Guo Wengui

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Guo Wengui
Guo Wen-gui in April 2017.jpg
Guo Wengui in 2017
Born (1970-05-10) May 10, 1970 (age 51) or (1968-10-05) October 5, 1968 (age 53)
Nationality
OccupationBusinessman, political activist
Known forBeijing Zenith Holdings
Spouse(s)
Yue Qingzhi
(m. 1985)
[citation needed]
ChildrenGuo Mei, Guo Qiang
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese郭文貴
Simplified Chinese郭文贵
English name
EnglishMiles Kwok

Guo Wengui (Chinese: 郭文贵; born May 10, 1970—self claim[2] or October 5, 1968[3]), also known under the names Guo Haoyun (郭浩云), Miles Guo, and Miles Kwok,[4] is an exiled Chinese billionaire businessman who became a political activist and controls Beijing Zenith Holdings (via proxies Li Lin and Jiang Yuehua),[5] and other assets.[6][7] At the peak of his career, he was the 73rd richest person in China. Guo was accused of corruption and other misdeeds by the Chinese authorities and fled to the United States in late 2014, after learning he was going to be arrested under allegations including bribing, kidnapping, money laundering, fraud and rape.[8][9] Guo is a colleague of Steve Bannon[10] and a member of former U.S. President Donald Trump's Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida.[4]

Guo claims to be a whistle-blower, but some of his statements were unable to be verified by newspapers such as The New York Times.[11] Between 2018 and 2020, Guo launched two media projects with Bannon, G News and GTV Media Group.[12] In 2021, Guo reached a settlement with the Securities and Exchange Commission to pay $539 million in refunds and fines in connection with illegal fundraising for the companies.[13] It is unclear how much he will be able to reimbursement his investors.

Biography[edit]

Guo was born in Shen County, Shandong, China. He is the seventh of eight children.[14] He began his business career in Zhengzhou, before moving to Beijing to secure various construction deals during the 2008 Beijing Olympics.[citation needed] In 2006, he delivered a Beijing deputy mayor's sex tape to the police. The deputy mayor, who had contested one of Guo's land deals, was subsequently imprisoned, allowing Guo to build the Pangu Plaza.[4]

In 2014, Guo departed China after one of his political connections faced arrest. He moved to the United States in 2015.[15] Guo, long prominent in real estate development and investment circles, came to fame in 2015 after a lengthy investigative report by Caixin media, controlled by Hu Shuli, was released, detailing Guo's political connections, business dealings, and hardball tactics against former rivals.

Guo responded by claiming Hu defamed him and responded with a set of personal accusations against Hu, claiming Hu had a romantic entanglement with his business rival. He opened a Twitter account in early 2017, frequently criticizing individuals within the Chinese establishment. He has reserved particular scorn for He Jintao, the son of former Central Commission for Discipline Inspection secretary He Guoqiang.[4]

Many officials with whom he was said to have ties have fallen under the dragnet of the anti-corruption campaign under Xi Jinping, including Ma Jian, the former deputy director of Chinese National Security Bureau, and Zhang Yue, the former Political and Legal Affairs Secretary of Hebei.[citation needed] While generally supportive of General Secretary Xi Jinping, Guo has characterized parts of the corruption campaign as a political witch hunt.[4]

From the beginning of 2017, Guo is in self-imposed exile in New York City, where he owns a US$82 million apartment on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, overlooking Central Park. He has continued to conduct a political agenda to bring attention to alleged corruption in the Chinese political system from his New York home.[16] In November 2018, Guo put the apartment up for sale for US$67 million.[17]

Guo is a member of former U.S. President Donald Trump's Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida and Mark's Club in Mayfair, London.[4][18]

Since January 23, 2017, Guo accepted multiple interviews with media such as Mingjing, Voice of America (VOA) and BBC. Guo also started a campaign of accusing Chinese officials of corruption through live monologues on his YouTube and Twitter channel. On April 20, Guo's supposedly 3-hour live interview with VOA was abruptly terminated by VOA during the interview.[19] Newspapers such as The New York Times,[1][20][21][22] Financial Times,[23] and Forbes[24] also reported about Guo and his campaign. One of Guo's targets, HNA Group, sued Guo for defamation in June 2017.[25][26]

In August 2018, several Hong Kong media, such as Ming Pao and South China Morning Post reported that Hong Kong Police had frozen the assets of the Guo family, accused of money laundering under the name of Guo's daughter Guo Mei.[27][28] In March 2019, his mother died in China.[29]

The book War for Eternity by Benjamin R. Teitelbaum details Guo's collaboration with Steve Bannon and the latter's attempt to undermine the Chinese government.[30] On June 3, 2020, while aboard Guo's yacht in New York City waterways, he and Steve Bannon participated in an event declaring a "New Federal State of China" that "would overthrow the Chinese government". In New York City, planes were seen carrying banners which said "Congratulations to Federal State of New China!".[31][32] In August 2020, Bannon was arrested by federal authorities during an early morning raid on Guo's $35 million luxury yacht, docked in Connecticut, under charges of stealing millions of dollars from the We Build The Wall non-profit organization.[33]

In April 2020, Guo wengui began to sell all illegal products of G series, including G dollar and G coins. He advocated private placement and asked everyone[who?] to invest. He promised 17.5% annual income. The majority of investors found that it was a fraud and reported it. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the Federal Bureau of Investigation began to investigate Guo Wengui.[34]

Beijing Zenith Holdings[edit]

Beijing Zenith Holdings (Chinese: 北京政泉控股) was a company owned in 2013 by Li Lin and Jiang Yuehua via two corporate entities (Chinese: 郑州浩云实业有限公司 and 郑州浩天实业有限公司).[5] The company acquired a minority stake in PKU Healthcare from state-owned Founder Group's PKU Healthcare Group.[5] However, Beijing Zenith Holdings allegedly failed to pay PKU Healthcare Group after the shares were already transferred. To finalize the payment, Beijing Zenith Holdings allegedly borrowed the money from PKU Resources Group Holdings, a sister company of PKU Healthcare Group. All three companies were fined by the China Securities Regulatory Commission in 2016.[35]

In 2015, Chinese media reported that Zenith Holdings was actually owned by Guo Wengui, and Li Lin and Jiang Yuehua were his proxies.[36]

Zenith Holdings also acquired a minority stake in Founder Securities by underwriting the new shares.[37]

In October 2018, Zenith Holdings was fined CNY 60 billion for irregularity in acquiring the securities company.[38][39] In its ruling, the court in Dalian found that Beijing Zenith had made RMB 11.9 billion in illegal profits.[40]

Credibility of documents[edit]

On October 5, 2017, Guo made public in Washington a so-called "confidential document of the Chinese government" with the self-proclaimed verification of the U.S. government, featuring China's "working plan of secretly dispatching 27 police officers" to the United States on field duty in 2017.[citation needed]

On January 2, 2018, The Washington Free Beacon published another such document, featuring China's "decision on conducting communication and coordination work" between China and the North Korea to further a solution to the nuclear issue.

Both documents received media attention, with even the U.S. Department of State claiming their own close attention.[citation needed]

On April 23, 2018, The Chongqing Municipal Public Security Bureau held a press conference on the forgery of national-level documents by Guo. They reported that Guo had incited and instigated twin brothers Chen Zhiyu and Chen Zhiheng to forge over 30 national-level official documents as the main content of his so-called "revelation" online, which were documents faked to be issued by the CCP Central Committee, the State Council, and its relevant ministries and commissions.[citation needed]

The proceedings state that in May 2017, Guo Wengui publicly offered rewards for so-called "confidential documents" of the Chinese Government, which was deemed a profitable opportunity by Chen Zhiyu and Chen Zhiheng. The former reached out to Guo under the pseudonym "Zhou Guoming". Guo started working with Chen Zhiyu in August 2017. They agreed that a 4,000 US dollars monthly salary would be paid to hire Chen Zhiyu, who would work full-time to provide needed materials for Guo's "revelation." Guo also promised to cover Chen's travel expenses and fees to purchase mobile phones, and contribute 50 million dollars to set up a fund at Chen's disposal. At the invitation by Guo Wengui, Chen Zhiyu met with Guo and his assistants in the U.S. four times.[41] Chongqing police found that since August 2017, Guo has been in league with the Chen brothers, instigating them to forge more than 30 official documents in the name of the CCP Central Committee, the State Council, and related ministries and commissions, before spreading the documents overseas. Guo and the Chen brothers have also fabricated information claiming that a number of central and provincial government officials had illegitimate children, houses, mistresses and large bank deposits abroad, according to the investigation.

On February 18, 2018, Chongqing police arrested Chen Zhiyu and Chen Zhiheng in the provinces of Guangdong and Hunan respectively, and confiscated related items. Both suspects confessed their crimes of forging official documents to the police. Police also discovered a large number of allegedly forged official documents of state organs in the suspects' computers and hard drives, involving areas such as China's national defense, diplomacy and financial policies. They also found allegedly fabricated files of the CCP's Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.[42]

Criminal charges[edit]

In April 2017, an Interpol notice was issued for Guo's arrest, requested by the Chinese government.[43][44] In June 2017, staff of one of Guo's other investment vehicles, Pangu Investment, were charged for scamming banks on loans. The staff members accused all alleged that they were under the orders of Guo.[45]

By June 2017, the Chinese government sent U.S. President Donald Trump a letter, delivered by casino businessman Steve Wynn, requesting for Guo to be deported to China. Unnamed sources "familiar with [a] meeting" allege that Trump was inclined to deport Guo, a member of his Mar-a-Lago resort, but that his advisors opposed deporting him by reasoning that he could be used for political leverage against China.[15]

Misinformation campaign against Guo[edit]

A study by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute which analysed the tweets of Chinese government controlled accounts banned by Twitter in response to the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests found that the accounts had distributed more material attacking Guo Wengui than any other target including the Hong Kong protestors. Other dissidents targeted by the bot network included Gui Minhai and Yu Wensheng as well as striking PLA veterans.[46] In another report from the South China Morning Post, the researchers found that more than 38,000 tweets from 618 of the now-suspended Twitter accounts targeted Guo.[47]

Civil lawsuits[edit]

Several companies sued Guo's Pangu Investment and Zenith Holdings in the civil court of the United States, in order to reclaim the non-performing loan the companies allegedly lent to Guo.[48]

In April 2017, Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund brought suit against Guo in the Commercial Division of New York County, where Guo resided and was seeking asylum from the United States government. In 2008, Pacific Alliance loaned $30 million to Guo's Hong Kong company in connection with the development of Pangu Plaza, site of a "7 Star Hotel" in Beijing near the Olympic arenas. In connection with the loan, Guo signed a personal guarantee. All of the documents and transactions were executed in Hong Kong or China. According to Pacific Alliance, Guo owes approximately $88 million in principal and accrued interest on the loan.[49] In 2020, an apartment worth $55 million that an investment fund bought for Guo's use was seized in a bankruptcy proceeding in connection with the lawsuit.[50]

In August 2017, the Chinese conglomerate HNA Group filed a defamation lawsuit in New York against Guo, said Guo made "repeatedly false and defamatory statements", including a claim that Yao Qing, a nephew of Secretary Wang Qishan, the Communist Party's top anti-corruption official and close supporter of Party general secretary Xi Jinping, is one of HNA's shareholders. HNA said the comments caused the company to lose business and suffer a drop in share prices, but Guo said he welcomes a legal spat with giant Chinese conglomerate in the United States.[51] In March 2019, however, HNA claimed that Guo's statements had no longer caught public attention and planned to drop this suit.[52] Almost at the same time, Guo posted tweets on his own social media "Guo Media" declaring that he refused to withdraw from the HNA case and would continue.[53]

On November 20, 2018, Guo held a conference with his close friend Steve Bannon[54] in New York about the death of Wang Jian in France, who was the former chairman of HNA Group. During the conference, he announced the establishment of "Rule of Law foundation"[55] for investigations about Chinese government financial activities as well as those of its supporters and offering financial support for businessmen, officials and others who are persecuted by Communist Party of China and forced to flee overseas like Guo himself.[56] This foundation consists of two parts which are different types of nonprofit organization. One part called "Rule of Law Foundation" is type 501(c)(3) while the other part called "Rule of Law Society" is type 501(c)(4). Kyle Bass serves as the chairman of part 501(c)(3) and Steve Bannon serves as the chairman of part 501(c)(4). The first donation was $100 million from Guo.[57]

In December 2018, Roger Stone agreed to a settlement with Guo in which Stone would retract a false claim, published c. 2015-2016, that Guo had donated to Hillary Clinton.[58]

In July 2019, Guo won a lawsuit in a defamation case with former university professor Xia Yeliang, which is considered as a "rare case of successful action by public figure" by some analysts.[59]

On July 23, 2019, Strategic Vision US LLC, a US commercial research firm which has a commercial dispute with Guo, sued Guo in the US federal court, said Guo was a spy for the Chinese Communist Party.[10][60] However, this lawsuit was dismissed, and after that Guo filed a US$50 million defamation lawsuit in New York state against several companies and individuals including Strategic Vision US and CNN host Erin Burnett, who called him a spy during the Outfront television program.[61][62]

In August 2019, it was revealed that the Hong Kong Police Force froze bank accounts of Guo and other family members in 2017; in court documents requesting funds be released filed by Anton Development Limited, a company held by Guo's daughter Guo Mei. The freezing is part of a judicial review against the freezing of various assets linked to Guo and in relation to a HK$32.9 billion (S$5.8 billion) money laundering investigation, where court filings focus on Guo and other family members using their personal bank accounts and the bank accounts of Anton Development Limited and Hong Kong International Funds Investments Limited; the frozen accounts are said to total at least HK$1.56 billion. A writ provided by Anton Development Limited to police reportedly stated that HK$730 million in the frozen accounts were investment funds from a sovereign fund in Abu Dhabi.[63]

G News[edit]

G News is a website owned by Guo Media – a company associated with Guo – operating in collaboration with Steve Bannon, a former executive chairman of Breitbart News and former advisor to the Trump administration.[64][65] Guo Media paid Bannon $1 million in exchange for consulting services from August 2018 to August 2019,[66] and Bannon has an office in Guo Media's headquarters.[12] Both Guo and Bannon are regularly featured in G News videos that criticize the Chinese government.[65]

Guo and Bannon later co-founded GTV Media Group in 2020,[67] which operates the Chinese video website GTV.[68]

Controversies[edit]

Guo's media were noted for spreading misinformation during the COVID-19 pandemic. On January 25, 2020, G News claimed that the Chinese government was going to admit that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was accidentally leaked from a "P4 lab in Wuhan" that was associated with "covert biological weapon programs". Fact checker PolitiFact found no evidence to corroborate G News's claim, and determined it to be false, classifying it as misinformation related to the COVID-19 pandemic.[64][65]

According to Foreign Policy, G News network pushed false stories and conspiracy theories during and before the 2020 United States presidential election, including disseminating disinformation about Hunter Biden. Guo also has large following on Twitter that shares the unverified stories immediately after the publication.[69]

In 2020, the Wall Street Journal reported that GTV companies were being investigated by federal and state authorities for illegal fundraising.[70] The following year, the companies reached an SEC settlement to repay over $480 million to more than 5,000 investors as well as $35 million in fines.[71]

Allegations of picketing other dissidents[edit]

In December 2020 Teng Biao said Guo had arranged picketing of the homes of Teng and other dissidents, accusing them of conspiring with the Chinese government. This led to conflicting theories about what Guo was trying to achieve.[72]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Forsythe, Michael (September 7, 2017). "Billionaire Who Accused Top Chinese Officials of Corruption Asks U.S. for Asylum". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 22, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  2. ^ "Archived copy" 郭文贵5月11日报平安直播视频, YouTube (in Chinese), May 11, 2017, archived from the original on January 27, 2020, retrieved March 23, 2019CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Archived copy" 郭文贵围猎高官记:从结盟到反目. Caixin (in Chinese). March 25, 2015. Archived from the original on May 21, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ a b c d e f Forsythe, Michael (April 4, 2017). "As Trump Meets Xi at Mar-a-Lago, There's a 'Wild Card'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 4, 2017. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  5. ^ a b c "Archived copy" 简式权益变动报告书(三) (PDF) (in Chinese). Southwest Pharmaceutical. June 15, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 1, 2017. Retrieved February 28, 2017 – via Shenzhen Stock Exchange.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Archived copy" 【特别报道】权力猎手郭文贵. Weekly.caixin.com (in Chinese). Archived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved December 18, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Death Threats and Dawn Raids: Welcome to China's Anti-Graft Drive". Bloomberg.com. January 25, 2015. Archived from the original on January 26, 2019. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  8. ^ Podkul, Cezary; Wong, Chun Han (October 3, 2017). "Chinese Fugitive Guo Wengui Amasses War Chest to Battle Beijing". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  9. ^ "Trump changes his mind on deporting Guo Wengui when he learns he's Mar-a-Lago member". Metro.us. Archived from the original on October 26, 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  10. ^ a b "Chinese Tycoon Holed Up in Manhattan Hotel Is Accused of Spying for Beijing". The Wall Street Journal. July 22, 2019. Archived from the original on July 23, 2019. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  11. ^ Hilgers, Lauren (January 10, 2018). "The Mystery of the Exiled Billionaire Whistle-Blower". Sunday Magazine. The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 22, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
  12. ^ a b Helderman, Rosalind S.; Dawsey, Josh; Shih, Gerry; Zapotosky, Matt. "How former Trump adviser Steve Bannon joined forces with a Chinese billionaire who has divided the president's allies". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  13. ^ https://www.wsj.com/articles/companies-tied-to-chinese-exile-guo-wengui-to-pay-539-million-to-settle-sec-action-11631539327?st=qlgwkholb7lf9wa
  14. ^ "Archived copy" 【特稿】郭文贵围猎高官记:从结盟到反目. China.caixin.com (in Chinese). March 25, 2015. Archived from the original on May 21, 2016. Retrieved June 4, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ a b O’Keeffe, Kate; Viswanatha, Aruna; Podkul, Cezary (October 23, 2017). "China's Pursuit of Fugitive Businessman Guo Wengui Kicks Off Manhattan Caper Worthy of Spy Thriller". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  16. ^ Michael Forsythe and Alexandra Stevenson (May 30, 2017). "The Billionaire Gadfly in Exile Who Stared Down Beijing". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 21, 2017. Retrieved June 14, 2017. The biggest political story in China this year isn’t in Beijing. It isn’t even in China. It’s centered at a $68 million apartment overlooking Central Park in Manhattan.
  17. ^ Zap, Claudine (November 15, 2018). "Chinese Tycoon's 'Epic' $67M NYC Penthouse Is Most Expensive New Listing". Realtor.com. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  18. ^ Forsythe, Michael (April 15, 2017). "Greater Corruption in China? A Billionaire Says He Has Evidence". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 16, 2017. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  19. ^ Cheng, Evelyn (June 9, 2017). "How an interview with one Chinese billionaire threw a US broadcaster into turmoil". CNBC. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  20. ^ Forsythe, Michael; Stevenson, Alexandra (May 30, 2017). "The Billionaire Gadfly in Exile Who Stared Down Beijing". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 1, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  21. ^ Buckley, Chris (June 27, 2017). "Tycoon's Claims Reverberate in China Despite Censorship and Thin Evidence". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  22. ^ Barboza, David (July 24, 2017). "China's HNA Discloses Shift of Ownership Stake to Foundation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 21, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  23. ^ "Chinese tycoon Guo Wengui seeks asylum in US". Financial Times. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  24. ^ Vardi, Nathan. "Chinese Fugitive Tycoon Guo Wengui Beats Hedge Fund in U.S. Court As $88 Million Lawsuit Tossed". Forbes. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  25. ^ "China Deal Machine HNA Group Sues Wealthy Chinese Fugitive Guo Wengui". Forbes.com. June 16, 2017. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  26. ^ 海航集团有限公司关于起诉郭文贵的声明 (in Chinese). HNA Group. June 15, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
  27. ^ "Hong Kong police investigating fugitive Chinese tycoon Guo Wengui over alleged HK$32 billion money laundering conspiracy, court papers reveal". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. August 14, 2018. Archived from the original on August 21, 2018. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  28. ^ "Archived copy" 15億被凍結 郭文貴女兒公司覆核. Ming Pao (in Chinese). Hong Kong: Media Chinese International. August 15, 2018. Archived from the original on August 21, 2018. Retrieved August 20, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ "Tweet from Miles Guo on March 7, 2019". GUO MEDIA (in Chinese). Archived from the original on May 18, 2019. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  30. ^ Teitelbaum, Benjamin R. (April 21, 2020). War for Eternity: The Return of Traditionalism and the Rise of the Populist Right. Penguin Books Limited. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-14-199204-4.
  31. ^ Barone, Vincent (June 3, 2020). "Mysterious 'Federal State of New China' banners seen on planes over NYC". New York Post. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  32. ^ DeMarco, Jerry (June 3, 2020). "Public Puzzled By Planes Circling State Of Liberty: 'Welcome To Federal State Of New China'". Daily Voice. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  33. ^ Alan Feuer (August 20, 2020). "Steve Bannon Is Charged With Fraud in We Build the Wall Campaign". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  34. ^ Papenfuss, Mary (August 20, 2020). "FBI Now Probing $300 Million Media Company Deal Linked To Steve Bannon: Report". HuffPost.
  35. ^ 关于收到中国证监会《行政处罚事先告知书》的公告 (PDF). PKU Healthcare (in Chinese). Shenzhen Stock Exchange. December 20, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2017.[permanent dead link]
  36. ^ "Archived copy" 政泉神秘操盘手郭文贵一年赚97亿 曾为落马高官存钱. Yangtse Evening Post (in Chinese). January 13, 2015. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017 – via Sina.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  37. ^ "Archived copy" 关于核准方正证券股份有限公司向北京政泉控股有限公司等发行股份购买资产的批复 (in Chinese). China Securities Regulatory Commission. July 31, 2014. Archived from the original on June 21, 2017. Retrieved May 4, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  38. ^ "Archived copy" 政泉控股因强迫交易罪被判处罚金600亿元涉民族证券、方正证券. The Beijing News (in Chinese). October 12, 2018. Archived from the original on October 12, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ "Archived copy" 郭文贵旗下政泉控股因强迫交易罪被处罚金600亿元--法院. Reuters (in Chinese). October 12, 2018. Archived from the original on October 12, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ Dou, Eva (October 12, 2018). "China Ramps Up Pressure on Exiled Critic, Fining His Company $8.7 Billion". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  41. ^ "Chinese police solved the forgery of government documents committed by fugitive Guo Wengui". China Plus. China Radio International. April 23, 2018. Archived from the original on April 25, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  42. ^ Yan, ed. (April 23, 2018). Written at Chongqing. "China Focus: Chinese police reveal more details on fugitive Guo Wengui case". Beijing. Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on April 24, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  43. ^ "China says Interpol seeks arrest of tycoon Guo Wengui". BBC. April 20, 2017. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  44. ^ "China confirms tycoon Guo Wengui wanted by Interpol". South China Morning Post. April 19, 2017. Retrieved August 21, 2020.
  45. ^ "Archived copy" 郭文贵爆料走入司法程序 说好的"推墙"呢?. BBC Chinese (in Chinese). June 9, 2017. Archived from the original on June 18, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  46. ^ Elise Thomas & Dr Jacob Wallis, Tom Uren. "Tweeting through the Great Firewall". www.aspi.org.au. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Archived from the original on October 14, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  47. ^ Simone McCarthy (September 3, 2019). "Before the Hong Kong protests, banned Twitter accounts 'targeted Chinese government critics'". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on September 4, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  48. ^ "Archived copy" 陸企告郭文貴追討5千萬美元案 紐約律師解釋. Metro (Hong Kong) (in Chinese). June 15, 2017. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  49. ^ "Fugitive Tycoon Guo Wengui, Seeking Asylum in United States, Denied Protection from Creditors' New York Lawyers". Jdsupra.com. Archived from the original on April 27, 2018. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
  50. ^ https://www.wsj.com/articles/exiled-chinese-businessmans-manhattan-apartment-is-put-in-bankruptcy-11602631209?st=x49hqhka1q3o4yt
  51. ^ "HNA Group files defamation suit against exiled Chinese real estate mogul". Therealdeal.com. Archived from the original on October 15, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  52. ^ Podkul, Cezary (March 6, 2019). "HNA Plans to Drop Defamation Suit Against Exiled Businessman Guo Wengui". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  53. ^ "Tweets from Miles Guo on March 6, 2019". Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  54. ^ Barboza, David (December 4, 2018). "Steve Bannon and a Fugitive Billionaire Target a Common Enemy: China". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 4, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  55. ^ "Archived copy" 【直击中国】说说有班农加持的郭文贵新闻发布会. Radio Free Asia (in Chinese). Archived from the original on November 27, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  56. ^ "Steve Bannon, cheering trade war, hopes for government to fall – in China". Yahoo. Archived from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  57. ^ "Chinese Billionaire to Create $100 Million Fund to Aid Victims of Communist Purge". The Washington Free Beacon. November 21, 2018. Archived from the original on November 22, 2018. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  58. ^ "Ex-Trump adviser Roger Stone admits to spreading lies online in lawsuit settlement". NBC News. Archived from the original on December 19, 2018. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  59. ^ "Exiled Chinese Billionaire Wins Defamation Suit Over False Tweets". The Washington Free Beacon. July 12, 2019. Archived from the original on July 12, 2019. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  60. ^ "China Covertly Subverting Trump Reelection". The Washington Free Beacon. July 30, 2019. Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  61. ^ "CNN Parent Company Sued for $50M by Chinese Billionaire Claiming Defamation". The Hollywood Reporter. August 2, 2019. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  62. ^ "Tweets from Miles Guo on August 2, 2019" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on August 3, 2019. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  63. ^ "Hong Kong freezes bank accounts of fugitive Chinese tycoon Guo Wengui accused of laundering billions". The Straits Times. August 15, 2018. Archived from the original on August 28, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  64. ^ a b "PolitiFact - No evidence that Chinese officials will say coronavirus was leaked from a lab". PolitiFact. Archived from the original on February 21, 2020. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  65. ^ a b c "A Site Tied To Steve Bannon Is Writing Fake News About The Coronavirus". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on February 19, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  66. ^ Swan, Jonathan; Pandey, Erica. "Exclusive: Steve Bannon's $1 million deal linked to a Chinese billionaire". Axios. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  67. ^ Spegele, Brian; Hua, Sha; Viswanatha, Aruna (August 19, 2020). "Fundraising at Company Tied to Steve Bannon and Guo Wengui Faces Probe". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
  68. ^ Covucci, David (October 26, 2020). "Hunter Biden's laptop is Schrödinger's October Surprise". The Daily Dot. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  69. ^ Aspinwall, Nick (November 2, 2020). "Guo Wengui and Steve Bannon Are Flooding the Zone With Hunter Biden Conspiracies". Foreign Policy.
  70. ^ https://www.wsj.com/articles/fundraising-at-company-tied-to-steve-bannon-and-guo-wengui-faces-probe-11597857467?st=3dcstunjl7o1v7k
  71. ^ https://www.wsj.com/articles/companies-tied-to-chinese-exile-guo-wengui-to-pay-539-million-to-settle-sec-action-11631539327?st=xye4iutkx7f08ij
  72. ^ Whalen, Jeanne; Shih, Gerry (December 18, 2020). "Chinese dissidents say they're being harassed by a businessman with links to Steve Bannon". The Washington Post.