Guoyu (book)

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Original title國語
CountryZhou dynasty China
LanguageClassical Chinese
SubjectHistory of Spring and Autumn period states
Publication date
4th century BC
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese国语

The Guoyu (Chinese: 國語), usually translated Discourses of the States, is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of speeches attributed to rulers and other men from the Spring and Autumn period (771–476 BC). It comprises a total of 240 speeches, ranging from the reign of King Mu of Zhou (r. 956–918 BC) to the execution of the Jin minister Zhibo in 453 BC.[1] Its author is unknown, but it is sometimes attributed to Zuo Qiuming, a contemporary of Confucius. Guoyu was probably compiled beginning in the 5th century BC and continuing to the late 4th century BC. The earliest chapter of the compilation is the Discourses of Zhou.[2]


Guoyu overlaps with the period, people, events in the Zuo zhuan.[3] It comprises eight books covering the Zhou court and seven of the feudal states, divided into 21 chapters:

# Chinese Pinyin Translation Chapters
1 周語 Zhōu Yǔ Discourses of Zhou 3
2 魯語 Lǔ Yǔ Discourses of Lu 2
3 齊語 Qí Yǔ Discourses of Qi 1
4 晉語 Jìn Yǔ Discourses of Jin 9
5 鄭語 Zhèng Yǔ Discourses of Zheng 1
6 楚語 Chǔ Yǔ Discourses of Chu 2
7 吳語 Wú Yǔ Discourses of Wu 1
8 越語 Yuè Yǔ Discourses of Yue 2



  1. ^ Shih & Knechtges (2010), p. 308.
  2. ^ Chang, Boltz & Loewe (1993), p. 264.
  3. ^ durrant (2017), p. 189.


  • Chang, I-jen; et al. (1993). "Kuo yü 國語". In Loewe, Michael (ed.). Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China; Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California Berkeley. pp. 263–268. ISBN 1-55729-043-1.
  • Durrant, Stephen (2017). "Chapter 13: Histories (Shi 史)". In Denecke, Wiebke; Li, Wai-Yee; Tian, Xiaofei (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Classical Chinese Literature (1000 BCE-900CE) (e-book ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 189.
  • Kern, Martin (2010). "Early Chinese literature, Beginnings through Western Han". The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1: To 1375. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–115. ISBN 978-0-521-11677-0.
  • Shih, Hsiang-lin; et al. (2010). "Guoyu 國語". Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature: A Reference Guide, Part One. Leiden: Brill. pp. 308–311. ISBN 978-90-04-19127-3.

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