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Guren (紅蓮) is a Japanese word meaning "crimson-colored lotus" commonly encountered in the West when used in an artistic connotation. In Japan, Guren (紅蓮) is "crimson-colored (紅) lotus flower (蓮の花). It is compared to the color of a flame of a burning fire. In Buddhist terminology, Guren is also an abbreviation for Guren Jigoku (紅蓮地獄), which is the seventh of The Eight Cold Hells. Those who fell here after death, it is said that the skin is torn due to severe cold, and the blood looks like a crimson-colored lotus flower. Juuichimen Kannnon (jp:十一面観音) has a water jar of Guren in left hand.
The Eight Cold Hells
In Buddhist terminology, The Eight Cold Hells(jp:八寒地獄) is eight kinds of hell afflicting the dead with ice and cold. The Eight Greater Hells(jp:八大地獄) is usually means The Eight Burning Hells(jp:八熱地獄) . It seems like that The Eight Cold Hells is not same as The Eight Greater Hells.
- Arbuda: (Japanese:abuta jigoku)頞部陀（あぶだ）地獄
- Nirarbuda: (Japanese:nirabuta jigoku) 刺部陀（にらぶた）地獄
- Atata: (Japanese:atada jigoku) 頞听陀（あただ）地獄
- Hahava: (Japanese:kakaba jigoku) 臛臛婆（かかば）地獄
- Huhuva: (Japanese:kokoba jigoku) 虎々婆（ここば）地獄
- Utpala: (Japanese:ubara jigoku) 嗢鉢羅（うばら）地獄
- Padma: (Japanese:hadoma jigoku) 鉢特摩（はどま）地獄. Hadoma jigoku is also called Guren Jigoku (紅蓮地獄). Hadoma (鉢特摩) is sound copy from Sanskrit to Japanese. It is said that after those who fell here ,the skin is torn due to severe cold, bloodshed, and the blood is similar to a crimson-colored lotus flower.
- Mahapadma: (Japanese:makahadoma jigoku) 摩訶鉢特摩（まかはどま）地獄 :too much colder than hatoma jigoku
- Guren no idohori (Japanese:紅蓮の井戸掘り): to dig well in Guren Jigoku (紅蓮地獄). This phrase means too much pain, distress, or example of suffering caused by the severe cold.
- Guren no yumiya (Japanese:紅蓮の弓矢, English:crimson-colored bow and arrow): This phrase is not accurate Japanese, precisely, there is no Japanese dictionary explains this word. But from the meaning of Guren (紅蓮) or *Guren Jigoku (紅蓮地獄), it seems that this phrase simply means 'bow and arrow with blood of shooter'. In other word, this word is creating an intention to counterattack despite any suffering or sacrifice.
- Guren no ～ ：This means 『～ of Guren 』 or 『Guren's～』. This phrase is used in many fields in Japan's subcuture, lyrics, game , team name of Bōsōzoku (jp:暴走族 ), anime, etc. But in formal occasions, the usage of this phrase is almost none.
- Juichimen Shinjushin-kyo Sutra(十一面神咒心経)
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