Guru Angad

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Guru Angad Dev Ji
Guru Angad image from 1770
Fresco of the second Sikh Guru at Goindval
Religion Sikhism
Known for Standardising the Gurmukhi Script
Other names The True King (Sache Patshah)
Personal
Born Bhai Lehna
March 31, 1504 (1504-03-31)
Matte Di Sarai, Muktsar, Panjab, Mughal Empire (Present day India)
Died March 29, 1552 (1552-03-30) (aged 47)
Khadur Sahib, Mughal Empire (Present day India)
Spouse Mata Khivi
Children Baba Dasu, Baba Dattu, Bibi Amro, and Bibi Anokhi
Parents Mata Ramo and Baba Pheru Mal
Religious career
Predecessor Guru Nanak
Successor Guru Amar Das

Guru Angad (31 March 1504 – 29 March 1552[1]) was the second of the ten Sikh gurus. He was born with the birth name Lehna, in the village of Harike (now Sarae Naga, near Muktsar) in northwest Indian subcontinent.[2][3] Bhai Lehna's father was a small scale trader, he himself used to work as a pujari (priest) and religious teacher centered around Hindu goddess Durga.[3][4] After he met Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, he renounced his own faith and instead became a Sikh. He served and worked with Guru Nanak for many years. Having subjected Lehna's discipleship to various tests over the years, Guru Nanak gave Bhai Lehna the name Angad ("My own limb") [5], and in 1539 designated him as Guru Angad, the second guru of the Sikhs, instead of choosing one of his own sons.[3][4][6]

Guru Angad continued the work started by the first Sikh Guru. He also adopted and formalized the Gurmukhi alphabet from different pre-existing Indo-European scripts such as the Tankre of the Himalayan region[2][4] defining Gurmukhi to 35 letters.[7] He began the process of collecting the spiritual hymns of Nanak, and contributed 62 hymns of his own.[4] Guru Angad was also noted for starting a promient wresting Mall Akhara for the Sikhs. Alongside his wife, Mata Khivi, they popularised and expanded the institution of Guru ka Langar (the Guru's communal kitchen) that had been started by Guru Nanak.[8][9] Instead of his own son, he chose Amar Das as his successor and the third Guru of Sikhism.[10][11]

Biography[edit]

Before Gurgaddi (seat of the Guru)[edit]

Birth info[edit]

Guru Angad was born in the village of Sarae Naga in Muktsar District in Punjab on 31 March 1504. The name Lehna was given shortly after his birth as was the custom of his Hindu parents. Like all the Sikh Gurus, Lehna came from Khatri caste.[12] He was the son of a small but successful trader named Pheru Mal. His mother's name was Mata Ramo (also known as Mata Sabhirai, Mansa Devi and Daya Kaur). [1] Baba Narayan Das Trehan was the Guru's Grandfather, whose ancestral house was at Matte-di-Sarai near Muktsar.

Marriages and children[edit]

At age of 16 Guru Angad married a Khatri girl named Mata Khivi in January 1520 and had two sons (Dasu and Datu) and two daughters (Bibi Amro and Bibi Anokhi). The entire family of his father had left their ancestral village in fear of the invasion of Babar's armies.[13] After this the family settled at Khadur Sahib, a village by the River Beas near what is now Tarn Taran a small town about 25 km from the city of Amritsar.

Early life[edit]

Before becoming a Sikh and his renaming as Angad, Lehna used to be a Hindu religious teacher and priest who performed services focused on Devi worship.[3][4][1] Bhai Lehna in his late 20s sought out Guru Nanak, became his disciple, and displayed deep and loyal service to his Guru for about six to seven years in Kartarpur.[1]

Meeting Baba Nanak[edit]

When Bhai Lehna heard the recitation of a hymn of Guru Nanak from Bhai Jodha, his neighbour and a displiple of the Guru, his mind was captured by the shabad (recitation). He was on his annual pilgrimage to Jawalamukhi Temple and asked his group if they would mind going to see the Guru.[14] The party refused according to some accounts and Bhai Lehna not being one to give up his responsibilities as he was being the guide and leader of the group couldn't abandon them especially with thieves and looters along the way.[15] The poems and prayers (kirtan) of Guru Nanak still held onto his every thought. So one night without telling anyone he mounted his horse and proceeded to the village now known as Kartarpur (Literally God's city) to visit with Guru Nanak.

Upon receiving directions to find the Guru, Bhai Lehna found a number of people working on a field. Bhai Lehna did not yet recognize the Guru as he looked just like the ordinary field workers and asked Guru Nanak if he could take him to the Guru. Guru Nanak agreed and took the saddle strings of the horse while Bhai Lehna sat upon the horse comfortably, which would later become an item of discourse when the Bhai Lehna realized he was the guru with the Guru saying to give his mind as he gave the horse saddle to him.[16]

Selection as successor[edit]

Several accounts describe reasons why through humality and nimrata Bhai Lehna was chosen by Guru Nanak over his own sons as his successor. One of these incidents is about a jug which fell into mud, and Guru Nanak asked his sons to pick it up. Guru Nanak's sons would not pick it up because it was dirty or menial a task. Then he asked Bhai Lehna, who however picked it out of the mud, washed it clean, and presented it to Guru Nanak full of water.[17]

After having subjected Bhai Lehna's discipleship to several tests over the years, Guru Nanak touched him and renamed him Angad (from Ang, or part of the body) and named him as his successor and the second Nanak on 13 June 1539.[1][18]

After the death of Guru Nanak on 22 September 1539, Guru Angad left Kartarpur for the village of Khadur Sahib (near Goindwal Sahib). This move may have been suggested by Guru Nanak, seeing the possibility that the succession to gurgaddi (seat of Guru) by Guru Angad could be disputed by the two sons of Guru Nanak: Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das.[2] Guru Angad focused on the teachings of Nanak, and building the community through charitable works such as langar.[19]

Mall Akahara[edit]

The Guru, being a great patron of wrestling,[20] started a Mall Akhara (wresting arena) system where physicial excersises, martial arts, and wrestling was taught as well as health topics such as staying away from tobacco and other toxic substances.[21][22] He placed emphasis on keeping the body healthy and excersising daily.[23] He founded many such Mall Akharas in many villages including a few in Khandur.[24] Typically the wrestling was done after daily prayers and also included games and light wrestling.[25]

Conversations with the Siddhas[edit]

Like Guru Nanak many aesthetic shaivite yogi Siddhs had discussions with the Guru those Siddhas that Guru Nanak visited in the Himalaya mountains, and then at Atal Batale[26] and had his Sidh Gosht discourse with, came and visited Guru Angad at Khadur Sahib after hearing the passing of Guru Nanak. They had discourse with Guru and were pleased with him.[27] Another yogi by the name Daya Nath who pushed that purity can only be obtained by abandoning the world but, like Guru Nanak, Guru Angad convinced him that you can remain pure amidst unpurity amongst other discourse.[28] Prominent Yogi Hari Nath also visited the Guru.

Relationship with the Mughal Empire[edit]

The second Mughal Emperor of India Humayun visited Guru Angad at around 1540 after Humayun lost the Battle of Kannauj, and thereby the Mughal throne to Sher Shah Suri.[29] According to Sikh hagiographies, when Humayun arrived in Gurdwara Mal Akhara Sahib at Khadur Sahib Guru Angad was sitting and listening to hymns of the sangat. The failure to greet the Emperor immediately angered Humayun. Humayun lashed out but the Guru reminded him that the time when you needed to fight when you lost your throne you ran away and did not fight and now you want to attack a person engaged in prayer.[30] In the Sikh texts written more than a century after the event, Guru Angad is said to have blessed the emperor, and reassured him that someday he will regain the throne.[19]

Death and successor[edit]

Before his death, Guru Angad, following the example set by Guru Nanak, nominated Guru Amar Das as his successor (The Third Nanak), instead of choosing his own son. Before he converted to Sikhism, Amar Das had been a religious Hindu (Vaishnava), when one day he heard Bibi Amro, the daughter of Guru Angad singing a hymn by Guru Nanak. [31] Amar Das learnt from her about Guru Angad, and with her help met the second Guru of Sikhism in 1539. From then on, Amar Das renounced his Vaishnava practice and became a disciple of Guru Angad, who was much younger than himself [10]. [32]

Amar Das displayed relentless devotion and service to Guru Angad, including waking up in the early hours and fetching water for Guru Angad's bath, cleaning and cooking for the volunteers with the Guru, as well devoting much time to meditation and prayers in the morning and evening.[10] Guru Angad named Amar Das as his successor in 1552, instead of naming his surviving son Shri Chand.[11][31][33] Guru Angad died on 29 March 1552.[1]

Influence[edit]

Gurmukhi script[edit]

Gurmukhi script (partial)

Guru Angad is credited in the Sikh tradition with the Gurmukhi script, which is now the standard writing script for Punjabi language in India,[34] in contrast to Punjabi language in Pakistan where now an Arabic script called Nastaliq is the standard.[35] The original Sikh scriptures and most of the historic Sikh literature have been written in the Gurmukhi script.[34]

Guru Angad's script modified the pre-existing Indo-European scripts in northern parts of the Indian subcontinent.[36] The script may have already been developing before the time of Guru Angad, because there is evidence that at least one hymn was written in acrostic form by Guru Nanak, which state Cole and Sambhi gives proof that the alphabet already existed.[37]

Guru Angad started the tradition of Mall banara, where physical as well as spiritual exercises were held.[citation needed] He also wrote 62 or 63 Saloks (compositions), which together constitute about one percent of the Guru Granth Sahib, the primary scripture of Sikhism.[38]

Langar and community work[edit]

Guru Angad is notable for systematizing the institution of langar in all Sikh temple premises, where visitors from near and far, could get a free simple meal in a communal seating.[2][39] He also set rules and training method for volunteers (sevadars) who operated the kitchen, placing emphasis on treating it as a place of rest and refuge, being always polite and hospitable to all visitors.[2]

Guru Angad visited other places and centres established by Guru Nanak for the preaching of Sikhism. He established new centres and thus strengthened its base.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f McLeod, W.H. "Guru Angad". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Punjabi. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 35–37. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7. 
  3. ^ a b c d Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1. 
  4. ^ a b c d e William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 18–20. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4. 
  5. ^ Clarke, Peter B.; Beyer, Peter (2009). The World's Religions: Continuities and Transformations. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 565. ISBN 9781135210991. 
  6. ^ Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. United Kingdom: Routledge. xiii–xiv. ISBN 0-415-26604-1. 
  7. ^ Duggal, Kartar (1980). The Sikh Gurus: Their Lives and Teachings. India: Vikas. p. 69. ISBN 9780706909951. 
  8. ^ Jakobsh, Doris (2010). Sikhism and Women: History, Texts, and Experience. Oxford University Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780198060024. 
  9. ^ Johar, Surinder (1977). Handbook on Sikhism. Kamla Nagar: Vivek. p. 71. 
  10. ^ a b c Kushwant Singh. "Amar Das, Guru (1479–1574)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjab University Patiala. Retrieved 10 December 2016. 
  11. ^ a b William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4. 
  12. ^ Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. United Kingdom: Routledge. p. xv. ISBN 0-415-26604-1. 
  13. ^ Dhillon, Dalbir Singh (1988). Sikhism Origin and Development. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distribution. p. 83. 
  14. ^ Duggal, K. S. Sikh Gurus: Their Lives and Teachings. Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy of the U.S.A. p. 63. ISBN 9780893891060. 
  15. ^ Singh, H.S. (2005). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries) (Second Edition ed.). Hemkunt. p. 20. ISBN 8170103010. 
  16. ^ Gurutej, Khalsa (2014). Rajni. Trafford. 
  17. ^ Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1978). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 18. ISBN 0-7100-8842-6. 
  18. ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8. 
  19. ^ a b Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 41–44. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8. 
  20. ^ Green, Thomas (2010). Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation, Volume 2. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 286. ISBN 9781598842432. 
  21. ^ Sharma, Rajkumar (2014). Second Sikh Guru: Shri Guru Angad Sahib Ji. Lulu Press. ISBN 9781312189553. 
  22. ^ Chowdhry, Mohindra (2018). Defence of Europe by Sikh Soldiers in the World Wars. Leicestershire: Troubador Publishing Ltd. p. 48. ISBN 9781789010985. 
  23. ^ Chowdhry, Mohindra (2018). Defence of Europe by Sikh Soldiers in the World Wars. Leicestershire: Troubador Publishing Ltd. p. 48. ISBN 9781789010985. 
  24. ^ Dogra, R. C.; Mansukhani, Gobind (1995). Encyclopaedia of Sikh Religion and Culture. Vikas Publishing House. p. 18. ISBN 9780706983685. 
  25. ^ "Physical Fitness: Sangati Mal Akhara". The Sikh Review. 52 (1-6; Issues 601-606): 94. 2004.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  26. ^ Duggal, K. S. Sikh Gurus: Their Lives and Teachings. Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy of the U.S.A. p. 64. ISBN 9780893891060. 
  27. ^ Sikka, A.S. (2003). Complete Poetical Works Of Ajit Singh Sikka. Atlantic Publishers and Distribution. p. 951. 
  28. ^ Pruthi, Raj (2004). Sikhism and Indian Civilization. Discovery Publishing House. p. 59. ISBN 9788171418794. 
  29. ^ Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (First ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 9780191004124. 
  30. ^ Singh, Gurpreet (2001). Ten Masters. New Delhi: Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. p. 53. ISBN 9788171829460. 
  31. ^ a b Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1. 
  32. ^ Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7. 
  33. ^ H. S. Singha (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt Press. pp. 14–17, 52–56. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1. 
  34. ^ a b Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. United Kingdom: Routledge. pp. xvii–xviii. ISBN 0-415-26604-1. 
  35. ^ Peter T. Daniels; William Bright (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 395. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7. 
  36. ^ Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7. 
  37. ^ Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1978). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 19. ISBN 0-7100-8842-6. 
  38. ^ Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. United Kingdom: Routledge. p. xviii. ISBN 0-415-26604-1. 
  39. ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, SIKH HISTORY (in English) in 10 volumes, especially volume 1 (published by Singh Brothers Amritsar, 2009–2011).
  • Sikh Gurus, Their Lives and Teachings, K.S. Duggal

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Guru Nanak
Sikh Guru
7 September 1539 – 26 March 1552
Succeeded by
Guru Amar Das