The Guoyu (Chinese: 國語), or Discourses of the States, is an ancient Chinese text that collects the historical records of numerous states from the Western Zhou to 453 BC. Its author is unknown, but it is sometimes attributed to Zuo Qiuming, a contemporary of Confucius. Guoyu was probably compiled beginning in the 5th century BC and continuing to the late 4th century BC. The earliest chapter of the compilation is the Discourses of Zhou.
Liu Zongyuan wrote "Fei Guoyu" (T: 非國語, S: 非国语, "Argument against the Harangues of the Various States"), a criticism of Guoyu. In response, Liu Zhang (劉 章, circa 1095-1177); Jiang Duanli (T: 江端禮, S: 江端礼); and Yu Pan (虞 槃; fl. 1300), Yu Ji's (虞 集, 1272-1348) younger brother, wrote texts titled "Fei Fei Guoyu" T: 非非國語, S: 非非国语; "Argument against the Argument against the Harangues of the Various States", in opposition to Liu Zongyuan's essay.
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Kern, Martin (2010). "Early Chinese literature, Beginnings through Western Han". In Owen, Stephen. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1: To 1375. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–115. ISBN978-0-521-11677-0.
Shih, Hsiang-lin; Knechtges, David R. (2010). "Guoyu 國語". In Knechtges, David R.; Chang, Taiping. Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature: A Reference Guide, Part One. Leiden: Brill. pp. 308–311. ISBN978-90-04-19127-3.