|Tibetan script, Devanagari script|
Official language in
Gurung (also, Tamu Kyi, Devanagari:तमु क्यी) is spoken by the Gurung people in two dialects with limited mutual intelligibility. Total number of all Gurung speakers in Nepal is 227,918 (1991 census). However, a distinction should be made between Gurung as an ethnic group and the number of people who actually speak the language.
- Gandaki Zone: Kaski District, Syangja District, Lamjung District, Tanahu District, and Gorkha District, and possibly Manang District
- Dhawalagiri Zone: Parbat district
Some miscellaneous grammatical features of the Gurung languages are;
- adjectives relatives before noun heads;
- numerals after noun heads;
- rising intonation in bipolar questions;
- 1 prefix on negative verbs;
- maximum number of suffixes 3;
- case of noun phrase shown by preposition;
- no subject or object referencing in verbs;
- split ergative system according to tense;
- CV, CCV, CCCV;
Phonetically, Gurung languages are tonal.
Gurung languages did not originally have a script and are therefore written in the Tibetan script which was adopted when the Gurung peoples embraced Vajrayana Buddhism, particularly of the Nyingma school. Supposedly, Devanāgarī script had also been used but only to a limited effect in approximating their phonetics.
- Languages of Nepal
- Languages of Bhutan
- Manang Language Project of Kristine A. Hildebrandt
- Manang Language Archive at the University of Virginia Tibetan and Himalayan Library
- J. Burton-Page. (1955). Two studies in Gurungkura: I. tone; II. Rhotacization and retroflexion. Bulletin of the Society of Oriental and African Studies 111-19.
- Viktor S.Doherty. (1974). "The Organizing Principles of Gurung Kinship." Kailash. 2.4: 273-301.
- Warren W. Glover. (1970). Gurung tone and higher levels. Occasional Papers of the Wolfenden society on Tibeto-Burman Linguistics III, Tone systems of Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal, Pt. I, ed. by Austin Hale and Kenneth L. Pike, 52-73. Studies in tone and phonological segments. Urbana: University of Illinois.
- Warren W. Glover. (1974). Sememic and Grammatical Structures in Gurung (Nepal). Publication No. 49. Norman, OK: SIL Publications.
- Warren W. Glover and Jessie Glover. (1972). A Guide to Gurung Tone. Kathmandu: Tribhuvan University and Summer Institute of Linguistics.
- Warren W. Glover and John K. Landon. (1980). "Gurung Dialects." In Papers in Southeast Asian Languages No. 7, edited by R.L. Trail et al., 9-77. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
- Kristine A. Hildebrandt, D.N. Dhakal, Oliver Bond, Matt Vallejo and Andrea Fyffe. (2015). “A sociolinguistic survey of the languages of Manang, Nepal: Co-existence and endangerment.” NFDIN Journal, 14.6: 104-122.
- Pettigrew, Judith. (1999). "Parallel Landscapes: Ritual and Political Values of a Shamanic Soul Journey" in Himalayan Space: Cultural Horizons and Practices, edited by Balthasar Bickel and Martin Gaenszle, 247-271. Zürich: Völkerkundsmuseum
|Gurung language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|