The guru-shishya tradition, lineage, or parampara, denotes a succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Indian culture and religions such as Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism(Tibetan and Zen tradition). It is the tradition of spiritual relationship and mentoring where teachings are transmitted from a guru "teacher" (Sanskrit: गुरु) to a śiṣya "disciple" (Sanskrit: शिष्य) or chela. Such knowledge, whether it be Vedic, agamic, architectural, musical or spiritual, is imparted through the developing relationship between the guru and the disciple. It is considered that this relationship, based on the genuineness of the guru, and the respect, commitment, devotion and obedience of the student, is the best way for subtle or advanced knowledge to be conveyed. The student eventually masters the knowledge that the guru embodies. The most prominent spiritual authority is a Spiritual Master who educates and train disciples in process of bhakti and plays a significant role in giving disciples spiritual education necessary to advance in bhakti.
- 1 Attitude of a Guru
- 2 Qualification of GURU as per Shastra
- 3 Appropriate methods as per Shastra to select a Guru
- 4 Historical background
- 5 Types of Guru
- 6 Common characteristics of the guru-shishya relationship
- 7 Parampara and Sampradaya
- 8 Guru-shishya relationship types
- 9 Psychological aspects
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 Further reading
Attitude of a Guru
- Guru’s are required to be exemplary in representing spiritual teachings coming from parampara in their words and personal behavior.
- Guru’s has to obey the instruction given by their own Guru.
- The guru gives spiritual instruction and inspiration on behalf of previous acharyas so they have to represent the teachings of previos acharya as it is and without any concotion of their own mind.
- Guru has to actin service mood and not for self-propagation and sense gratification.
- The Guru has to avoid competitive behavior to establish their superiority.
- Gurus should be faithful and should not have any ulterior motives for their independent fame and distinction.
Qualification of GURU as per Shastra
The qualification of a Guru as per shastra are as follows:
- Guru should be able to control his 6 senses namely toungue,mind,speech,genitals etc
Vaco vegam manasah krodha-vegam jivha-vegam udaropastha-vegam Etan vegan yo visaheta dhirah sarvam apimam prthivim sa sisyat - A sober person who can tolerate the urge to speak, the mind’s demand, the actions of anger and the urges of the toungue, belly and genitalsis qualified to make disciples all over the world. (1st verse of Nectar of Instruction).
- Guru has to be learned in Shastra:
Tad-vijnanartham sa gurum evabhigacchet, Samit-panih srotriyam brahma-nishtam To understand this things properly one must humbly approach, with firewood in hand, a spiritual master who is learned in the vedas and firmly devoted to the absolutetruth. (Mundaka Upanishada 1.2.12)
- Personal Behaviour and preaching.
Acara, prachara- namera karaha ‘dui’ karya , tumi-sarva-guru, tumi jagatera arya. One must act according to scriptural injunctions and at the same time preach. One who does is a bonafide spiritual master. ( Sri chaitanya-caritamrta Anta 4.103)
- One who can give krishna’s message without adulteration heard from bonafide parampara:
Must have heard the vedic knowledge through disciplic sucession and must be established in service of supreme lord. He also has to be firmly fixed in service of supreme personality of godhead. He should impart the knowledge received from parampara and not self-styled and concocted. (Teachings of Lord Kapila, Verse 4 – Approching a bonafide Guru).
- The Guru should have realized the conclusions of the scriptures:
Tasmad gurum prapadyeta jignasuh sreya uttamam – Sabde pare ca nisnatam brahmany upasamasrayam - Therefore any person who seriously desires real happiness must seek a bona fide spiritual master and take shelter of him by initiation. The qualification of the bona fide guru is that he has realized the conclusions of the scriptures by deliberation and is able to convince others of these conclusions. Such great personalities, who have taken shelter of the Supreme Godhead, leaving aside all material considerations, should be understood to be bona fide spiritual masters.(Srimad Bhagvatam 11.3.21)
Appropriate methods as per Shastra to select a Guru
- Study the Guru:
- we must study a guru carefully to understand If We can surrender to him. Both guru and disciple should examine each other to see if they are fit so a relationship between them is established thereafter (As per science of realization 2.a.).
- Meet together for at least 1 year and hear from a guru for at least 1 year
- As per hari bhakti vilasa by Sanatan Goswami spiritual master and disciple must meet together for one year so that the disciple may also understand that they can accept him as a guru and the guru can see if the devotee is fit to become his disciple. Also one must hear from a guru for at least 1 year which will give them conviction to accept the teachings of a guru. (Srimad Bhagvatam 1.16.25)
- Accept only a uttam adhikari as a Spiritual Master.
- A devotee has to use his intelligence to distinguish between various levels such as kanishta, madhyam and Uttam adhikari. It’s essential that the spiritual master is Uttam adhikari as they can help a disciple advance towards goal of life by giving sufficient guidance as they are always thinking of Krishna and ways to spread the holy name and convert fallen souls to vaishnavas. ( Upadeshamrita – verse 5 purport).
Inappropriate method to select a guru
- Accepting Guru out of fanaticism:
- One should not accept a guru suddenly or with a casual approach. (Science of Self Realization- 2a)
- Accepting a spiritual master in terms of social conventions
- Its inappropriate way as per Jiva Goswami if one accepts a guru in terms of hereditary or customary social conventions. One should simply try to find a genuine and qualified guru for advancement of one’s spiritual life (Chaitanya Charitamrita Adi 1.35 purport)
- One should not select a guru because of their name and fame, followership or because they can benefit one monetarily etc.
- It’s inappropriate to choose a guru just because they give initiation very quickly.
- It’s inappropriate to choose a guru just because they are of your caste, nationality, speaks same mother tongue etc
In the early oral traditions of the Upanishads, the guru-shishya relationship had evolved into a fundamental component of Hinduism. The term "Upanishad" derives from the Sanskrit words "upa" (near), "ni" (down) and "şad" (to sit) — so it means "sitting down near" a spiritual teacher to receive instruction. The relationship between Krishna and Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita portion of the Mahabharata, and between Rama and Hanuman in the Ramayana, are examples. In the Upanishads, gurus and disciples appear in a variety of settings (e.g. a husband answering questions about immortality; a teenage boy being taught by Yama, Hinduism's Lord of Death) Sometimes the sages are women, and the instructions may be sought by kings.
Types of Guru
Primararily there are two types of Guru fro spiritual Advancement - Shiksha Guru and Diksha Guru:
1) Shiksha Guru:A shiksha guru connects one with the parampara. A devotee can take learning’s, instruction from an advanced devotee (shiksha guru) as the diksha guru is not present always. The teachings of shiksha guru have to be in alignment of that of diksha guru. Shiksha guru are very important as they show unlimited mercy by training neophyte devotes in all essential aspects of practical devotional service
2) Diksha Guru:A bonafide diksha guru through process of initiation officially connects a disciple to the parampara, accepts vows, gives spiritual name and mantra, removes sinful karma and gives instructions and guidance for progressive advancement in Krishna consciousness
The similarities between shiksha and diksha guru are as follows:
- Both the guru gives instructions and guidance, clarify ones doubt for spiritual progress.
- Both Guru connects one to parampara makes vaishnava and imparts spiritual knowledge as it is.
- Both Guru comes in form of krishna’s mercy in our life.
- Both Guru are equal and identical manifestation of Krishna.
- Both Guru helps one in process of bhajan kriya.
- Both Guru could act as a pathpradarshak to a new devotee.
- Both Gurus inspire one to make progress in one’s spiritual life.
- Shiksha guru could become a diksha guru in due course of time.
- Shiksha guru does not remove any sinful karma however diksha guru removes all the sinful karma of his disciple at initiation.
- Diksha guru takes the karma of his disciple even after the initiation process, when the disciple breaks any of the 4 regulative principles or vows, has a fall down or commits any sinful act however shiksha guru doesn’t.
- Shiksha guru could be many however acceptance of more than one diksha guru is forbidden.
- Diksha guru is obliged to take his disciple back to godhead however Shiksha guru has no such obligation.
- Diksha guru gives harinaam mantra, spiritual name and accepts disciple’s vows however shiksha guru doesn’t.
- Shiksha guru show more mercy by training the neophyte devotees in all aspects of practical sadhana bhakti however the diksha guru with his instructions helps a devotee for progressive advancement in Krishna consciousness.
Common characteristics of the guru-shishya relationship
Within the broad spectrum of the Hindu religion, the guru-shishya relationship can be found in numerous variant forms including tantra. Some common elements in this relationship include:
- The establishment of a teacher/student relationship.
- A formal recognition of this relationship, generally in a structured initiation ceremony where the guru accepts the initiate as a shishya and also accepts responsibility for the spiritual well-being and progress of the new shishya.
- Sometimes this initiation process will include the conveying of specific esoteric wisdom and/or meditation techniques.
- Gurudakshina, where the shishya gives a gift to the guru as a token of gratitude, often the only monetary or otherwise fee that the student ever gives. Such tokens can be as simple as a piece of fruit or as serious as a thumb, as in the case of Ekalavya and his guru Dronacharya.
Parampara and Sampradaya
Traditionally the word used for a succession of teachers and disciples in ancient Indian culture is parampara (paramparā in IAST). In the parampara system, knowledge (in any field) is believed to be passed down through successive generations. The Sanskrit word figuratively means "an uninterrupted series or succession". Sometimes defined as "the passing down of Vedic knowledge", it is believed to be always entrusted to the ācāryas. An established parampara is often called sampradāya, or school of thought. For example, in Vaishnavism a number of sampradayas are developed following a single teacher, or an acharya. While some argue for freedom of interpretation others maintain that "Although an ācārya speaks according to the time and circumstance in which he appears, he upholds the original conclusion, or siddhānta, of the Vedic literature."
Guru-shishya relationship types
There is a variation in the level of authority that may be granted to the guru. The highest is that found in bhakti yoga, and the lowest is in the pranayama forms of yoga such as the Sankara Saranam movement. Between these two there are many variations in degree and form of authority.[original research?]
seeking Advice from Guru
Appropriate subjects to seek advice from a guru:
- Questions related to world’s welfare:
"O sages, I have been justly questioned by you. Your questions are worthy because they relate to Lord Krishna and so are of relevance to the world's welfare. Only questions of this sort are capable of completely satisfying the self." (Srimad-Bhagavatam, 1.2.5).
- Real Problems of Life:
The Vedanta-sutra begins with the key inquiry about the Transcendence, athato brahma jijñasa: 'One should now inquire about Brahman, or the Transcendence.' - As long as a man is in the full vigor of life, he forgets the naked truth of death, which he has to meet. Thus a foolish man makes no relevant inquiry about the real problems of life. Everyone thinks that he will never die, although he sees evidence of death before his eyes at every second. Here is the distinction between animalism and humanity." (Science of Self Realization).
- Transcendental Science:
A sincere devotee should enquire about the transcendental matter which is above the material knowledge. (Nectar of Instruction, Verse 5)
- Questions related to lord Krishna.
In Bhagavad-gita (15.15) the Personality of Godhead says that in all the Vedas there is nothing but the urge for searching after Him, Lord Krishna. Thus the questions that pertain to Krishna are the sum and substance of all the Vedic inquiries – ( Srimad Bhagvatam purport 1.2.5)
Inappropriate subjects to seek advice from a guru:
- Inquiring matters irrelevant to eternal existence:
"A man who is not intelligent enough does not inquire about this transcendental life; instead, he inquires about many irrelevant matters which do not concern his eternal existence. From the very beginning of his life, he inquiries from his mother, father, teachers, professors, books, and so many other sources, but he does not have the right type of information about his real life." (Science of Self Realization).
- Asking advice from guru for one’s business prosperity.
- Asking Guru about one’s financial problems or any material problem.
As per shastra There are two ways by which a devotee can render service to his Guru
1) Vapu Seva and 2) Vani Seva
- Guru Vapu Seva: Is serving the physical body of the Guru by various ways as listed below.
By Paying obeisance,Giving Donation ,• Giving personal gifts – shoes, shawl, sleeper, ,bead back, handkerchief, etc
Washing and ironing clothes, Cooking food, Helping in bathing, dressing, sleeping eating etc, provision for stay – for preaching events, Transportation - driving to and fro.Carrying personal belongings.
- Guru Vani Seva: is following the instructions/words of spiritual master: as listed below.
Listening to his lecture, audio visuals for preaching, Distribution of quotes, Transcribing lectures, Follow the instruction – personal and given in lectures, Book distribution, Preaching, Observing vaishnav etiquette.
Guru vani seva is more important that guru vapu though both should be worshipped and none should be neglected. However, to carry out the teachings is more important than worshipping the form:
- Vani continues to exist eternally so one should take advantage of vani than that of Vapuh for e.g Bhagvat Gita is vani of lord Krishna which was spoken 5000 years ago and no longer physically present now in material perspective however the Bhagvat Gita continues to exist.
- Personal association of spiritual master may make one puffed up so, personal association is not as important as one can have association through service.
- A disciple shall be able to serve the spiritual master and in his mission of spreading Krishna consciousness as per the gurus desire.
- It’s safe to serve the vani as service to guru vapuh is like a fire and one cannot behave with a Guru ordinarily and frivolously.
- It will be more pleasing to guru if a disciple follows the instructions sincerely and by their service try to help in Guru's mission.
- By serving the vani one can have constant association of their Spiritual master.
- Śrotriya — must be learned in the Vedic scriptures and sampradaya
- Brahmanişţha — figuratively meaning "established in Brahman"; must have realised the oneness of Brahman in everything and in himself.[original research?]
The seeker must serve the guru and submit his questions with all humility so that doubt may be removed. (see Bhagavad Gita 4.34). According to Advaita, the seeker will be able to attain liberation from the cycle of births and deaths (moksha).
The guru-shishya tradition plays an important part in the Shruti tradition of Vaidika dharma. The Hindus believe that the Vedas have been handed down through the ages from guru to shishya. The Vedas themselves prescribe for a young brahmachari to be sent to a Gurukul where the Guru (referred to also as acharya) teaches the pupil the Vedas and Vedangas. The pupil is also taught the prayoga to perform yajnas. The term of stay varies (Manu Smriti says the term may be 12 years, 36 years or 48 years). After the stay at the Gurukul the brahmachari returns home after performing a ceremony called samavartana.
The word Śrauta is derived from the word Śruti meaning that which is heard. The Śrauta tradition is a purely oral handing down of the Vedas, but many modern Vedic scholars make use of books as a teaching tool.
The guru passes his knowledge to his disciples by virtue of the fact that his purified consciousness enters into the selves of his disciples and communicates its particular characteristic. In this process the disciple is made part of the spiritual family (kula) - a family which is not based on blood relations but on people of the same knowledge.
The best known form of the guru-shishya relationship is that of bhakti. (Sanskrit = Devotion) means surrender to God or guru. Bhakti extends from the simplest expression of devotion to the ego-destroying principle of prapatti, which is total surrender. Bhakti Yoga is clearly explained in Bhagvat Gita Chapter - This stage of highest perfection in yoga can be attained only by bhakti-yoga, as is confirmed in all Vedic literature: yasya deve parā bhaktir yathā deve tathā gurau. tasyaite kathitā hy arthāḥ prakāśante mahātmanaḥ.
The bhakti form of the guru-shishya relationship generally incorporates three primary beliefs or practices:
- Devotion to the guru as a divine figure or Avatar.
- The belief that such a guru has transmitted, or will impart moksha, diksha or shaktipat to the (successful) shishya.
- The belief that if the shishya’s act of focusing his or her devotion (bhakti) upon the guru is sufficiently strong and worthy, then some form of spiritual merit will be gained by the shishya.[original research?]
In the ego-destroying principle of prapatti (Sanskrit, "Throwing oneself down"), the level of the submission of the will of the shishya to the will of God or the guru is sometimes extreme, and is often coupled with an attitude of personal helplessness, self-effacement and resignation. This doctrine is perhaps best expressed in the teachings of the four Samayacharya saints, who shared a profound and mystical love of Siva expressed by:
- Deep humility and self-effacement, admission of sin and weakness;
- Total surrender to God as the only true refuge; and
- A relationship of lover and beloved known as bridal mysticism, in which the devotee is the bride and Siva the bridegroom.
In its most extreme form it sometimes includes:
- The assignment of all or many of the material possessions of the shishya to the guru.
- The strict and unconditional adherence by the shishya to all of the commands of the guru. An example is the legend that Karna silently bore the pain of a wasp stinging his thigh so as not to disturb his guru Parashurama.
- A system of various titles of implied superiority or deification which the guru assumes, and often requires the shishya to use whenever addressing the guru.
- The requirement that the shishya engage in various forms of physical demonstrations of affection towards the guru, such as bowing, kissing the hands or feet of the guru, and sometimes agreeing to various physical punishments as may sometimes be ordered by the guru.
- Sometimes the authority of the guru will extend to all aspects of the shishya's life, including sexuality, livelihood, social life, etc.
Often a guru will assert that he or she is capable of leading a shishya directly to the highest possible state of spirituality or consciousness, sometimes referred to within Hinduism as moksha. In the bhakti guru-shishya relationship the guru is often believed to have supernatural powers, leading to the deification of the guru.
In the Pali Buddhist tradition, the Bhikkus are also known as Sekhas (SN XLVIII.53 Sekha Sutta). In the Theravada Buddhist tradition, the teacher is a valued and honoured mentor worthy of great respect and a source of inspiration on the path to Enlightenment. In the Tibetan tradition, however, the teacher is viewed as the very root of spiritual realization and the basis of the entire path. Without the teacher, it is asserted, there can be no experience or insight. The guru is seen as Buddha. In Tibetan texts, emphasis is placed upon praising the virtues of the guru. Tantric teachings include generating visualisations of the guru and making offerings praising the guru. The guru becomes known as the vajra (figuratively "diamond") guru, the one who is the source of initiation into the tantric deity. The disciple is asked to enter into a series of vows and commitments that ensure the maintenance of the spiritual link with the understanding that to break this link is a serious downfall.
In Vajrayana (tantric Buddhism) as the guru is perceived as the way itself. The guru is not an individual who initiates a person, but the person's own Buddha-nature reflected in the personality of the guru. In return, the disciple is expected to show great devotion to his or her guru, who he or she regards as one who possesses the qualities of a Bodhisattva. A guru is regarded as one which has not only mastered the words of the tradition, but one that with which the student has an intense personal relationship; thus, devotion is seen as the proper attitude toward the guru.
The Dalai Lama, speaking of the importance of the guru, said: "Rely on the teachings to evaluate a guru: Do not have blind faith, but also no blind criticism." He also observed that the term 'living Buddha' is a translation of the Chinese words huo fuo.
Rob Preece, in The Wisdom of Imperfection, writes that while the teacher/disciple relationship can be an invaluable and fruitful experience, the process of relating to spiritual teachers also has its hazards.
As other authors had done before him, Preece mentions the notion of transference to explain the manner in which the guru/disciple relationship develops from a more Western psychological perspective. He writes:
In its simplest sense transference occurs when unconsciously a person endows another with an attribute that actually is projected from within themselves.
Preece writes that when we transfer an inner quality onto another person we may be giving that person a power over us as a consequence of the projection, carrying the potential for great insight and inspiration, but also the potential for great danger.
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