journey". odiseos.net. Archived from the original on 13 April 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  14. ^ Brand 1973, p. 113.
  15. ^ Law, Gwillim (25 September 2011). "Districts of India". Statoids. Archived from the original on 20 March 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  16. ^ "83 districts under the Security Related Expenditure Scheme". IntelliBriefs. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  17. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti, ed. (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
  18. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2011. Bangka 11,413
  19. ^ "District Census Hand Book – Guntur" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  20. ^ "Population by Religion - Andhra Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011.
  21. ^ "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Andhra Pradesh". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  22. ^ India, The Hans (31 March 2018). "Guntur urban divided into east, west mandals". www.thehansindia.com. Guntur. Archived from the original on 5 April 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  23. ^ a b "Dachepalli, Gurazala in Guntur district get municipality status". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 6 April 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  24. ^ "New Gurazala revenue division created". The Hindu. Gurazala (Guntur District). 1 July 2013. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  25. ^ "Ten new revenue divisions created". The Hindu. Hyderabad. 4 April 2013. Archived from the original on 6 April 2021. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  26. ^ "District Census Handbook – Guntur" (PDF). Census of India. pp. 14–15, 46. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  27. ^ "Urban Local Bodies". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration – Government of Andhra Pradesh. National Informatics Centre. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  28. ^ "Mandals | Guntur District, Government of Andhra Pradesh | India". Guntur district website.
  29. ^ "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). The Election Commission of India. National Informatics Centre. 17 December 2018. p. 31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  30. ^ "Guntur urban divided into east, west mandals". The Hans India. Guntur. 31 March 2018. Archived from the original on 5 April 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  31. ^ "Rama Navami festival in Guntur". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  32. ^ "Guntur: Maha Shivarathri festival". Deccan Chronicle. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  33. ^ "Vinayaka Chavithi festivities in Guntur". The Hans India. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  34. ^ "Navaratri in Guntur". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 August 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  35. ^ "Diwali celebrated with gaiety in AP, Telangana". The Hans India. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  36. ^ "Gaiety, colour, fervour mark Holi festivities". The Hindu. 24 March 2016. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  37. ^ "Sahiti Vasanthotsavam on Ugadi". The Hindu. 9 April 2013. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  38. ^ "Nation Celebrates Eid-ul-Adha with Religious Fervour". Sakshipost. 13 September 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  39. ^ "Gaiety, fervour mark Krishna Janmashtami". New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 6 April 2021. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  40. ^ "CM Chandrababu for Guntur today". The Hans India. Archived from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  41. ^ http://www.kotappakonda.com Kotappakonda.com
  42. ^ a b c "Economy of Guntur District". Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  43. ^ "New Blocks for Guntur Government Hospital by Government". My Guntur. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  44. ^ "Official website of AIIMS Mangalagiri".
  45. ^ "Sanakara Eye Foundation". giftofvision.org. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  46. ^ "Sankara Eye Hospital goes hi-tech". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 1 March 2007. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007.
  47. ^ "Existing State Highways" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh Road Development Corporation. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  48. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  49. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  50. ^ "School Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  51. ^ "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Child info 2015–16, District School Education – Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  52. ^ "Schools, colleges brace for rush". The Hans India. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  53. ^ "74 GMC schools switch to English medium – Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  54. ^ Mallikarjun, Y. (29 February 2016). "Classrooms in State-run schools set to go digital". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  55. ^ a b "List of colleges in Guntur district" (PDF). Board of Intermediate Education. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  56. ^ "Educational Institutions and Strength at a Glance" (PDF). Official website of Guntur District. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  57. ^ "Autonomous colleges" (PDF). University Grants Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  58. ^ "Autonomous colleges list" (PDF). Universities Grants Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  59. ^ Staff Reporter (14 June 2016). "Marketing Department moves to capital region". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  60. ^ Jonathan, P. Samuel (29 July 2014). "It is final, Lam to get Agri University". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2016.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]