Gurgaon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the city in Haryana, India. For its namesake district, see Gurgaon district.
Gurgaon
Metropolitan city
Gurgaon
Gurgaon viewed from NH8
Gurgaon viewed from NH8
Nickname(s): Millennium City
Gurgaon is located in Haryana
Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Location of Gurgaon in Haryana
Coordinates: 28°27′22″N 77°01′44″E / 28.456°N 77.029°E / 28.456; 77.029Coordinates: 28°27′22″N 77°01′44″E / 28.456°N 77.029°E / 28.456; 77.029
Country  India
State Haryana
District Gurgaon district
Government
 • Body Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon
 • Mayor Vimal Yadav
 • Lok Sabha constituency Gurgaon Lok Sabha Constituency
 • Vidhan Sabha constituency Gurgaon City
 • Planning agency Haryana Urban Development Authority
Area
 • Total 282.7 sq mi (732 km2)
Elevation 711.9 ft (217 m)
Population
 • Metro 1,514,432[1]
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 122xxx
Area code(s) 0124
Vehicle registration HR-26 (North)
HR-55 (commercial)
HR-72 (South)
Website gurgaon.nic.in

Gurgaon (/ˈgʊrgaʊŋ/) is a financial and industrial city situated in the National Capital Region near the Indian capital New Delhi in the state of Haryana. Located 19.9 miles (32 km) south-west of New Delhi, Gurgaon has a population of 1,514,432.[1] Witnessing rapid urbanization, Gurgaon has become the city with the third highest per capita income in India.[2] Historically known as Guru Gram, the city's economic growth story started when the leading Indian automobile manufacturer Maruti Suzuki established a manufacturing plant in Gurgaon in the 1970s.[3] Gurgaon has offices of more than 250 Fortune 500 companies.[4]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of the city's name can be traced back to ancient Hindu scriptures. It is believed that this land was owned by the legendary rulers Pandavas and Kauravas, who presented it to Guru Dronacharaya, their royal guru as a token of gratitude. The land came to be known as Guru Gram, which literally translated means "Village of the Guru", which in due course of time got distorted to the name Gurgaon. The village still exists within the modern day city.[5]

History[edit]

Gurgaon was historically inhabited by the Hindu people and in early times, it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs of Yaduvansi or Jadaun tribe. The Rajputs were defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in 1196, but for two centuries they sturdily resisted the Muhammadian domination and they were subjected to punitive expedition. Under the rule of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, several were converted to Islam. This was followed by the invasion of Timur and the land was ruled by Khanzadas. It was then annexed by Babur.[6] During Akbar's reign, Gurgaon fell within the governing regions of Delhi and Agra. As the Mughal Empire started to decline, the place was torn between contending powers. By 1803 most of it came under the British rule through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhia. The town was first occupied by the cavalry unit posted to watch the army of Begum Samru of Sirdhana. It became a part of the district, which was divided into units called parganas. These units were given to petty chiefs for the military service rendered by them. The units were governed by the rules that British kept on changing and eventually these units came under direct control of the British, with the last major change in 1836. Nothing much changed in Gurgaon until the Revolt of 1857. In 1858, it was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to Punjab Province. In 1861, the district, of which Gurgaon was a part of, was rearranged into five tehsils Gurgaon, Ferozepur Jhirka, Nuh, Palwal and Rewari[7] and the modern day city came under the control of Gurgaon teshil. In 1947, Gurgaon became a part of independent India and fell under the Indian state of Punjab. In 1966, the city came under the administration of Haryana with the creation of the new state.

Geography[edit]

Gurgaon is located in Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the south eastern part of the state, and northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with Delhi with New Delhi to its north east. The city has a total area of 282.7 square miles (738.8 km²)[8]

Topography[edit]

The average land elevation is 711.9 ft (217 m) above sea level.[9]

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Gurgaon experiences a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa).[10] The city experiences four distinct seasons - spring (February - March), summer (April - August), fall/autumn (September - October) and winter (November - January), along with the monsoon season setting in towards the later half of the summer. Summers, from early April to mid October, are typically very hot and humid, with an average daily June high temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). The season experiences heat indices easily breaking 110 °F (43 °C). Winters are very cold and foggy with few sunny days, and with a December daytime average of 37.4 °F (3 °C). The Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week of July and continues till August. Thunderstorms are not uncommon during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 28.1 inches (714 mm).[10]

Climate data for Gurgaon
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 70
(21.1)
75.6
(24.2)
86
(30.0)
97.2
(36.2)
103.3
(39.6)
102.7
(39.3)
95.2
(35.1)
91.9
(33.3)
93
(33.9)
91.2
(32.9)
82.9
(28.3)
73.4
(23.0)
88.5
(31.4)
Average low °F (°C) 39.7
(4.3)
44.8
(7.1)
59.7
(15.4)
70.7
(21.5)
78.6
(25.9)
82.9
(28.3)
79.9
(26.6)
78.6
(25.9)
75.9
(24.4)
67.1
(19.5)
49.6
(9.8)
43.2
(6.2)
65.8
(18.8)
Average rainfall inches (mm) 0.799
(20.3)
0.591
(15.0)
0.622
(15.8)
0.264
(6.7)
0.689
(17.5)
2.161
(54.9)
9.114
(231.5)
10.185
(258.7)
5.031
(127.8)
1.429
(36.3)
0.197
(5.0)
0.307
(7.8)
31.389
(797.3)
Avg. rainy days 1.7 1.3 1.2 0.9 1.4 3.6 10.0 11.3 5.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 39.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 213.9 217.5 238.7 261.0 263.5 198.0 167.4 176.7 219.0 269.7 246.0 217.0 2,688.4
[citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

Gurgaon has an estimated population of 1,514,432[1] as per 2011 India census, of which 816,690 or 53.93% are males and 697,742 or 46.07% females. The population under the age of six is 202,602, with 110,705 males and 91,897 females. The number of literates are 1,111,116 with 638,666 males and 472,450 females. The effective literacy rate of population aged 7+ is 84.70% of which the male rate is 90.46% and the female rate 77.98%.[1]

Cityscape[edit]

Skyline of Gurgaon at night

Architecture[edit]

Cyber Green Building

Gurgaon has buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time period. Gurgaon's skyline is home to several tall buildings and has an estimated 1,100 residential skyscrapers.[11] The average cost of a 1,000 square feet two-bedroom apartment at a decent condominium in Gurgaon is at least $160,130 (₹10,000,000).[11] The poor urban planning and lack of urban infrastructure to cope with the rapid expansion of Gurgaon often results in traffic jams.[12]

Neighborhoods[edit]

The initial settlements in Gurgaon started in the area east to National Highway 8, a part of which shows urban planning. Gurgaon is divided into 36 wards, with each ward further divided into blocks. The housing type in the city consists largely of attached housing, though a large number of attached multi-dwelling units, including apartments, condominiums and high rise residential towers are getting popular. The top five condominiums in the city, as rated by The Times of India, are: Aralias, Hamilton Court, The World Spa, Gurgaon One and Raheja Atlantis.[13] Some inhabitants in the city live in slums in shanty houses lacking proper sanitation, safe water supply, electricity, hygienic streets, or other basic human necessities.

Parks[edit]

Gurgaon has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the Haryana Urban Development Authority. The key parks are the Leisure Valley Park in Sector 29, which is spread over 36 acres; Tau Devi Lal Biodiversity Botanical Garden in Sector 52; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Park in Sector 14, popularly known as HUDA Garden; and Tau Devi Lal park in Sector 23. However, most of the parks in Gurgaon are small and ill-maintained.[14]

Culture[edit]

Historically occupied by distinct ethnic groups and traditionally engaged in farming, Gurgaon has seen a change of culture over the years. The city now has significant migrant population from almost all parts of India, who come to work in the city and have enriched the local culture, adding a variety to arts, music, cuisine and festivals.

Entertainment and performing arts[edit]

Gurgaon is home to a few arts venues, both existing and proposed. Notable venues in the city include Epicentre in Sector 44, Nautanki Mehal at the Kingdom of Dreams near IFFCO Chowk and Shiamak Davar's Institute for the Performing Arts. Gurgaon has about 43 malls with multiplexes catering to cinema audience. Urusvati museum of Folklore in Shikhopur near Gurgaon and is also known for its Jain temples. Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary is a favorite spot of bird watchers during winter months.

Cuisine[edit]

The city's food culture includes a variety of cuisines with regional specialities. A large number of restaurants serve a range of items including traditional north Indian recipes, including dal makhani, shahi paneer and kebab. Samosa, golgappa, dahi bhalla, aloo tikki, bread pakora, pav bhaji and chaat are cheap fast-selling items here, that are sold by both unlicensed and licensed mobile food vendors, though the hygiene of the food is sometimes questionable. Burgers have managed to creep in as a cheap street fare. Popular food eaten for breakfast includes aloo paratha and chole bhature. Wheat, in the form of roti, and rice form an essential part of the food intake. Gurgaon also have eateries serving South Indian, Chinese and Nepalese momos. The city also houses global food chains like McDonald's, KFC, Pizza Hut, Domino's Pizza, Subway, Burger King, Starbucks and Costa Coffee frequented by people with significant disposable income. The city is also home to several fine dining restaurants and buffets.

Languages and dialect[edit]

The main language spoken in Gurgaon is Hindi, English and Haryanvi (with Rajasthani touch, the main language of native people). The dialect used in Hindi is similar to that of Delhi, and is considered neutral, though the regional influences from the states of Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab adds an accent to the language. English is spoken with an Indian accent, with a primarily North Indian influence. Since Gurgaon has a large number of international call centres, the employees are usually given formal training in neutral pronunciation in order to be understandable to native English speakers. Haryanvi and Punjabi are another popular languages spoken in the city. The other regional languages include Mewati and Braj Bhasha.[15][16]

Religion[edit]

Hinduism is a predominant religion among the city's population. Gurgaon also includes adherents of Sikhism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and the Bahá'í, among others. There are several places of worship for major religions in Gurgaon, including Hindu temples, gurdwaras, Masjids and churches.

Sports[edit]

The city has two major sports stadiums: Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Sector 38, which has facilities for cricket, football, basketball and athletics as well as a sports hostel, and Nehru Stadium which is designed for football and athletics. Amity United FC is a tenant of Tau Devi Lal Stadium. Gurgaon district has a presence of nine golf courses, and is described as the "heart of India's golfing country".[17]

Raahgiri[edit]

Gurgaon organizes a weekly event called Raahigiri day every Sunday morning. The event is an adaption of Ciclovia, an event originally developed in Bogotá, Colombia in 1976 where a segment of roads are closed for motor vehicles and are opened to people for walking, jogging, running, cycling, skating, and other leisure activities. This concept is adopted by several cities across the world. Launched in November 2013, Gurgaon became the first city in India to hold this event, followed by New Delhi.[18][19] The current police commissioner of Gurgaon, Navdeep Singh Virk has also shown his support for Raahgiri.[20]

Economy[edit]

A commercial area in DLF Cyber City

Gurgaon contributes to more than 50% service tax in the state of Haryana.Gurgaon has the third highest per capita income in India.[2] Popularly known as Millennium City,[21] Gurgaon has the presence of about 250 Fortune 500 companies due to its proximity to Delhi. Maruti Suzuki was the first company that set up a manufacturing unit in the city in 1970s making cars.[3] Eventually, DLF Limited, a real estate company acquired vast stretches of land in the city. The first major American brand to set up a unit in Gurgaon was General Electric in 1997 and is regarded as the first foreign company in India that was established for outsourcing software work.[22] Gurgaon has emerged as one of the most important off shoring centers in the world,[22] providing outsourcing solutions in software, IT, service and sales through delivery facilities and call centers. Apart from Business process outsourcing and IT sectors, the city is home to several other companies that specialize in domain expertise. Various international companies including Coca-Cola, Pepsi, IBM, American Express, Agilent Technologies, Microsoft and Bank of America have chosen Gurgaon to be their Indian corporate headquarters.[22] Retail is an important industry in Gurgaon, with the presence of 43 shopping malls.[23] The major malls include Ambience Mall and Sahara Mall.

Administration[edit]

Gurgaon is administered by a Municipal corporation, where Mayor acts as the head of the city. In June 2011, Vimal Yadav became the first Mayor of Gurgaon Municipal Corporation.[24] The police department in Gurgaon is headed by the Commissioner of Police - Gurgaon Police, which forms a part of the Haryana Police.[25] and reports to the Hayrana state government. Navdeep Singh Virk, IPS is the Commissioner of Police in Gurgaon. Gurgaon Police has a separate traffic police department headquartered in sector 51.[26] Fire protection within the city limits is provided by Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon through four fire stations, located in sector 29, sector 37, Udyog Vihar and Bhim Nagar.[27]

The city reported 89 homicides in 2012. The total vehicle thefts registered by the police in Gurgaon in 2014 was 3,638.[28] Gurgaon is experiencing high rates of robbery, drug abuse, violence against women and prostitution with several organized cartels and street gangs operating in the city.[29]

Education[edit]

The city's public school system, managed by the Government of Haryana, is administered by Haryana Board of School Education. The city also has a large number of private schools, where education is often expensive. Schools like The Shri Ram School - Aravali, The Heritage School and DAV Public School are among the top 10 schools in the city, according to the 2013 Hindustan Times - C fore Top Schools Survey,[30]

There are several universities and institutes located in Gurgaon and its nearby areas, that form a part of Gurgaon district including Ansal Institute of Technology, ITM University, GD Goenka University, KR Mangalam University, Amity University, Apeejay Stya University, BML Munjal University, Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University[31] and National Brain Research Centre. Gurgaon is also home to the premium b-school Management Development Institute. Naveen Rathee and Deepak Madan have set up NGO LIONS CLUB[32] for poor children.

Transportation[edit]

Highways[edit]

The major highway that links Gurgaon is National Highway 8 connecting Mumbai with New Delhi. The 27.7 km Delhi Gurgaon Expressway is six to eight lane expressway that connects Gurgaon to New Delhi.[33]

Transit systems[edit]

Public transit[edit]

Public transit in Gurgaon is provided by Delhi Metro, government buses and Rapid Metro. Private buses, vans and auto rickshaws also ply in the city. There are ten metro stations in Gurgaon of which five - HUDA City Center, IFFCO Chowk, MG Road, Sikanderpur and Guru Droncharya are managed by Delhi Metro and six stations are operated by Rapid Metro: Sikanderpur, DLF Phase II, Belvedere Towers, Cyber City, Moulsari Avenue and DLF Phase III. On 21 June 2010, Yellow Line of Delhi Metro opened connecting HUDA City Center to Qutub Minar which was later connected to Central Secretariat on 3 September 2010. The first phase of Rapid Metro became operational in November 2013 and covers a distance of 3.3 mi.[34] Two more phases of the project are in the pipeline and would take the total number of stations in Gurgaon to 16. An estimated 33,000 people ride Rapid Metro everyday.[35] Gurgaon lacks in public road transport with a limited number of public buses operated by Haryana Roadways and DTC.[36]

Intercity rail[edit]

Operated by Indian Railways, the city has a rail station that forms a part of the larger Indian railways network, where trains connect Gurgaon to Delhi and other cities including Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad and Jaipur.

Intercity buses[edit]

Gurgaon bus terminal, managed by Haryana Roadways, is the primary bus station in the city that provides inter city bus connectivity, both private and government, to other cities in Haryana and neighboring states like Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Chandigarh.

Airport[edit]

Gurgaon is served by Delhi's Indira Gandhi International Airport which is located just outside the city along National Highway 8 within the jurisdiction of Delhi. The airport is one of the busiest airports in India and provides domestic and international air connectivity.

Pedestrians and bicycles[edit]

The city lacks facilities for pedestrians with almost no proper sidewalks. There are no proper routes for bicycles, though a large part of the population in the city use bicycles for commuting. With no designated bicycle lanes in Gurgaon, riding a bicycle could be dangerous due to uncontrolled driving of cars and lack of infrastructure.[37] The number of bicycles in Gurgaon is 76,984, as compared to 83,757 cars and 98,983 motorcycles and scooters.[38]

Services[edit]

Utilities[edit]

Electricity in Gurgaon is provided by government owned Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam. Gurgaon has power consumer base of 360,000 with average power load of 700-800 MW.[39] There are frequent power outages in the city, especially during the peak consumption season of summer. Apart from the power deficit, the equipment used by the power department like transformers, panels and transmission lines is either old or overburdened.[40] Power fluctuations are not uncommon in Gurgaon. Several areas in the city face shortage of water supply.[41]

Healthcare[edit]

Gurgaon has many hospitals and a number of medical research facilities within its city limits. Leading health care provider institutes include Fortis Hospital, Medanta and Max Hospital. Gurgaon has become a popular destination for medical tourism.

Telecommunications[edit]

For cellular voice module, most of the mobile network operators in Gurgaon use GSM technology, though a few carriers employ the CDMA platform. The mobile data service is offered through GPRS, CDMA, EDGE, UMTS/HSPA, WiMAX and LTE. Nine mobile phone service providers operate in Gurgaon - Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Reliance, Tata Indicom, Aircel, MTS, Virgin Mobile and BSNL. All these carriers offer voice and data service in pay-as-you-go (prepaid) and on a monthly rental with plan (post paid) basis. Other dedicated Wireless Internet service providers operating in Gurgaon are Tikona, You Broadband and Nextra and Touch Net. Fixed line phone service in Gurgaon is provided by Airtel, Reliance, Tata Walky and BSNL, providing both voice and broadband services.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Census 2011, Gurgaon". Government of India. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  2. ^ a b Julka, Harsimran (30 September 2011). "IT firms looking beyond Gurgaon, Noida, Greater Noida to other cities in north India". The Economic Times. ET Bureau. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Kumar, K.P. Narayana. "Gurgaon: How not to Build a City". Forbesindia.com. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  4. ^ "Crime graph up, Gurgaon police get act together". Hindustan Times. 20 May 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  5. ^ "Historical Background" (PDF). District Administration, Gurgaon. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  6. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 403.". Digital South Asia Library. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  7. ^ "History of Gurgaon". Municipal Corporation, Gurgaon. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  8. ^ "Demographics". Municipal Corporation, Gurgaon. 
  9. ^ "GGN/Gurgaon(3)". India Rail Info. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  10. ^ a b "Travel Info". The Metropolitan Hotel and Spa New Delhi. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Anand, Deevakar (10 May 2013). "Gurgaon’s better than Delhi, but way behind Shanghai". Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  12. ^ "Gurgaon traffic police identify five accident-prone area". Hindustan Times. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  13. ^ "Home is where the heart is". TNN. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  14. ^ "How green was Gurgaon’s parks". The Times of India. TNN. 30 December 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  15. ^ "Culture and Language of Gurgaon". Stay IN Gurgaon.com. Stay IN Gurgaon.com. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  16. ^ "Gurgaon Travelinfo". Hotel Sun Villa. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  17. ^ Singh, Prabhdev. "Gurgaon's Golf Courses". HT Media. Live Mint. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  18. ^ "New area in Gurgaon to have 'Raahgiri Day'". Business Standard. IANS. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  19. ^ fwire (Feb 27, 2014). "New area in Gurgaon to have 'Raahgiri Day'". Firstpost. IANS. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  20. ^ "New Gurgaon police chief to strengthen Raahgiri". Times of India. 23 November 2014. 
  21. ^ "UK minister inaugurates business centre in Gurgaon". The Times of India. TNN. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  22. ^ a b c Kannan, Shilpa. "Gurgaon: From fields to global tech hub". BBC. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  23. ^ "Gurgaon as IT outsourcing hub". Amit Arun and Associates. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  24. ^ Joseph, Joel (22 June 2011). "Gurgaon gets first mayor after month's wait". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  25. ^ "Gurgaon Police". Gurgaon Police, Govt. of Haryana. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  26. ^ "Gurgaon police". Gurgaon Police, Govt. of Haryana. 
  27. ^ "Gurgaon’s fourth fire station opens in Udyog Vihar". Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. TNN. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  28. ^ Behl, Abhishek (20–26 February 2015). "Your car could be next" (Guragaon). 'Friday Gurgaon. FG. Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  29. ^ "Gurgaon police indiferrent to burglary, chain snatching incidents". Indiatoday.in. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  30. ^ "Top Schools in Gurgaon". Hindustan Times. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  31. ^ "Universities & Colleges". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  32. ^ "NGO". 
  33. ^ Dash, Dipak Kumar (7 December 2012). "NH8 stretch on Delhi-Gurgaon border is India’s deadliest road". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  34. ^ Joseph, Joel (13 November 2013). "From tomorrow, Gurgaon will finally have its Rapid Metro". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  35. ^ ASHOK, SOWMIYA (16 June 2014). "Are Gurgaon residents game for a smooth ride on the Rapid Metro?". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  36. ^ "Meet for roadmap to improve bus service". Times of India. 14 April 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  37. ^ Gill, Vineet (22 October 2013). "Why doesn't Gurgaon have cycling lanes?". TNN. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  38. ^ "Raahgiri Day: Let’s start a revolution 'on two wheels'". The Times of India. TNN. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  39. ^ "Essar withdraws application for distribution licence in Gurgaon". PTI. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  40. ^ "Night-long outage in Old Gurgaon as transformer trips on demand". The Times of India. TNN. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
  41. ^ "Wish to set up a university in Gurgaon: Inderjit". The Times of India. TNN. 18 May 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]