Gurgaon viewed from NH8
|Nickname(s): Millennium City|
|• Body||Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon|
|• Mayor||Vimal Yadav|
|• Lok Sabha constituency||Gurgaon Lok Sabha Constituency|
|• Vidhan Sabha constituency||Gurgaon City|
|• Planning agency||Haryana Urban Development Authority|
|• Total||282.7 sq mi (732 km2)|
|Elevation||711.9 ft (217 m)|
|• Spoken||Hindi, English, Punjabi, Haryanvi|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||HR-26 (North)
Gurgaon (/ˈgʊrgaʊŋ/) is a leading financial and industrial city of India, situated in the National Capital Region near the Indian capital New Delhi in the state of Haryana. Located 32 kilometres (20 mi) south-west of New Delhi, Gurgaon has a population of 876,824. Witnessing rapid urbanization, Gurgaon has become the city with the third highest per capita income in India,. Historically known as Guru Gram, the city's economic growth story started when the leading Indian automobile manufacturer Maruti Suzuki India Limited established a manufacturing plant in Gurgaon in the 1970s. Today, Gurgaon is center for more than 250 Fortune 500 companies.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Cityscape
- 6 Culture
- 7 Raahgiri Day
- 8 Economy
- 9 Law and government
- 10 Education
- 11 Transportation
- 12 Infrastructure
- 13 Health systems
- 14 Telecommunications
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
The origin of the city's name can be traced back to ancient Hindu scriptures. It is believed that this land was owned by the legendary rulers Pandavas and Kauravas, who presented it to Guru Dronacharaya, their royal guru for warfare, as an appreciation of his training. The land came to be known as Guru Gram, which literally translated means "Village of the Guru", which in due course of time got distorted to the name Gurgaon. The village still exists within the modern day city.
Gurgaon was historically inhabited by the Hindu people and in early times, it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs of Yaduvansi or Jadaun tribe. The Rajputs were defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in 1196, but for two centuries they sturdily resisted the Muhammadian domination and they were subjected to punitive expedition. Under the rule of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, several were converted to Islam. This was followed by the invasion of Timur and the land was ruled by Khanzadas. It was then annexed by Babur. During Akbar's reign, Gurgaon fell within the governing regions of Delhi and Agra. As the Mughal Empire started to decline, the place was torn between contending powers. By 1803 most of it came under the British rule through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhia. The town was first occupied by the cavalry unit posted to watch the army of Begum Samru of Sirdhana. It became a part of the district, which was divided into units called parganas. These units were given to petty chiefs for the military service rendered by them. The units were governed by the rules that British kept on changing and eventually these units came under direct control of the British, with the last major change in 1836. Nothing much changed in Gurgaon until the Revolt of 1857. In 1858, it was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to Punjab Province. In 1861, the district, of which Gurgaon was a part of, was rearranged into five tehsils Gurgaon, Ferozepur Jhirka, Nuh, Palwal and Rewari and the modern day city came under the control of Gurgaon teshil. In 1947, Gurgaon became a part of independent India and fell under the Indian state of Punjab. In 1966, the city came under the administration of Haryana with the creation of the new state.
Gurgaon is located in Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the south eastern part of the state, and northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with Delhi with New Delhi to its north east. The city has a total area of 738.8 square kilometres (285.3 sq mi)
The average land elevation is 217 metres (712 ft) above sea level.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Gurgaon experiences a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The city experiences four distinct seasons - spring (February - March), summer (April - August), fall/autumn (September - October) and winter (November - January), along with the monsoon season setting in towards the later half of the summer. Summers, from early April to mid October, are typically hot and humid, with an average daily June high temperature of 40 °C (104 °F). The season experiences heat indices easily breaking 43 °C (109 °F). Winters are cold and foggy with few sunny days, and with a December daytime average of 3 °C (37 °F). The Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week of July and continues till August. Thunderstorms are not uncommon during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 millimetres (28.1 in).
|Climate data for Gurgaon|
|Average high °C (°F)||21.1
|Average low °C (°F)||7.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||20.3
|Average rainy days||1.7||1.3||1.2||0.9||1.4||3.6||10.0||11.3||5.4||1.6||0.1||0.6||39.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||213.9||217.5||238.7||261.0||263.5||198.0||167.4||176.7||219.0||269.7||246.0||217.0||2,688.4|
Gurgaon has an estimated population of 876,824 as per 2011 India census.
Gurgaon has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time period. Gurgaon's skyline with its many skyscrapers is nationally recognized, and the city has been home to several tall buildings with modern planning. Gurgaon has an estimated 1,100 residential skyscrapers. The average cost of a 93-square-metre (1,000 sq ft) two-bedroom apartment at a decent condominium in Gurgaon is at least $160,130 (₹10,000,000).
The initial settlements in Gurgaon started in the area east to National Highway 8, a part of which shows urban planning. Gurgaon is divided into 36 wards, with each ward further divided into blocks. The housing type in the city consists largely of attached housing, though a large number of attached multi-dwelling units, including apartments, condominiums and high rise residential towers are getting popular. The top five condominiums in the city, as rated by The Times of India, are: Aralias, Hamilton Court, The World Spa, Gurgaon One and Raheja Atlantis. Some inhabitants in the city live in slums in shanty houses lacking proper sanitation, safe water supply, electricity, hygienic streets, or other basic human necessities.
Gurgaon has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the Haryana Urban Development Authority. The key parks are the Leisure Valley Park in Sector 29, which is spread over 15 hectares (36 acres); Tau Devi Lal Biodiversity Botanical Garden in Sector 52; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Park in Sector 14, popularly known as HUDA Garden; and Tau Devi Lal park in Sector 23. However, most of the parks in Gurgaon are small and ill-maintained.
Entertainment and performing arts
Notable venues in the city include Epicentre in Sector 44, Nautanki Mehal at the Kingdom of Dreams near IFFCO Chowk and Shiamak Davar's Institute for the Performing Arts. Bollywood actor Raj Yadav was born in Gurgaon.
Languages and dialect
The main language spoken in Gurgaon is Hindi, though a segment of the population understands English. The dialect used in Hindi is similar to that of Delhi, and is considered neutral, though the regional influences from the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab adds an accent to the language. English is spoken with an Indian accent, with a primarily North Indian influence. Since Gurgaon has a large number of international call centres, the employees are usually given formal training in neutral pronunciation in order to be understandable to native English speakers. Haryanvi and Punjabi are another popular languages spoken in the city. The other regional languages include Mewati and Braj Bhasha.
Hinduism is a predominant religion among the city's population. Gurgaon also includes adherents of Sikhism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and the Bahá'í, among others. There are several places of worship for major religions in Gurgaon, including Hindu temples, gurdwaras, Masjids and churches.
The city has two major sports stadiums: Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Sector 38, which has facilities for cricket, football, basketball and athletics as well as a sports hostel, and Nehru Stadium which is designed for football and athletics. Amity United FC is a tenant of Tau Devi Lal Stadium. Gurgaon district has a presence of nine golf courses, and is described as the "heart of India's golfing country".
Gurgaon is home to Joginder Rao, an international cricket player.
Gurgaon organizes a weekly event called Raahigiri day every Sunday morning. The event is an adaption of Ciclovia, an event originally developed in Bogotá, Colombia in 1976 where a segment of roads are closed for motor vehicles and are opened to people for walking, jogging, running, cycling, skating, and other leisure activities. This concept is adopted by several cities across the world. Launched in November 2013, Gurgaon became the first city in India to hold this event, followed by New Delhi.
Once a small dusty agricultural village, Gurgaon has now emerged to become the city with the third highest per capita income in India. Popularly known as Millennium City, Gurgaon has the presence of about 250 or 50% of the Fortune 500 companies. Gurgaon's proximity to Delhi means easy access to political decision makers. Maruti Suzuki Private Limited was the first company that set up a manufacturing unit in the city in 1970s making cars. Eventually, DLF Limited, a real estate company acquired vast stretches of land in the city. The first major American brand to set up a unit in Gurgaon was General Electric in 1997, and is regarded as the first foreign company in India that was established for outsourcing software work. GE's setup in Gurgaon prompted other companies, both international as well as domestic, to follow suit. Today, Gurgaon has emerged as one of the most important offshoring centers in the world, providing outsourcing solutions in software, IT, service and sales through delivery facilities and call centers. However, due to the lack of proper public transport and the inability of most of the employees to afford a personal vehicle, most of the call centers provide pooled-in cars to and from their offices. Apart from Business process outsourcing and IT sectors, the city is home to several other companies that specialize in domain expertise. Siemens Industry Software, in Gurgaon Business Park, made a portfolio of design software that was used by NASA to digitally design, simulate and assemble the vehicle before any physical prototypes were built. Various international companies, including Coca-Cola, Pepsi, IBM, American Express, Agilent Technologies, Microsoft, and Bank of America, have chosen Gurgaon to be their Indian corporate headquarters. All the major companies in the city depend on their own backup, given the fact that Gurgaon does not have reliable power and water supply, public transport and utilities. Retail is an important industry in Gurgaon, with the presence of 26 shopping malls. The major malls include Ambience Mall and Sahara Mall. Real estate is a major force in the city's economy. Gurgaon is home to some of the nation's most valuable real estate.
Law and government
Gurgaon is based on Municipal corporation form of government, where Mayor acts as the head of the city government. In June 2011, Vimal Yadav was the first person to hold this position when the city became eligible to follow this kind of government due to population increase.
The crime graph is on a rise in Gurgaon. The city reported 89 homicides in 2012. Another rising concern is the increase in number of rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, and thefts, including motor vehicle thefts. The total vehicle thefts registered by the police in Gurgaon in 2014 was 3,638, and this trend continues. Gurgaon is experiencing high rates of homelessness, drug abuse, gang violence and prostitution. Several organized cartels and street gangs operate in the city.
The police department in Gurgaon is headed by the Commissioner of Police - Gurgaon Police, which forms a part of the Haryana Police. and reports to the Hayrana state government. Navdeep Singh Virk is the Commissioner of Police in Gurgaon. Gurgaon Police has a separate traffic police department headquartered in sector 51. Fire protection within the city limits is provided by Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon through four fire stations, located in sector 29, sector 37, Udyog Vihar and Bhim Nagar.
The city's public school system, managed by the government of Haryana, is administered by Haryana Board of School Education. The city also has a large number of private schools, where education is often expensive and the quality usually better than the government schools. Schools like The Shri Ram School - Aravali (DLF City Phase 4), The Heritage School (Sector 62), and DAV Public School Sector 14 are among the top 10 schools in the city, according to the 2013 Hindustan Times - C fore Top Schools Survey There are some less expensive private schools in Gurgaon too.This includes Golden Heights School,Amazon Public School,Alpine Convent School etc.
There are several universities and institutes located in Gurgaon and its nearby areas, that form a part of Gurgaon district including Ansal Institute of Technology; ITM University, Sector 23A; GD Goenka University, Sohna Road; KR Mangalam University, Sohna Road; Amity University, Manesar; Apeejay Stya University, Sohna; BML Munjal University, NH8; Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University, Budhera; and National Brain Research Centre, Manesar. Gurgaon is also home to one of India's top ranked business school, Management Development Institute.
The major highway that links Gurgaon is National Highway 8, the road that runs from Delhi to Mumbai. While the 27.7-kilometre (17.2 mi) Delhi-Gurgaon border-Kherki Dhaula stretch has been developed as an expressway, the rest is expanded to six lanes.
Public transit in Gurgaon is mostly provided by government buses, Rapid Metro and Delhi Metro. Private buses & vans, and shared auto rickshaws also ply in the city. There are ten subway or metro stations in Gurgaon, of which five - HUDA City Centre, IFFCO Chowk, MG Road, Sikanderpur and Guru Droncharya are managed by Delhi Metro and six stations operated by Rapid Metro: Sikanderpur, Phase 2, Vodafone Belvedere Towers, IndusInd Bank Cyber City, Micormax Moulsari Avenue and Airtel Phase 3. Two stations, Shankar Chowk and Gateway tower, are scheduled to become operational soon. The first phase of Rapid Metro became operational in November 2013 and covers a distance of 3.3 mi. Two more phases of the project are in the pipeline and would take the total number of subway stations in Gurgaon to 16. An estimated 33,000 people ride Rapid Metro everyday, which provides an exclusive elevated transit service with three coach trains that run in a loop.
Operated by Indian Railways, the city has a rail station that forms a part of the larger Indian railways network, where trains connect Gurgaon to Delhi and other important cities in India like Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad and Jaipur.
Gurgaon bus terminal, managed by Haryana Roadways, is a busy bus station in the city that provides bus connectivity, both private and government, to other cities in Haryana and neighboring states like Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and other cities like Chandigarh.
Gurgaon is served by Indira Gandhi International Airport, though the airport is just outside the city limits and located within the jurisdiction of Delhi near National Highway 8. The airport is one of the busiest airports in India and provides domestic and international air connectivity.
Pedestrians and bicycles
The city lacks facilities for pedestrians with almost no proper sidewalks. There are no proper routes for bicycles, though a large part of the population in the city use bicycles for commuting. With no designated bicycle lanes in Gurgaon, riding a bicycle could be dangerous due to uncontrolled driving of cars and lack of infrastructure. The number of bicycles in Gurgaon is 76,984, as compared to 83,757 cars and 98,983 motorcycles and scooters.
Electricity in Gurgaon is provided by government owned Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam. Gurgaon has power consumer base of 360,000 with average power load of 700-800 MW. There are frequent power outages in the city, especially during the peak consumption season of summer. Apart from the power deficit, the equipment used by the power department like transformers, panels and transmission lines is either old or overburdened. Power fluctuations are not uncommon in Gurgaon. Several areas in the city face shortage of water supply.
Gurgaon has many hospitals and a number of medical research facilities within its city limits. Leading health care provider institutes include Fortis Hospital, Medanta, Max Hospital and Columbia Asia Hospital. Gurgaon has become an increasingly popular destination for medical tourism.
For cellular voice module, most of the mobile network operators in Gurgaon use GSM technology, though a few carriers employ the CDMA platform. The mobile data service is offered through GPRS, CDMA, EDGE, UMTS/HSPA, WiMAX and LTE. Nine mobile phone service providers operate in Gurgaon - Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Reliance, Tata Indicom, Aircel, MTS, Virgin Mobile and BSNL. All these carriers offer voice and data service in pay-as-you-go (prepaid) and on a monthly rental with plan (post paid) basis. Other dedicated Wireless Internet service providers operating in Gurgaon are Tikona, You Broadband and Nextra and Touch Net.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gurgaon.|
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- "India Rising, Off-the-Grid: Video", The New York Times, retrieved 12 November 2013