Gurung language

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Gurung
Tamu Kyi
Native to Nepal
Ethnicity Gurung people
Native speakers
360,000 (2007)[1]
Tibetan script, Devanagari script
Official status
Official language in

Nepal

Sikkim
Language codes
ISO 639-3 gvr
Glottolog guru1261[2]
Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali, Gurung, Kiranti, Rai, Limbu, Nepal Bhasa, Pahari, Tamang

Gurung (also, Tamu Kyi, Devanagari:तमु क्यी) is spoken by the Gurung people in two dialects with limited mutual intelligibility. Total number of all Gurung speakers in Nepal is 227,918 (1991 census). However, a distinction should be made between Gurung as an ethnic group and the number of people who actually speak the language.

Nepali, Nepal's official language, is an Indo-European language, whereas Gurung is a Sino-Tibetan language. Gurung are recognized as an official nationality by the Government of Nepal.

Geographical distribution[edit]

Gurung is spoken in the following districts of Nepal (Ethnologue).

Grammar[edit]

Some miscellaneous grammatical features of the Gurung languages are;

Phonetically, Gurung languages are tonal.

Writing system[edit]

Gurung languages did not originally have a script and are therefore written in the Tibetan script which was adopted when the Gurung peoples embraced Vajrayana Buddhism, particularly of the Nyingma school. Supposedly, Devanāgarī script had also been used but only to a limited effect in approximating their phonetics.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gurung at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Gurung". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • J. Burton-Page. (1955). Two studies in Gurungkura: I. tone; II. Rhotacization and retroflexion. Bulletin of the Society of Oriental and African Studies 111-19.
  • Viktor S.Doherty. (1974). "The Organizing Principles of Gurung Kinship." Kailash. 2.4: 273-301.
  • Warren W. Glover. (1970). Gurung tone and higher levels. Occasional Papers of the Wolfenden society on Tibeto-Burman Linguistics III, Tone systems of Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal, Pt. I, ed. by Austin Hale and Kenneth L. Pike, 52-73. Studies in tone and phonological segments. Urbana: University of Illinois.
  • Warren W. Glover. (1974). Sememic and Grammatical Structures in Gurung (Nepal). Publication No. 49. Norman, OK: SIL Publications.
  • Warren W. Glover and Jessie Glover. (1972). A Guide to Gurung Tone. Kathmandu: Tribhuvan University and Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Warren W. Glover and John K. Landon. (1980). "Gurung Dialects." In Papers in Southeast Asian Languages No. 7, edited by R.L. Trail et al., 9-77. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Kristine A. Hildebrandt, D.N. Dhakal, Oliver Bond, Matt Vallejo and Andrea Fyffe. (2015). “A sociolinguistic survey of the languages of Manang, Nepal: Co-existence and endangerment.” NFDIN Journal, 14.6: 104-122.
  • Pettigrew, Judith. (1999). "Parallel Landscapes: Ritual and Political Values of a Shamanic Soul Journey" in Himalayan Space: Cultural Horizons and Practices, edited by Balthasar Bickel and Martin Gaenszle, 247-271. Zürich: Völkerkundsmuseum