Guoyu (book)

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Author unknown
Original title 國語
Country Zhou Dynasty China
Language Classical Chinese
Subject History of Zhou Dynasty states
Publication date
4th century BC
Traditional Chinese 國語
Simplified Chinese 国语

The Guoyu (Chinese: ), or Discourses of the States, is an ancient Chinese text that collects the historical records of numerous states from the Western Zhou to 453 BC. Its author is unknown, but it is sometimes attributed to Zuo Qiuming, a contemporary of Confucius. Guoyu was probably compiled beginning in the 5th century BC and continuing to the late 4th century BC. The earliest chapter of the compilation is the Discourses of Zhou.[1]


Guoyu comprises eight books covering seven states plus the Zhou Dynasty, divided into 21 chapters:

# Chinese Pinyin Translation Chapters
1 周語 Zhōu Yǔ Discourses of Zhou 3
2 魯語 Lǔ Yǔ Discourses of Lu 2
3 齊語 Qí Yǔ Discourses of Qi 1
4 晉語 Jìn Yǔ Discourses of Jin 9
5 鄭語 Zhèng Yǔ Discourses of Zheng 1
6 楚語 Chǔ Yǔ Discourses of Chu 2
7 吳語 Wú Yǔ Discourses of Wu 1
8 越語 Yuè Yǔ Discourses of Yue 2


Liu Zongyuan wrote "Fei Guoyu" (T: 非國語, S: 非国语, "Argument against the Harangues of the Various States"), a criticism of Guoyu. In response, Liu Zhang (劉 章, circa 1095-1177); Jiang Duanli (T: 江端禮, S: 江端礼); and Yu Pan (虞 槃; fl. 1300), Yu Ji's (虞 集, 1272-1348) younger brother, wrote texts titled "Fei Fei Guoyu" T: 非非國語, S: 非非国语; "Argument against the Argument against the Harangues of the Various States", in opposition to Liu Zongyuan's essay.[2]


  1. ^ Chang, Boltz & Loewe (1993), p. 264.
  2. ^ Nienhauser, William H. Jr. (University of Wisconsin-Madison). "A Third Look at "Li Wa Zhuan"." T'ang Studies (Print ISSN 0737-5034, Online ISSN 1759-7633), 2007(25), pp. 91–110. Cited p.: 91-92.
  • Chang, I-jen; Boltz, William; Loewe, Michael (1993). "Kuo yü 國語". In Loewe, Michael. Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China; Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California Berkeley. pp. 263–268. ISBN 1-55729-043-1. 
  • Kern, Martin (2010). "Early Chinese literature, Beginnings through Western Han". In Owen, Stephen. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1: To 1375. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–115. ISBN 978-0-521-11677-0. 
  • Shih, Hsiang-lin; Knechtges, David R. (2010). "Guoyu 國語". In Knechtges, David R.; Chang, Taiping. Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature: A Reference Guide, Part One. Leiden: Brill. pp. 308–311. ISBN 978-90-04-19127-3. 

External links[edit]

  • Guoyu Original text in Chinese