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Gustavianum is the former main building of Uppsala University, built 1622–1625. The name Gustavianum comes from Gustavus Adolphus who in the 1620s donated money for its construction. The Gustavianum was Uppsala University’s previous main building, until the completion of the University Hall in 1887. Since 1997 it has functioned as the home for Uppsala University’s museum - Museum Gustavianum. Under the cupola is the theatrum anatomicum, the second oldest in the world added to the building in the mid 17th century by Olaus Rudbeck, professor of medicine and amateur architect, among other things.

The Museum Gustavianum includes exhibitions of objects from the university collections of Classical, Egyptian and Nordic antiquities, as well as an exhibition on the history of science and the history of Uppsala University. The Augsburg art cabinet, the best preserved of the Kunstschränke made by Philipp Hainhofer, which was given to Gustavus Adolphus in 1632 by the City of Augsburg, is on display in the Museum Gustavianum.

The Museum Gustavianum has an excellent science collection of very old telescopes of Celsius and other astronomers, the oldest achromatic telescope, a book with Copernicus notes on solar eclipses, a major Carl Linnaeus exhibition and currently[when?] an exhibition of the oldest known astronomical instrument and computer, the Antikythera Mechanism.

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Coordinates: 59°51′29″N 17°37′54″E / 59.85806°N 17.63167°E / 59.85806; 17.63167