Gustav Bychowski

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Gustav Bychowski (born 1895 in Warsaw, Congress Poland, died April 3, 1972 in Fes, Morocco)[1] was an American psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and author. He studied for a medical degree at the University of Zurich and studied psychiatry at Burghölzli, the University of Zurich's psychiatric hospital. He then studied psychoanalysis under Sigmund Freud in Vienna before moving back to Warsaw in 1921 and translating Freud's Introduction to Psychoanalysis into Polish.

During his career, he wrote a large number of books on psychoanalysis including Evil in Man: The Anatomy of Hate and Violence and Dictators and Disciples from Caesar to Stalin. The latter looks specifically at Julius Caesar, Oliver Cromwell, Maximilien Robespierre, Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin.[2]

The psychoanalyst Frank M. Lachmann describes Bychowski as not being a traditional Freudian: "Here was a Freudian analyst who was clearly more interested in connecting with the patient and finding areas of strength than in demonstrating how clever he could be in eliciting psychopathology". Lachmann writes that Bychowski eventually adopted similar views to that of Heinz Kohut.[3]

Amongst his patients was noted American filmmaker James Toback.[4]

Selected bibliography[edit]

  • Specialized Techniques in Psychotherapy (ed. with J. Louise Despert), New York: Basic Books, 1952.


  1. ^ Martin Wangh. "Gustav Bychowski, M.D—1895-1972". The Psychoanalytic Quarterly. 41: 610–611. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  2. ^ Robert Gale Woolbert (July 1949). "Dictators and Disciples from Caesar to Stalin - Capsule Review". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  3. ^ Frank M. Lechmann (1 August 2004). "Beyond the Mainstreams". Psychoanalytic Inquiry. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  4. ^