Guruntum language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Guruntum
Guruntum-Mbaaru
gùrdùŋ
RegionNigeria
Native speakers
(15,000 cited 1993)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3grd
Glottologguru1271[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Guruntum is a Chadic language spoken in Bauchi and Alkaleri LGAs, Bauchi State, Nigeria. In 1993 it was spoken by about 15,000 people.

Classification[edit]

Guruntum is a West Chadic language of the Barawa (B.3) group.

Major dialects include Kuuku, Gayar, Mbaaru, Dooka, Gar and Karakara.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Guruntum contrasts long and short forms for all vowels except for /ɨ/. In addition, two nasalized vowel phonemes exist: /ũː/ /ãː/.

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i ɨ u uː ũː
Mid e o
Open a aː ãː

There are two diphthongs, /ai/ and /au/.

Consonants[edit]

Labial Alveolar Postalveolar
or palatal
Velar
Plain Palatalized Labialized Plain Palatalized Labialized
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop prenasalized ᵐb ⁿd ᶮdʒ ᵑɡ ᵑɡʲ ᵑɡʷ
voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ ɡʲ ɡʷ
implosive ɓ ɗ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ
voiced v z ʒ
Trill r
Approximant l j w

/r/ is realized as a flap intervocalically before back vowels; elsewhere it is a trill.

Tone[edit]

Guruntum has four tones: high, low, rising (low-high) and falling (high-low).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Guruntum at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Guruntum-Mbaaru". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  • Jaggar, Philip J. (1998). "Guruntum (gùrdùŋ) (West Chadic-B): Linguistics notes and wordlist". African Languages and Cultures. 1 (2): 169–189.