Page semi-protected

Gurgaon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the city in India. For others, see Gurgaon district.
Not to be confused with Garhgaon.
Gurgaon

गुड़गाँव
ਗੁੜਗਾਵਾਂ
City
DLF Gatweway Tower
Gurgaon Skyline
from top: DLF Gatweway Tower, Gurgaon city Skyline
Nickname(s): Millennium city
Gurgaon is located in Haryana
Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Gurgaon is located in India
Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Location of Gurgaon in Haryana
Coordinates: 28°27′22″N 77°01′44″E / 28.456°N 77.029°E / 28.456; 77.029Coordinates: 28°27′22″N 77°01′44″E / 28.456°N 77.029°E / 28.456; 77.029
Country  India
State Haryana
District Gurgaon district
Government
 • Body Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon
 • Mayor Vimal Yadav
 • Lok Sabha constituency Gurgaon Lok Sabha Constituency
 • Vidhan Sabha constituency Gurgaon City
 • Planning agency Haryana Urban Development Authority
 • Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon Civic agency
Area
 • Total 282.7 sq mi (732 km2)
Elevation 711.9 ft (217 m)
Population 876,824[1]
Languages
 • Main spoken Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 122xxx
Area code(s) 0124
Vehicle registration HR-26 (North)
HR-55 (Commercial)
HR-72 (South)
HR 76 Pataudi (Gurgaon)
Website gurgaon.nic.in

Gurgaon (/ˈgʊrgaʊŋ/), also known as Gurugram, is a city in the Indian state of Haryana and is located in the National Capital Region of India. It is 32 kilometres (20 mi) southwest of New Delhi and 268 kilometres (167 mi) southwest of Chandigarh, the state capital. As of 2011, Gurgaon had a population of 876,824.[1] Witnessing rapid urbanization, Gurgaon has become a leading financial and industrial hub with the third highest per capita income in India.[2] Historically known as Gurugram, the city's economic growth story started when the leading Indian automobile manufacturer Maruti Suzuki India Limited established a manufacturing plant in Gurgaon in the 1970s.[3] Today, Gurgaon has local offices for more than 250 Fortune 500 companies.[4]

Etymology

The origin of the city's name can be traced back to the Sanskrit epic Mahabharat; it is believed that the land was owned by the legendary rulers Pandavas and Kauravas, who presented it to Guru Dronacharaya, their royal guru for warfare, as an appreciation of his training. The land came to be known as Gurugram (Sanskrit: गुरुग्राम, lit. village of the Guru) which over time became distorted to Gurgaon. The village still exists within the modern day city.[5]

On 12 April 2016, Chief Minister of Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar announced a proposal to officially rename the city back to Gurugram, subject to the approval of the Haryana cabinet and the Union Government. He argued that the new name would help to preserve the "rich heritage" of the city by emphasizing its history and association with Dronacharaya.[6]

The change has not yet officially been finalised, although the city's police force began referring to themselves as the Gurugram Police during a May 2016 event inaugurating a new commissioner's office.[7][8]

History

Gurgaon was historically inhabited by the Hindu people and in early times, it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs of Yaduvansi or Jadaun tribe. The Rajputs were defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in 1196, but for two centuries they sturdily resisted the Muhammadian domination and they were subjected to punitive expedition. Under the rule of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, several were converted to Islam. This was followed by the invasion of Timur and the land was ruled by Khanzadas. It was then annexed by Babur.[9] During Akbar's reign, Gurgaon fell within the governing regions of Delhi and Agra. As the Mughal Empire started to decline, the place was torn between contending powers. By 1803 most of it came under the British rule through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhia. The town was first occupied by the cavalry unit posted to watch the army of Begum Samru of Sirdhana. It became a part of the district, which was divided into units called parganas. These units were given to petty chiefs for the military service rendered by them. The units were governed by the rules that British kept on changing and eventually these units came under direct control of the British, with the last major change in 1836. Nothing much changed in Gurgaon until the Revolt of 1857. In 1858, it was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to Punjab Province. In 1861, the district, of which Gurgaon was a part of, was rearranged into five tehsils Gurgaon, Ferozepur Jhirka, Nuh, Palwal and Rewari[10] and the modern day city came under the control of Gurgaon teshil. In 1947, Gurgaon became a part of independent India and fell under the Indian state of Punjab. In 1966, the city came under the administration of Haryana with the creation of the new state.

Geography

Gurgaon is located in Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the south eastern part of the state, and northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with Delhi with New Delhi to its north east. The city has a total area of 738.8 square kilometres (285.3 sq mi)[11]

Topography

The average land elevation is 217 metres (712 ft) above sea level.[12]

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Gurgaon experiences a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa).[13] The city experiences four distinct seasons - spring (February - March), summer (April - August), fall/autumn (September - October) and winter (November - January), along with the monsoon season setting in towards the later half of the summer. Summers, from early April to mid October, are typically hot and humid, with an average daily June high temperature of 40 °C (104 °F). The season experiences heat indices easily breaking 43 °C (109 °F). Winters are cold and foggy with few sunny days, and with a December daytime average of 3 °C (37 °F). The Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week of July and continues till August. Thunderstorms are not uncommon during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 millimetres (28.1 in).[13]

Climate data for Gurgaon
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21.1
(70)
24.2
(75.6)
30.0
(86)
36.2
(97.2)
39.6
(103.3)
39.3
(102.7)
35.1
(95.2)
33.3
(91.9)
33.9
(93)
32.9
(91.2)
28.3
(82.9)
23.0
(73.4)
31.4
(88.5)
Average low °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
10.1
(50.2)
15.4
(59.7)
21.5
(70.7)
25.9
(78.6)
28.3
(82.9)
26.6
(79.9)
25.9
(78.6)
24.4
(75.9)
19.5
(67.1)
12.8
(55)
8.2
(46.8)
18.8
(65.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 20.3
(0.799)
15.0
(0.591)
15.8
(0.622)
6.7
(0.264)
17.5
(0.689)
54.9
(2.161)
231.5
(9.114)
258.7
(10.185)
127.8
(5.031)
36.3
(1.429)
5.0
(0.197)
7.8
(0.307)
797.3
(31.389)
Average rainy days 1.7 1.3 1.2 0.9 1.4 3.6 10.0 11.3 5.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 39.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 213.9 217.5 238.7 261.0 263.5 198.0 167.4 176.7 219.0 269.7 246.0 217.0 2,688.4
[citation needed]

Demographics

Gurgaon municipal corporation area has an estimated population of 876,824 as per 2011 India census.[1]

Cityscape

Architecture

Cyber Green Building

Gurgaon has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time period. Gurgaon's skyline with its many skyscrapers is nationally recognized, and the city has been home to several tall buildings with modern planning. Gurgaon has an estimated 1,100 residential highrises.[14] The average cost of a 93-square-metre (1,000 sq ft) two-bedroom apartment at a decent condominium in Gurgaon is at least $160,130 (₹10,000,000).[14]

Neighborhoods

Essel Towers, Gurgaon

Gurgaon is divided into 36 wards, with each ward further divided into blocks. The housing type in the city consists largely of attached housing, though a large number of attached multi-dwelling units, including apartments, condominiums and high rise residential towers are getting popular. The top five condominiums in the city, as rated by The Times of India, are: Aralias, Hamilton Court, The World Spa, Gurgaon One and Raheja Atlantis.[15]

Parks

Gurgaon has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the Haryana Urban Development Authority. The key parks are Leisure Valley Park in Sector 29, which is spread over 15 hectares (36 acres); Tau Devi Lal Biodiversity Botanical Garden in Sector 52; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Park in Sector 14, popularly known as HUDA Garden; Tau Devi Lal park in Sector 23; and Aravali Biodiversity Park on MG Road. However, most of the parks in Gurgaon are small and ill-maintained.[16]

Culture

Entertainment and performing arts

Notable performing art venues in the city include Epicentre in Sector 44 and Nautanki Mehal at the Kingdom of Dreams near IFFCO Chowk. Bollywood actor Rajkummar Rao was born in Gurgaon.

Languages and dialect

The main language spoken in Gurgaon is Hindi, though a segment of the population understands English. The dialect used in Hindi is similar to that of Delhi, and is considered neutral, though the regional influences from the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab adds an accent to the language. English is spoken with an Indian accent, with a primarily North Indian influence. Since Gurgaon has a large number of international call centres, the employees are usually given formal training in neutral pronunciation in order to be understandable to native English speakers. Haryanvi and Punjabi are other popular languages spoken in the city. The other regional languages include Mewati and Braj Bhasha.[17][18]

Religion

Hinduism is a predominant religion among the city's population. Gurgaon also includes adherents of Sikhism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and the Bahá'í, among others. There are several places of worship for major religions in Gurgaon, including Hindu temples, gurdwaras, mosques and churches.

Sheetla Mata Mandir is a famous temple located in district Gurgaon of Haryana state of India. It is a temple dedicated to the wife of Guru Dronacharya.[19] The temple hosts fairs regularly and huge number of people come to seek blessings of Sheetla Mata every year.

Sports

The city has two major sports stadiums: Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Sector 38, which has facilities for cricket, football, basketball and athletics as well as a sports hostel, and Nehru Stadium which is designed for football and athletics. Amity United FC is a tenant of Tau Devi Lal Stadium. Gurgaon district has nine golf courses, and is described as the "heart of India's golfing country".[20] Joginder Rao, a domestic cricket player was from Gurgaon.

Economy

A commercial area in the DLF Cyber City.

Once a small dusty agricultural village, Gurgaon has now emerged to become the city with the third highest per capita income in India.[2] Popularly known as Millennium City,[21] Gurgaon has the presence of about 250 or 50% of the Fortune 500 companies. Gurgaon's proximity to Delhi means easy access to political decision makers. Maruti Suzuki Private Limited was the first company that set up a manufacturing unit in the city in 1970s making cars.[3] Eventually, DLF Limited, a real estate company acquired vast stretches of land in the city. The first major American brand to set up a unit in Gurgaon was General Electric in 1997. GE's setup in Gurgaon prompted other companies, both international as well as domestic, to follow suit. Today, Gurgaon has emerged as one of the most important offshoring centers in the world,[22] providing outsourcing solutions in software, IT, service and sales through delivery facilities and call centers. However, due to the lack of proper public transport and the inability of most of the employees to afford a personal vehicle, most of the call centers provide pooled-in cars to and from their offices.[22] Apart from Business process outsourcing and IT sectors, the city is home to several other companies that specialize in domain expertise. Siemens Industry Software, in Gurgaon Business Park, made a portfolio of design software that was used by NASA to digitally design, simulate and assemble the vehicle before any physical prototypes were built.[22] Various international companies, including Coca-Cola, Pepsi, BMW, Agilent Technologies, have chosen Gurgaon to be their Indian corporate headquarters.[22] All the major companies in the city depend on their own backup, given the fact that Gurgaon does not have reliable power and water supply, public transport and utilities. Retail is an important industry in Gurgaon, with the presence of 26 shopping malls.[23] Real estate is a major force in the city's economy. Gurgaon is home to some of the nation's most valuable real estate.

All Nippon Airways, a Japanese airline, maintains its Delhi sales office in the Time Tower in Gurgaon.[24]

Law and government

Gurgaon is governed by the Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon which follows a Mayor-Council system.[25]

Crime

The crime graph is on a rise in Gurgaon. The city reported 89 homicides in 2012. Another rising concern is the increase in number of rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, and thefts, including motor vehicle thefts. The total vehicle thefts registered by the police in Gurgaon in 2014 was 3,638, and this trend continues.[26] Gurgaon is experiencing high rates of homelessness, drug abuse, gang violence and prostitution. Several organized cartels and street gangs operate in the city.[citation needed]

The police department in Gurgaon is headed by the Commissioner of Police - Gurgaon Police, which forms a part of the Haryana Police.[27] and reports to the Haryana state government. Navdeep Singh Virk is the Commissioner of Police in Gurgaon. Gurgaon Police has a separate traffic police department headquartered in sector 51.[28] Fire protection within the city limits is provided by Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon through four fire stations, located in sector 29, sector 37, Udyog Vihar and Bhim Nagar.[29]

Education

The city's public school system, managed by the government of Haryana, is administered by Haryana Board of School Education. The city also has a large number of private schools, where education is often expensive and the quality usually better than the government schools. Schools like The Shri Ram School - Aravali, the Ardee World School, Sector 52, The Heritage School, DAV Public School Sector 14 and Amity International School are among the top 10 schools in the city, according to the 2013 Hindustan Times - C fore Top Schools Survey.[30]

There are several universities and institutes located in Gurgaon and its nearby areas, that form a part of Gurgaon district including Ansal Institute of Technology; ITM University, Sector 23A; GD Goenka University, Sohna Road; KR Mangalam University, Sohna Road; Amity University, Manesar; Apeejay Stya University, Sohna; BML Munjal University, NH8; Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University, Budhera;[31] and National Brain Research Centre, Manesar. Gurgaon is also home to one of India's top ranked business schools, Management Development Institute.

Transport

Roadways

Highways

The major highway that links Gurgaon is National Highway 8, the road that runs from Delhi to Mumbai. While the 27.7-kilometre (17.2 mi) Delhi-Gurgaon border-Kherki Dhaula stretch has been developed as an expressway, the rest is expanded to six lanes.[32] The second Highway Is Dwarka Expressway, Which Starts from Gurgaon and linked to New Delhi's various major Inter cities.

Intercity buses

Gurgaon bus terminal, managed by Haryana Roadways, is a busy bus station in the city that provides bus connectivity, both private and government, to other cities in Haryana and neighboring states like Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and other cities like Chandigarh.

Railways

Intercity rail

Gurgaon railway station operated by Northern Railway of Indian Railways. The rail station that forms a part of the larger Indian railways network, where trains connect Gurgaon to Delhi and other important cities in India like Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad and Jaipur.

Delhi Metro

There are five stations served by Delhi Metro located on the Yellow Line, which are HUDA City Centre, IFFCO Chowk, MG Road, Sikanderpur and Guru Droncharya.

Rapid Metro

Currently Rapid Metro Gurgaon have six stations, connecting Yellow Line of Delhi Metro at Sikandarpur metro station, which are Sikanderpur, Phase 2, Vodafone Belvedere Towers, IndusInd Bank Cyber City, Micormax Moulsari Avenue and Phase 3. Two stations, Shankar Chowk and Gateway tower, are scheduled to become operational soon. The first phase of Rapid Metro became operational in November 2013 and covers a distance of 3.3 mi.[33] Two more phases of the project are in the pipeline and would take the total number of subway stations in Gurgaon to 16. An estimated 33,000 people ride Rapid Metro everyday, which provides an exclusive elevated transit service with three coach trains that run in a loop.[34]

Airways

Airport

Gurgaon is served by Indira Gandhi International Airport, though the airport is just outside the city limits and located within the jurisdiction of Delhi near National Highway 8. The airport is one of the busiest airports in India and provides domestic and international air connectivity.

Transit systems

Public transit

Public transit in Gurgaon is mostly provided by government buses, Rapid Metro and Delhi Metro. Private buses & vans,reserved and shared auto rickshaws also ply in the city. There are ten subway/metro stations in Gurgaon.[citation needed]

In November, 2013, Gurgaon launched an Ciclovia-inspired initiative known as Raahgiri Day—in which a corridor of streets are closed to motor vehicle traffic on Sunday mornings to encourage the use of non-motorized transport and participation in outdoor leisure activities. Gurgaon was the first city in India to implement such a program, followed by New Delhi, and later Noida.[35][36][37]

Infrastructure

Utilities

Electricity in Gurgaon is provided by government owned Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam. Gurgaon has power consumer base of 360,000 with average power load of 700-800 MW.[38] There are frequent power outages in the city, especially during the peak consumption season of summer. Apart from the power deficit, the equipment used by the power department like transformers, panels and transmission lines is either old or overburdened.[39]

Health systems

National Brain Research Centre (Gurgaon, Haryana, India)

Gurgaon has many hospitals and a number of medical research facilities within its city limits. Some of the private hospitals include Fortis Hospital, Medanta, Max Hospital and Columbia Asia Hospital. Gurgaon has become an increasingly popular destination for medical tourism.

Telecommunications

For cellular voice module, most of the mobile network operators in Gurgaon use GSM technology, though a few carriers employ the CDMA platform. The mobile data service is offered through GPRS, CDMA, EDGE, UMTS/HSPA, WiMAX and LTE. Nine mobile phone service providers operate in Gurgaon - Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Reliance, Tata Indicom, Aircel, MTS, Virgin Mobile and BSNL. All these carriers offer voice and data service on prepay as well as postpaid plans. Other dedicated Wireless Internet service providers operating in Gurgaon are Tikona, You Broadband and Nextra and Touch Net. Fixed line phone service in Gurgaon is provided by Airtel, Reliance, Tata Walky and BSNL, providing both voice and broadband services.

References

  1. ^ a b c "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). http://censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 5 July 2015.  External link in |website= (help)
  2. ^ a b Julka, Harsimran (30 September 2011). "IT firms looking beyond Gurgaon, Noida, Greater Noida to other cities in north India". The Economic Times. ET Bureau. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Kumar, K.P. Narayana. "Gurgaon: How not to Build a City". Forbesindia.com. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  4. ^ "Jat stir shakes India Inc". Retrieved 2016-02-22. 
  5. ^ "History of Gurgaon" (PDF). District Administration, Gurgaon. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  6. ^ "Gurgaon is now 'Gurugram', Mewat renamed Nuh: Haryana government". The Indian Express. 12 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016. 
  7. ^ "Welcome to the new office of Gurugram police commissioner". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 5 May 2016. 
  8. ^ "Gurgaon: The city whose middle name is paradox". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  9. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 403.". Digital South Asia Library. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  10. ^ "History of Gurgaon". Municipal Corporation, Gurgaon. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  11. ^ "Demographics". Municipal Corporation, Gurgaon. 
  12. ^ "GGN/Gurgaon(3)". India Rail Info. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "Travel Info". The Metropolitan Hotel and Spa New Delhi. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  14. ^ a b Anand, Deevakar (10 May 2013). "Gurgaon's better than Delhi, but way behind Shanghai". Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  15. ^ "Home is where the heart is". TNN. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  16. ^ "How green was Gurgaon's parks". The Times of India. TNN. 30 December 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  17. ^ "Culture and Languages". Stay IN Gurgaon.com. Stay IN Gurgaon.com. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  18. ^ "Travel Info". Hotel Sun Villa. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  19. ^ "http://sheetlamatagurgaon.com/sheetla-eng/About.aspx". sheetlamatagurgaon.com. Retrieved 2016-03-01.  External link in |title= (help)
  20. ^ Singh, Prabhdev. "Golf courses in Gurgaon". HT Media. Live Mint. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  21. ^ "UK minister inaugurates business centre in Gurgaon". The Times of India. TNN. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  22. ^ a b c d Kannan, Shilpa. "Gurgaon: From fields to global tech hub". BBC. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  23. ^ "Gurgaon as IT outsourcing hub". Amit Arun and Associates. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  24. ^ "Contact ANA." ANA India. Retrieved on July 9, 2016. "Unit No.302 & 303, 3rd floor, Time Tower, Sector 28, MGRoad, Gurgaon 122 002 India" - See map "Time Tower 3rd floor"
  25. ^ Joseph, Joel (22 June 2011). "Gurgaon gets first mayor after month's wait". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  26. ^ Behl, Abhishek (20–26 February 2015). "Your car could be next" (Guragaon). 'Friday Gurgaon. FG. Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  27. ^ "Gurgaon Police". Gurgaon Police, Govt. of Haryana. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  28. ^ "Gurgaon police". Gurgaon Police, Govt. of Haryana. 
  29. ^ "Gurgaon's fourth fire station opens in Udyog Vihar". Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. TNN. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  30. ^ "HT TOP SCHOOLS IN GURGAON, INDIA 2013". Kidsstoppress. Retrieved 22 February 2016. 
  31. ^ "Universities & Colleges". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  32. ^ Dash, Dipak Kumar (7 December 2012). "NH8 stretch on Delhi-Gurgaon border is India's deadliest road". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  33. ^ Joseph, Joel (13 November 2013). "From tomorrow, Gurgaon will finally have its Rapid Metro". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  34. ^ ASHOK, SOWMIYA (16 June 2014). "Are Gurgaon residents game for a smooth ride on the Rapid Metro?". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  35. ^ "New area in Gurgaon to have 'Raahgiri Day'". Business Standard. IANS. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  36. ^ fwire (27 February 2014). "New area in Gurgaon to have 'Raahgiri Day'". Firstpost. IANS. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  37. ^ "Raahgiri: Less honking, more bonding — How Gurgaon showed the way". Times of India. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  38. ^ "Essar withdraws application for distribution licence in Gurgaon". PTI. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  39. ^ "Night-long outage in Old Gurgaon as transformer trips on demand". The Times of India. TNN. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 

Further reading

External links