Paul Gustave Doré
|Born||6 January 1832|
|Died||23 January 1883 (aged 51)|
|Known for||Painting, etching, illustrations|
Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré (UK: // DOR-ay, US: // dor-AY, French: [ɡystav dɔʁe]; 6 January 1832 – 23 January 1883) was a French artist, as a printmaker, illustrator, painter, comics artist, caricaturist, and sculptor. He is best known for his prolific output of wood-engravings, especially those illustrating classic books, including 241 illustrating the Bible. These achieved great international success, and he is the best-known artist in this printmaking technique, although his role was normally as the designer only; at the height of his career some 40 block-cutters were employed to cut his drawings onto the wooden printing blocks, usually also signing the image.
In all he created some 10,000 illustrations, the most important of which were "duplicated in electrotype shells that were printed ... on cylinder presses", allowing very large print runs as steel engravings, "hypnotizing the widest public ever captured by a major illustrator", and being published simultaneously in many countries. The drawings given to the block-cutters were often surprisingly sketch-like and free.
Although he lacked the usual training in an academy, his paintings were successful during his lifetime, but at least his early paintings of religious and mythological subjects, some extremely large, now tend to be regarded as "grandiloquent and of little merit". From the late 1860s onwards, he painted smaller landscapes and costumed genre scenes.
Doré was born in Strasbourg on 6 January 1832. By age 5 he was a prodigy artist, creating drawings that were mature beyond his years. Seven years later, he began carving in stone. At the age of 15, Doré began his career working as a caricaturist for the French paper Le journal pour rire. The illustrations of J. J. Grandville have been noted as an influence on his work. Wood-engraving was his primary method at this time. In the late 1840s and early 1850s, he made several text comics, like Les Travaux d'Hercule (1847), Trois artistes incompris et mécontents (1851), Les Dés-agréments d'un voyage d'agrément (1851) and L'Histoire de la Sainte Russie (1854). Doré subsequently went on to win commissions to depict scenes from books by Cervantes, Rabelais, Balzac, Milton, and Dante. He also illustrated "Gargantua et Pantagruel" in 1854.
In 1853 Doré was asked to illustrate the works of Lord Byron. This commission was followed by additional work for British publishers, including a new illustrated Bible. In 1856 he produced 12 folio-size illustrations of The Legend of The Wandering Jew, which propagated longstanding antisemitic views of the time, for a short poem which Pierre-Jean de Béranger had derived from a novel of Eugène Sue of 1845.
In the 1860s he illustrated a French edition of Cervantes's Don Quixote, and his depictions of the knight and his squire, Sancho Panza, became so famous that they influenced subsequent readers, artists, and stage and film directors' ideas of the physical "look" of the two characters. Doré also illustrated an oversized edition of Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven", an endeavor that earned him 30,000 francs from publisher Harper & Brothers in 1883.
Doré's illustrations for the Bible (1866) were a great success, and in 1867 Doré had a major exhibition of his work in London. This exhibition led to the foundation of the Doré Gallery in Bond Street, London. In 1869, Blanchard Jerrold, the son of Douglas William Jerrold, suggested that they work together to produce a comprehensive portrait of London. Jerrold had obtained the idea from The Microcosm of London produced by Rudolph Ackermann, William Pyne, and Thomas Rowlandson (published in three volumes from 1808 to 1810). Doré signed a five-year contract with the publishers Grant & Co that involved his staying in London for three months a year, and he received the vast sum of £10,000 a year for the project. Doré was celebrated for his paintings in his day, but his woodcuts and engravings, like those he did for Jerrold, are where he excelled as an artist with an individual vision.
The completed book London: A Pilgrimage, with 180 wood engravings, was published in 1872. It enjoyed commercial and popular success, but the work was disliked by some contemporary British critics, as it appeared to focus on the poverty that existed in parts of London. Doré was accused by The Art Journal of "inventing rather than copying". The Westminster Review claimed that "Doré gives us sketches in which the commonest, the vulgarest external features are set down". But they impressed Vincent van Gogh, who painted a version of the Prisoners' Round in 1890, the year of his death. The book was a financial success, however, and Doré received commissions from other British publishers.
Doré's later work included illustrations for new editions of Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Milton's Paradise Lost, Tennyson's Idylls of the King, The Works of Thomas Hood, and The Divine Comedy. Doré's work also appeared in the weekly newspaper The Illustrated London News.
Doré never married and, following the death of his father in 1849, he continued to live with his mother, illustrating books until his death in Paris on January 23, 1883, following a short illness. At the time of his death, he was working on illustrations for an edition of Shakespeare's plays.
Doré was a prolific artist; thus the following list of works is not complete and it does not include his paintings, sculptures, and many of his journal illustrations:
|Date||Author||Work||Volumes / Format||Illustrations||Publisher||Ref|
|1854||Gustave Doré||Histoire pittoresque dramatique et caricaturale de la Sainte Russie, d'après les chroniqueurs et historiens Nestor Nikan Sylvestre Karamsin Ségur etc.||1 vol.||500||Paris: de Bry|||
|1854||Rabelais||Oeuvres contenant la vie de Gargantua et celle de Pantagruel ...||1 vol. 4to.||Frontis. & 15||J.Bry Ainé, Paris|||
|1855||Honoré de Balzac||Les Contes Drôlatiques||425||Société Générale de la Libraire, and in Le Journal pour Tous|||
|1855||Jules Gérard||La Chasse au Lion||1 vol. 12mo.||11||Librairie Nouvelle|||
|1856||Fierabras d'Alexandrie, Légende Nationale traduite par Mary Lafon||1 vol in 8vo||123||Librairie Nouvelle|||
|1856||Victor Percival||Mémoires d'un Jeune Cadet, par Victor Percival||48|||
|1856||La Légende du Juif Errant||1 vol. grand in folio||12 Image:Wandering jew title page.jpg||Michel Lévy|||
|1857||Dante Alighieri||L'Enfer||75 |||
|1857 autumn||Ed. de La Bédollière||Nouveau Paris, Histoire de ses 20 Arrondissements||1 vol in 4to||150||Barba|||
|1857 autumn||Valéry Vernier||Aline, Journal d'un Jeune Homme||one large page||Dentu|||
|1860–1862||Thomas Mayne Reid||L'Habitation du Désert||1 vol. in 16mo||60||Hachette|||
|1860–1862||Ann S. Stevens||La Fille du Grand Chieftain||1 vol.||15|||
|1860–1862||M. V. Victor||Flêche d'Or||1 vol.||13|||
|1860–1862||E. S. Ellis||L'Ange des Frontières||1 vol.||10|||
|1860–1862||N. W. Buxted||Les Vierges de la Forêt||1 vol.||10|||
|1860||William Shakespeare||The Tempest||1 vol. in 4to||(London)|||
|1861||Les Figures du Temps||1 vol. in 12mo||(Paris)|||
|1861||Plouvier and Vincent||Les Chansons d'Autrefois||in 12mo||Coulon and Pineau, Paris|||
|1861||Edmond About||Le Roi des Montagnes||1 vol. in 8vo||157||Hachette and Co., Paris|||
|1862||Saintine||Les Mythologies du Rhin||1 vol. in 8vo||165||Hachette and Co., Paris|||
|1862||L'Abbé Léon Godard||L'Espagne, Mœurs et Paysages||2 vols in 8vo||4 Image:Moeurs et paysages title page.jpg||Alfred Mame et Fils, Tours Image:Moeurs et paysages title page.jpg or Paris|||
|1862||Malte-Brun||Les États Unis et le Mexique||1 vol. in 4to||Brun, Paris|||
|1862||Histoire aussi intéressante qu'invraisemblable de l'intrépide Capitaine Castagnette, neveu de l'Homme à la Tête de Bois||1 vol. in 4to||43||Hachette|||
|1862||Charles Perrault||Les Contes de Perrault||11|||
|1862||Aventures du Baron de Münchausen, traduction nouvelle par Théophile Gautier fils||1 vol.||(Paris, Charles Furne)|||
|1863||M. Épiné||Légende de Croquemitaine||1 vol. in 4to||177||Hachette|||
|1863||Gastineau||La Chasse au Lion et à la Panthère||1 vol. in 8vo||Hachette and Co.|||
|1863||Miguel de Cervantes||Don Quixote de la Mancha translation by Louis Viardot||2 vols. folio||370||Hachette and Co., Paris, and Cassell and Co., London|||
|1863||Charles Perrault||Les Contes de Perrault or in Spanish Los Cuentos de Perrault||100+||Hetzels. in Spanish by Ledouse|||
|1865||Gastineau||De Paris en Afrique||1 vol. in 12mo||(Paris)|||
|1865||A. Masse||L'Histoire d'un Minute||1 vol., 12mo||(Paris)|||
|1866||Victor Hugo||Travailleurs de la Mer||Sampson Low and Co., London|||
|1865||E. Edgar||Cressy and Poictiers||1 vol. in 8vo||50+||(London)|||
|1865||Thomas Moore||L'Épicurien (French translation)||in 8vo||(Paris)|||
|1865||Tom Hood||Fairy Realm||in folio||(London: Ward, Lock, and Tyler)|||
|1865||Quatrelles||Le Chevalier Beautemps||grand in 8vo||(Paris)|||
|1865||Chateaubriand||Atala||2 vols, grand folio||80||Hachette Edition|||
|1866||Théophile Gautier||Le Capitaine Fracasse||1 vol. grand in 8vo||60||Charpentier|||
|1866||G. La Bédollière||Histoire de la Guerre en Mexique||in 4to||(Paris)|||
|1866||Dante Alighieri||The Vision of Hell||London, Cassell, Petter, and Galpin|||
|1867||Dante Alighieri||Il Purgatorio ed il Paradiso||Hachette and Co.|||
|1866||X. B. Saintine||Le Chemin des Écoliers||1 vol. in 8vo||450 Image:Le chemin des ecoliers title page.jpg (not all by Doré)||Hachette and Co.|||
|1866||La Grande Bible de Tours, according to the Vulgate, new translation||2 vols. grand in folio||241||Mame, Tours; Cassell and Co., England|||
|1866||John Milton||Paradise Lost||50 Plates||Cassell and Co.|||
|1867||La Bédollière||La France et la Russie||(Paris)|||
|1867||Les Fables de Lafontaine||2 vols. in folio||8 large and 250 small plates||Hachette and Co.|||
|1867||Les Pays-bas et la Belgique||in 8vo||(Paris)|||
|1870||Thomas Hood||(Poems)||2 vols. in folio||9 Plates||Ward and Lock, London|||
|1873||Rabelais||New edition of Rabelais||2 vols. in folio||Paris : Garnier; London: Chatto and Windus|||
|1876||Louis Énault||London||1 vol. in 4to||174 wood-engravings||Hachette and Co.|||
|1874||Baron Ch. Davilliers||L'Espagne||in 4to||309 wood-engravings||Hachette and Co.; London: Sampson Low and Co.|||
|1875||Samuel Taylor Coleridge||The Rime of the Ancient Mariner||in folio||39 engraved plates and 3 vignettes||London: Doré Gallery|||
|1875||Michaud||Histoire des Croisades||2 vol. medium folio||100 grand compositions||Paris: Hachette and Co.|||
|Alfred Tennyson||Idylls of the King|||
|1877||Ariosto||Orlando Furioso||36 drawings||Hachette and Co. (London: Ward and Lock)|||
|1884||Edgar Allan Poe||The Raven||26 steel engravings||London: Sampson Low and Co., New York: Harper and Co.|||
|1890||Gustave Doré||The Doré Bible Gallery||Illustrated by Gustave Doré||Philadelphia|||
Reception and legacy
The Empyrean, Dante's The Divine Comedy
A Doré wood engraving illustration from The Divine Comedy
Drawing, A Backstreet in London, 1868, National Gallery of Art
Le Poème de la Vigne or The Vintage Vase, version in San Francisco
La Sainte Trinité, Glynn Vivian Art Gallery
Ecce Homo, Glynn Vivian Art Gallery
La folie, Glynn Vivian Art Gallery
Le Christ quittant le prétoire 1867–1872, Strasbourg Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art
Andromeda, 1869, Chimei Museum, Tainan, Taiwan
Loch Lomond, 1875
Landscape in Scotland, ca. 1875, Toledo Museum of Art
Landscape in Scotland, ca. 1878, Walters Art Museum
- Gustave Doré at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Mayor, Hyatt A., Prints and People, Metropolitan Museum of Art/Princeton, 1971, no. 677, ISBN 0691003262
- Osborne, Harold (ed), The Oxford Companion to Art, p. 325, 1970, OUP, ISBN 019866107X
- Lyons, Martin (2011). Books: A Living History. Los Angeles: Getty Publications. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-60606-083-4.
- Rose, Cynthia. 2020. J. J. Grandvill: A Matter of Line and Death. The Comics Journal. (accessed 19 July 2022)
- "Books: A Living History" by Martin Lyons
- Complete Works of Lord Byron illustrated by Ch. Mettais, Bocourt, G. Doré. Published by J. Bry, Paris, 1853. The version at archive.org is in French. The illustrations are not attributed to any one of the three named on the title-page. A handwritten note at page 5 remarks that another edition of 1856 made no mention of Doré among the illustrators, but his designs still appeared in the book.
- Richard S. Levy, Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution, Volume 1, Oxford 2005, p 186
- Zafran, Eric (2007). Rosenblum, Robert; Small, Lisa (eds.). "Fantasy and Faith: The Art of Gustave Dore". Yale University Press.
- "eBay". 22 January 2013. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013.
- "Willis's Price Current: A Catalogue of Superior Second Hand Books Ancient and Modern ... to which are Added a List of New Publications and Current Notes for the Month". Willis and Sotheran. 21 January 2018 – via Google Books.
- "Gustave Doré". lambiek.net.
- Quinn, Arthur Hobson. Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. p. 252. ISBN 0-8018-5730-9
- Kerr, David (2004). "Doré, (Louis Auguste) Gustave (1832–1883), illustrator". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/67162. Retrieved 2020-01-29. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- McQueen, A. "Gustave Doré," in Nineteenth-Century Art, Highlights from the Tanenbaum Collection, London: 2015, p. 54.
- "Introduction to The Microcosm of London (1808-10) – Romantic London". www.romanticlondon.org.
- Ackyroyd, Peter (2005). London: A Pilgrimage (introduction). Anthem Press. pp. xix.
- Chapman, J (1873). The Westminster Review, Vol 99. p. 341.
- Doré, Gustave (1890). The Doré Bible Gallery, Illustrated by Gustave Dore. Henry Altemus. Philadelphia. p. vii. OCLC 636024924.
- Lyons, Martin (2011). Books: A Living History. J. Paul Getty Museum. p. 135.
- indyworld.com Archived 2013-11-26 at the Wayback Machine Gustave Doré's «Holy Russia» by Bill Kartalopoulos. INDY Magazine, Summer 2004
- David Kunzle (1983). "Gustave Dore's History of Holy Russia: Anti-Russian Propaganda from the Crimean War to the Cold War". The Russian Review. Russian Review, Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jul., 1983), pp. 271-299. 42 (3): 271–299. doi:10.2307/129823. JSTOR 129823.
- Eleanor Garvey, A Catalogue of an Exhibition of the Philip Hofer Bequest, 1988.
- Roosevelt, Blanche: "Life and Reminiscences of Gustave Doré.", page 183. Cassell & Company, Limited, New York, 1885.
- Roosevelt, Blanche: "Life and Reminiscences of Gustave Doré.", page 179. Cassell & Company, Limited, New York, 1885.
- Roosevelt, Blanche: "Life and Reminiscences of Gustave Doré.", page 207. Cassell & Company, Limited, New York, 1885.
- Roosevelt, Blanche: "Life and Reminiscences of Gustave Doré", pages 215. Cassell & Company, Limited, New York, 1885. Roosevelt states that "In Doré's catalogue 'L'Inferno' figures amongst the works of 1857, and I shall therefore speak of it as belonging to that year's collection, although it was not brought out until 1860."
- Roosevelt, Blanche: "Life and Reminiscences of Gustave Doré", pages 212-227. Cassell & Company, Limited, New York, 1885.
- Roosevelt, Blanche: "Life and Reminiscences of Gustave Doré", pages 241-243. Cassell & Company, Limited, New York, 1885.
- Roosevelt, Blanche: "Life and Reminiscences of Gustave Doré", pages 63. Cassell & Company, Limited, New York, 1885. Gustave Doré, Edmond About, and H. Taine were more than contemporaries: they knew each other from college. Roosevelt quotes Doré, "...from that date  until 1850, I occupied myself—sometimes well and sometimes badly—in finishing my studies at the Lycée Charlemagne. It was there that I was so fortunate as to have Edmond About and H. Taine for fellow-collegians."
- Roosevelt, Blanche: "Life and Reminiscences of Gustave Doré", pages 241. Cassell & Company, Limited, New York, 1885. Roosevelt attributes authorship to "Malted": "'Les États Unis et la Mexique,' by Malted (sic) (Brun, Paris, 1862), 1 vol. in 4to." She is most likely referring to either Conrad Malte-Brun or his son, Victor Adolphe Malte-Brun, both noted French Geographers.
- Opie, Iona and Peter. The Classic Fairy Tales. 1974. Oxford University Press. p. 134.
- Roosevelt, Blanche: "Life and Reminiscences of Gustave Doré", page 242. Cassell & Company, Limited, New York, 1885. Roosevelt implies, though does not specifically state, that a French publisher published this volume in 1865. For one, she places this reference with the other books published in 1865, for another, she uses the word also when mentioning that Sampson Low brought out a copy in London in 1866. Additionally, an English publication would most likely be translated and have a title of Toilers of the Sea. Roosevelt's line reads thus: "Victor Hugo's 'Travailleurs de la Mer', also in 1866, brought out by Sampson Low and Co., in London."
- Roosevelt, Blanche: "Life and Reminiscences of Gustave Doré.", page 242. Cassell & Company, Limited, New York, 1885. Roosevelt states that the preface was written by Alex. Dumas fils
- Although Blanche Roosevelt lists this book as being published in 1866, here Image:Le chemin des ecoliers title page.jpg is the title-page of an edition published five years earlier, with Gustave Doré drawings. Roosevelt is most likely mistaken.
- Leblanc, Henri (1931). Catalogue de l'oeuvre complet de Gustave Doré, Paris: Ch. Bosse, p. 74.
- Roosevelt, Blanche: "Life and Reminiscences of Gustave Doré.", page 488. Cassell & Company, Limited, New York, 1885.
- Delorme, Rene (1879). Gustave Doré. Paris: Librairie d'Art.(80 illustrations, earliest photogravures of Dore paintings)
- Roosevelt, Blanche (1885). Life and Reminiscence of Gustave Doré. New York: Cassell & Co., Ltd.(141 illustrations)
- Jerrold, Blanchard (1891). The Life of Gustave Doré. London: W. H. Allen & Co., Ltd.(138 illustrations)
- Valmy-Baysse, J. (1930). Gustave Doré – L'Art et la Vie. Paris: Editions Marcel Seheur.(314 illustrations)
- Deze, Louis (1930). Gustave Doré – Bibliographie et catalogue complet de l'oeuvre. Paris: Editions Marcel Seheur.(103 illustrations)
- LeBlanc, Henri (1931). Catalogue de l'oeuvre complet de Gustave Doré. Paris: Ch. Bosse.(30 illustrations)
- Farner, Konrad (1963). Gustave Doré der Industrialisierte Romantiker ((2V) ed.). Dresden: Verlag der Kunst.(521 illustrations, reprinting most of the Delorme photogravures)
- Gustave Doré 1832–1883. Strasbourg: Musée d'Art Moderne. 1983.(exhibition book: 591 illustrations)
- Renonciat, Annie (1983). La vie et l'oeuvre de Gustave Doré. Paris: ACR Edition.(343 illustrations)
- Malan, Dan (1995). Gustave Doré, Adrift on Dreams of Splendor. St. Louis: MCE Publishing Co.(500 illustrations)
- Fantasy & Faith: the Art of Gustave Doré. New Haven: Yale University Press. 2007. (exhibition book: 250 illustrations, 40 in full-color, sometimes incorrectly listed as, "40 b/w, 120 color illustrations")
- Kaenel, Philippe (2014). Doré: Master of Imagination. Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 978-2-08-131643-0. (catalog of the exhibition held at Musée d'Orsay and National Gallery of Canada, 335 pages)
- Bibliographie de la France (Journal General de l'Imprimerie et de la Librairie) (annual listing of the books published in France)
- Media related to Gustave Doré at Wikimedia Commons
- Works by Gustave Doré at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Gustave Doré at Internet Archive
- Gustave Doré Digital Collection of Illustrations from the University at Buffalo Libraries
- Gustave Doré in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
- Gustave Doré at Library of Congress Authorities, with 305 catalogue records