Guru Arjan

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Guru Arjan
ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜਨ
Carved portrait of Guru Arjan at Amritsar.jpg
Portrait Carved on Gold
Gurdwara Lachi Ber, Amritsar
Religion Sikhism
Known for
Other names The Fifth Master
Personal
Born 15 April 1563 (1563-04-15)
Goindval, Tarn Taran district, Mughal Empire (Present day India)
Died 30 May 1606(1606-05-30) (aged 43)[1]
Lahore, Mughal Empire (Present day Pakistan)
Spouse Mata Ganga
Children Guru Hargobind
Parents Guru Ram Das and Bibi Bhani
Religious career
Predecessor Guru Ram Das
Successor Guru Hargobind

Guru Arjan ([ɡʊru əɾdʒən]; 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606)[1] was the first martyr of the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten Sikh Gurus, who compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib. He was born in Goindval, Punjab the youngest son of Guru Ram Das and Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das.[2] He was the first Guru in Sikhism who was born in a Sikh family.[3]

Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century. He completed the construction of Harimandir Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool.[4][5][6] Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, and installed it in the Harimandir Sahib.[4]

Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization (dasvand). The Masand not only collected these funds but also taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region. The dasvand financed the building of gurdwaras and langars (shared communal kitchens).[7]

Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam.[8][9] He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE.[8][10] Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture.[8][11] His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism.[8][12] It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan every year on 16 June, according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003.[13]

Biography[edit]

Arjan was the son of Guru Ram Das, the fourth Guru in Sikhism.

Succession[edit]

Arjan had two elder brothers, Prithi Chand and Mahadev. Guru Ram Das chose Arjan, the youngest, to succeed him as the fifth Sikh Guru. Mahadev, the middle brother chose the life of an ascetic.[14] His choice of Arjan as successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs.[4][15]

The stories in the Sikh tradition about the succession dispute around Guru Arjan are inconsistent.[14] In one version, Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Guru Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community.[16] The Sikhs following Guru Arjan called the Prithi Chand faction as Minas (literally, "scoundrels"), who are alleged to have attempted to assassinate young Hargobind,[17][18] and befriended Mughal agents.[14] However, the second version, found in alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led Sikh faction contradict this version. They offer a different explanation for the attempt on Hargobind's life, and present the elder son of Guru Ram Das as devoted to his younger brother Guru Arjan. The competing texts do acknowledge disagreement, Prithi Chand leaving Amritsar, and describe him as having become the Sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan and disputing the succession of Guru Hargobind, the grandson of Guru Ram Das.[19]

The mainstream Sikh tradition recognised Guru Arjan as the fifth Guru, and Hargobind as the sixth Guru.[12][16][20] Arjan, at age 18, became the fifth Guru in 1581 inheriting the title from his father, and after his execution by the Mughal officials, his son Hargobind became the sixth Guru in 1606 CE.[12]

Martyrdom[edit]

Guru Arjan's martyrdom in Mughal custody has been a controversial issue in Sikh history, and has been variously interpreted.[21][22]

Most Mughal historians considered Guru Arjan's execution as a political event, stating that the Sikhs had become as a formidable social group, and Sikh Gurus became actively involved in Punjabi political conflicts.[8][22][note 1] A similar theory floated in early 20th-century, asserts that this was just a politically-motivated single execution.[23] According to this theory, there was an ongoing Mughal dynasty dispute between Jahangir and his son Khusrau suspected of rebellion by Jahangir, wherein Guru Arjan blessed Khusrau and thus the losing side. Jahangir was jealous and outraged, and therefore he ordered the Guru's execution.[24][25][4]

The competing view is that of the Sikh tradition which states that the Guru's execution was part of the ongoing persecution of the Sikhs by authorities in the Islamic Empire,[26] and that the Mughal rulers of Punjab were alarmed at the growth of the Panth.[9][22][27] According to Jahangir's autobiography Tuzk-e-Jahangiri (Jahangirnama), too many people were becoming persuaded by Guru Arjan's teachings and if Guru Arjan did not become a Muslim, the Sikh Panth had to be extinguished.[22][note 1]

In 1606 CE, the Guru was imprisoned in Lahore Fort, where by some accounts he was tortured and executed,[9][28] and by other accounts the method of his death remains unresolved.[22] Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi cheered the punishment and execution of Guru Arjun, calling the Sikh Guru an infidel.[29][note 2]

According to the Sikh tradition, before his execution, Guru Arjan instructed his son and successor Hargobind to take up arms, and resist tyranny.[32] His execution led the Sikh Panth to become armed and pursue resistance to persecution under the Islamic rule.[9][33]

Some scholars state that the evidence is unclear whether his death was due to execution, torture or forced drowning in the Ravi river.[25][34][35] J.S. Grewal notes that Sikh sources from the seventeenth and eighteenth century contain contradictory reports of Guru Arjan's death.[36] J. F. Richard states that Jahangir was persistently hostile to popularly venerated non-Islamic religious figures, not just Sikhism.[37] Bhai Gurdas was a contemporary of Guru Arjan and is a noted 17th-century Sikh chronicler.[38] His eyewitness account recorded Guru Arjan life, and the order by Emperor Jahangir to torture the Guru to death.[39]

A contemporary Jesuit account, written by Spanish Jesuit missionary Jerome Xavier (1549–1617), who was in Lahore at the time, records that the Sikhs tried to get Jahangir to substitute the torture and death sentence to a heavy fine, but this attempt failed.[40] Dabistan-i Mazahib Mobad states Jahangir tortured Guru Arjan in the hopes of extracting the money and public repudiation of his spiritual convictions, but the Guru refused and was executed.[41] Jerome Xavier, in appreciation of the courage of Guru Arjun, wrote back to Lisbon, that Guru Arjan suffered and was tormented.[42]

Michael Barnes states that the resolve and death of Guru Arjun strengthened the conviction among Sikhs that, "personal piety must have a core of moral strength. A virtuous soul must be a courageous soul. Willingness to suffer trial for one's convictions was a religious imperative".[42]

Historical revisionism, reconstruction and disputes[edit]

There are several stories and versions about how, where and why Guru Arjan died.[43][44][45] Recent scholarship[46][47] has questioned many of these, calling them as fictional interpretation, reflecting an agenda, or "exaggerating fragmentary traces of documentary evidence in historical analysis". The alternate versions include stories about the role of Guru Arjan in a conflict between the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and his son who Jahangir suspected of trying to organize a patricidal coup, or alternatively a Hindu minister of Jahangir named Chandu Shah, who in one version takes revenge on Guru Arjan for not marrying his son Hargobind to Chandu Shah's daughter, and in another Lahore version where Chandu Shah actually prevents Guru Arjan from suffering torture and death by Muslims by paying 200,000 rupees (100,000 crusados) to Jahangir, but then keeps him and emotionally torments him to death in his house.[48] All these versions and meta-narratives became popular in 19th century British colonial literature, such as those of Max Arthur Macauliffe.[49] Several alternative versions of the story try to absolve Jahangir and the Mughal empire of any responsibility,[44][50] but have no trace or support in the documentary evidence from early 17th century, such as the records of Jesuit priest Jerome Xavier and the memoirs of Jahangir.[8][10][51]

Influence[edit]

Guru Arjan being pronounced as fifth Guru.

Amritsar[edit]

Guru Arjan's father Guru Ram Das founded the town named after him "Ramdaspur", around a large man-made water pool called "Ramdas Sarovar". Guru Arjan continued the infrastructure building effort of his father. The town expanded during the time of Guru Arjan, financed by donations and constructed by voluntary work. The pool area grew into a temple complex with the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib near the pool. Guru Arjan installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604.[4] The city that emerged is now known as Amritsar, and is the holiest pilgrimage site in Sikhism.[4][52]

Continuing the efforts of Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan established Amritsar as a primary Sikh pilgrimage destination. He wrote a voluminous amount of Sikh scripture including the popular Sukhmani Sahib. Guru Arjan is credited with completing many other infrastructure projects, such as water reservoirs called Santokhsar (lake of peace) and Gangsar (lake of Ganga), founding the towns of Tarn Taran, Kartarpur and Hargobindpur.[53][54]

Adi Granth[edit]

One of the Sikh community disputes following Guru Ram Das was the emergence of new hymns claiming to have been composed by Nanak. According to faction led by Guru Arjan, these hymns were distorted and fake, with some blaming Prithi Chand and his Sikh faction for having composed and circulated them.[14][55] The concern and the possibility of wrong propaganda, immoral teachings and inauthentic Gurbani led Guru Arjan to initiate a major effort to collect, study, approve and compile a written official scripture, and this he called Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture by 1604.[17][19]

The composition of both Prithi Chand and his followers have been preserved in the Mina texts of Sikhism, while the mainstream and larger Sikh tradition adopted the Guru Granth Sahib scripture that ultimately emerged from the initiative of Guru Arjan.[19][56]

Guru Arjan was a prolific poet and composed 2,218 hymns, or more than a third and the largest collection of hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib. According to Christopher Shackle and Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair, Guru Arjan's compositions combined spiritual message in an "encyclopedic linguistic sophistication" with "Braj Bhasha forms and learned Sanskrit vocabulary".[57]

After its completion and installation in the Harimandir Sahib, Emperor Akbar was informed of the development with the allegation that it contained teachings hostile to Islam. He ordered a copy be brought to him. Guru Arjan sent him a copy on a thali (plate), with the following message that was later added to the expanded text:

In this thali (dish) you will find three things – truth, peace and contemplation:
in this too the nectar Name which is the support of all humanity.

— AG 1429, Translated by William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi[58]

Spelling[edit]

Some scholars spell Guru Arjan's name as Guru Arjun.[42][59]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The following is from Jahangir's memoirs:
    There was a Hindu named Arjan in Gobindwal on the banks of the Beas River. Pretending to be a spiritual guide, he had won over as devotees many simple-minded Indians and even some ignorant, stupid Muslims by broadcasting his claims to be a saint. They called him guru. Many fools from all around had recourse to him and believed in him implicitly. For three or four generations they had been peddling this same stuff. For a long time I had been thinking that either this false trade should be eliminated or that he should be brought into the embrace of Islam. At length, when Khusraw passed by there, this inconsequential little fellow wished to pay homage to Khusraw. When Khusraw stopped at his residence, [Arjan] came out and had an interview with [Khusraw]. Giving him some elementary spiritual precepts picked up here and there, he made a mark with saffron on his forehead, which is called qashqa in the idiom of the Hindus and which they consider lucky. When this was reported to me, I realized how perfectly false he was and ordered him brought to me. I awarded his houses and dwellings and those of his children to Murtaza Khan, and I ordered his possessions and goods confiscated and him executed. – Emperor Jahangir's Memoirs, Jahangirnama 27b-28a, (Translator: Wheeler M. Thackston)[10]
  2. ^ This is from records of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, composed after the punishment and execution of Guru Arjun:
    These days the accursed infidel of Gobindwal was very fortunately killed. It is a cause of great defeat for the reprobate Hindus. With whatever intention and purpose they are killed – the humiliation of infidels is for Muslims, life itself. Before this Kafir (Infidel) was killed, I had seen in a dream that the Emperor of the day had destroyed the crown of the head of Shirk or infidelity. It is true that this infidel [Guru Arjun] was the chief of the infidels and a leader of the Kafirs. The object of levying Jizya (tax on non-Muslims) on them is to humiliate and insult the Kafirs, and Jihad against them and hostility towards them are the necessities of the Mohammedan faith. – Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Letter to Murtaza Khan, On the execution of Guru Arjan[8][30][31]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Arjan, Sikh Guru". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 May 2015. 
  2. ^ Mcleod, Hew (1997). Sikhism. London: Penguin Books. p. 28. ISBN 0-14-025260-6. 
  3. ^ William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4. , Quote: "He was the first Guru to have been born a Sikh".
  4. ^ a b c d e f Christopher Shackle; Arvind Mandair (2013). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. Routledge. pp. xv–xvi. ISBN 978-1-136-45101-0. 
  5. ^ Pardeep Singh Arshi (1989). The Golden Temple: history, art, and architecture. Harman. pp. 5–7. ISBN 978-81-85151-25-0. 
  6. ^ Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1. 
  7. ^ DS Dhillon (1988), Sikhism Origin and Development Atlantic Publishers, pp. 213-215, 204-207
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Philosophical Society, 12(1), pages 29-62
  9. ^ a b c d Kulathungam, Lyman (2012). Quest : Christ amidst the quest. Wipf. pp. 175–177. ISBN 978-1-61097-515-5. 
  10. ^ a b c Jahangir, Emperor of Hindustan (1999). The Jahangirnama: Memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Translated by Thackston, Wheeler M. Oxford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-19-512718-8. 
  11. ^ Louis E. Fenech, Martyrdom in the Sikh Tradition, Oxford University Press, pp. 118-121
  12. ^ a b c WH McLeod (1989). The Sikhs: History, Religion, and Society. Columbia University Press. pp. 26–51. ISBN 978-0231068154. 
  13. ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 6, 122–123. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0. 
  14. ^ a b c d Hardip Singh Syan (2013). Sikh Militancy in the Seventeenth Century: Religious Violence in Mughal and Early Modern India. I.B.Tauris. pp. 50–52. ISBN 978-1-78076-250-0. 
  15. ^ J. S. Grewal (1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. pp. 54–55, 62–63. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0. 
  16. ^ a b Prītama Siṅgha (1992). Bhai Gurdas. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-8172012182. 
  17. ^ a b Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1. 
  18. ^ W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6. 
  19. ^ a b c Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 171–172. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8. 
  20. ^ DS Dhillon (1988), Sikhism Origin and Development Atlantic Publishers, pp. 99-110
  21. ^ Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Philosophical Society, 12(1), page 29, Quote: "The most controversial issue in Sikh history is related to Guru Arjan’s execution in Mughal custody. A number of interpretations of this event have emerged in scholarly and quasi-scholarly writings."
  22. ^ a b c d e W.H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. p. 20 (Arjan's Death). ISBN 9780810863446. The Mughal rulers of the Punjab were evidently concerned with the growth of the Panth, and in 1605 the Emperor Jahangir made an entry in his memoirs, the Tuzuk-i-Jahāṅgīrī, concerning Guru Arjan's support for his rebellious son Khusro. Too many people, he wrote, were being persuaded by his teachings, and if the Guru would not become a Muslim the Panth had to be extinguished. Jahangir believed that Guru Arjan was a Hindu who pretended to be a saint, and that he had been thinking of forcing Guru Arjan to convert to Islam or his false trade should be eliminated, for a long time. Mughal authorities seem plainly to have been responsible for Arjan's death in custody in Lahore, and this may be accepted as an established fact. Whether death was by execution, the result of torture, or drowning in the Ravi River remains unresolved. For Sikhs, Arjan is the first martyr Guru. 
  23. ^ Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Philosophical Society, 12(1), page 29, Quote: Similarly, in the early decades of twentieth century Beni Prasad treated this whole affair as “a single execution due primarily to political reasons.”
  24. ^ Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Philosophical Society, 12(1), pages 32-33
  25. ^ a b Gandhi, R. Punjab:A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten. Aleph Book Company. p. 34. ISBN 9789383064410. Quote: Jahangir, Akbar's son and successor, had ordered the execution. We know from Jahangir's own handwriting that he was jealous of Guru Arjan Dev's popularity and that a gesture from the Guru towards Khusrau, a son rebelling against Jahangir, had outraged him. 
  26. ^ Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Philosophical Society, 12(1), page 29, Quote: "In contrast to this viewpoint, however, most of the Sikh scholars have vehemently presented this event as the first of the long series of religious persecutions that Sikhs suffered at the hands of Mughal authorities."
  27. ^ J. S. Grewal (1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0. 
  28. ^ Pashaura Singh (2006). Life and Work of Guru Arjan: History, Memory, and Biography in the Sikh Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 23, 217–218. ISBN 978-0-19-567921-2. 
  29. ^ Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Philosophical Society, 12(1), page 34
  30. ^ Sirhindi, Maktubat-i Imam-i Rabbani, I-iii, letter No. 193, pp. 95-6
  31. ^ Friedman Yohanan (1966), Shaikh Ahmad Sirhandi: An Outline of His Image in the Eyes of Posterity, Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, pp. 110-112
  32. ^ W.H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 9780810863446. 
  33. ^ Pashaura Singh, Louis Fenech (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–237. ISBN 9780199699308. 
  34. ^ W.H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780810863446. 
  35. ^ A.S. Bhalla (2008). In Search of Roots: Guru Amar Das and Bhallas. Rupa & Co. p. 20. ISBN 9788129113337. 
  36. ^ J.S. Grewal, The Sikhs of the Punjab, in The New Cambridge History of India. 2, 3. Gen eds. Chris Bayly, Gordon Johnson, John F. Richards. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 63-64.
  37. ^ Richards, John F. The Mughal Empire, in The New Cambridge History of India. 1, 5. Gen eds. Chris Bayly, Gordon Johnson, John F. Richards. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 97.
  38. ^ Vir Singh, ed. Varam Bahi Gurdas Satki, 9th edition. New Delhi: Bhai Vir Singh Sahitya Sadan, 1997), p. 386.
  39. ^ Prītama Siṅgha (1992). Bhai Gurdas. pp. 25–32. ISBN 978-8172012182. 
  40. ^ Father Jerome to Father Gasper Fernandes, (BM add MS 9854, ff. 38-52), 1617, in Sicques, Tigers or Thieves: Eyewitness Accounts of the Sikhs (1606-1809). Eds. Amandeep Singh Madra and Parmjit Singh. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, p. 7.
  41. ^ Mobad', Dabistan-i Mazahib, 1645-46, in Sikh history from Persian sources. Eds. J.S. Grewal and Irfan Habib. Indian History Congress: Tulika, 2001. p. 67.
  42. ^ a b c Barnes, Michael (2012). Interreligious learning : dialogue, spirituality, and the Christian imagination. Cambridge University Press. pp. 245–246. ISBN 978-1-107-01284-4. In that way, their good Pope died, overwhelmed by the sufferings, torments and dishonours. – Jerome Xavier, Letter to Gasper Fernandes in Lisbon, On the execution of Guru Arjan 
  43. ^ Sajida S. Alvi (1987), “Religion and State during the Reign of Mughal Emperor Jahangir (1605-27): Nonjuristical Perspectives,” in Studia Islamica, pp. 113-114
  44. ^ a b Pashaura Singh (2006). Life and work of Guru Arjan: history, memory, and biography in the Sikh tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 211–219, 233. ISBN 978-0-19-567921-2. 
  45. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1999). Revenge and reconciliation. New Delhi New York, NY: Penguin Books. pp. 93–95. ISBN 978-0-14-029045-5. 
  46. ^ Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Philosophical Society, 12(1), pp. 38-39
  47. ^ Louis Fenech (2001), Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan in Early Sikh Sources, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 121(1), pp. 20-31
  48. ^ Kirpal Singh (2000), Perspectives on Sikh Gurus, National Book Shop, pp. 125-127
  49. ^ Max Arthur Macauliffe (1883), The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors, ISBN 978-8187526032, Volume 3
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  53. ^ Mahindara Siṅgha Joshī (1994). Guru Arjan Dev. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 6–8. ISBN 978-81-7201-769-9. 
  54. ^ Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-1-4411-5366-1. 
  55. ^ W.H. McLeod (1990). Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism. University of Chicago Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-226-56085-4. 
  56. ^ Hardip Singh Syan (2013). Sikh Militancy in the Seventeenth Century: Religious Violence in Mughal and Early Modern India. I.B.Tauris. pp. 52–54. ISBN 978-1-78076-250-0. 
  57. ^ Christopher Shackle; Arvind Mandair (2013). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. Routledge. pp. xviii–xix, xxii. ISBN 978-1-136-45101-0. 
  58. ^ William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4. 
  59. ^ Dehsen, Christian (1999). Philosophers and religious leaders. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-57958-182-4. 

Bibliography[edit]

  1. Jahangir, Emperor of Hindustan (1909). Beveridge, Henry, ed. The Tuzuk-i-Janhangīrī or Memoirs of Jahāngīr. Translated by Rogers, Alexander. London: Royal Asiatic Society. 
  2. History of the Panjab, Syad Muhammad Latif, Published by: Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. ISBN 978-81-7096-245-8
  3. Philosophy of 'Charhdi Kala' and Higher State of Mind in Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Dr. Harjinder Singh Majhail, 2010, Published by: Deepak Publishers, Jalandhar, Punjab, India. ISBN 81-88852-96-1
  4. SIKH HISTORY IN 10 VOLUMES, Dr Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, Published by: The Sikh University Press, Brussels, Belgium. ISBN 2- 930247-41-X

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Guru Ram Das
Sikh Guru
1 September 1581 – 25 May 1606
Succeeded by
Guru Har Gobind