The Guoyu (Chinese: 國語), usually translated Discourses of the States, is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of speeches attributed to rulers and other men from the Spring and Autumn period (771–476 BC). It comprises a total of 240 speeches, ranging from the reign of King Mu of Zhou (r. 956–918 BC) to the execution of the Jin minister Zhibo in 453 BC. Its author is unknown, but it is sometimes attributed to Zuo Qiuming, a contemporary of Confucius. Guoyu was probably compiled beginning in the 5th century BC and continuing to the late 4th century BC. The earliest chapter of the compilation is the Discourses of Zhou.
Chang, I-jen; et al. (1993). "Kuo yü 國語". In Loewe, Michael (ed.). Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China; Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California Berkeley. pp. 263–268. ISBN1-55729-043-1.
Durrant, Stephen (2017). "Chapter 13: Histories (Shi 史)". In Denecke, Wiebke; Li, Wai-Yee; Tian, Xiaofei (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Classical Chinese Literature (1000 BCE-900CE) (e-book ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 189.
Kern, Martin (2010). "Early Chinese literature, Beginnings through Western Han". The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1: To 1375. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–115. ISBN978-0-521-11677-0.
Shih, Hsiang-lin; et al. (2010). "Guoyu 國語". Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature: A Reference Guide, Part One. Leiden: Brill. pp. 308–311. ISBN978-90-04-19127-3.