Gutian dynasty, also Kuti or Kutians ( Sumerian: 𒄖𒋾𒌝𒆠, gu-ti-um KI) was a dynasty that came to power in Mesopotamia c. 2199—2119 BC (, or possibly middle) c. 2135—2055 BC (, after displacing the short) Akkadian Empire. It ruled for roughly one century; however, some copies of the ( Sumerian King List SKL) vary between 4 and 25 years. The end of the Gutian dynasty is marked by the accession of Ur-Nammu (founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur, which fl. c. 2112 BC ( or 2055 BC middle) ().
Gutian people (Guti) were native to Gutium, presumably in the central Zagros Mountains.
History [ edit ]
The Gutians were described as part of the horde that toppled the kingdom of Akkad (or Agade).
It was a conglomeration of tribes that descended from the Zagros Mountains, possibly drawn to the plains for its prosperity.  The  ancient Mesopotamians treated them as subnormal beings for their unwillingness to conform to customs and laws of civilization. Chronicles written around the end of the third millennium BC, for instance, described the Gutians as barbarians, having the intelligence of dogs and the appearance of monkeys while speaking a language similar to a confused babble.
The Gutians practiced
hit-and-run tactics, and would be long gone by the time regular troops could arrive to deal with the situation. Their raids crippled the economy of Sumer. Travel became unsafe, as did work in the fields, resulting in famine.
Sumerian king list indicates that king Ur-Utu of Uruk was defeated by the barbarian Guti, perhaps around 2150 BC. The Guti swept down, defeated the demoralized Akkadian army, took Akkad, and destroyed it around 2115 BC. However, they did not supplant all of Akkad, as several independent city-states remained alongside them, including Lagash, where a local dynasty still thrived and left numerous textual and archaeological remains. The first Guti ruler was a nameless king.
An inscription dated c. 2130 BC, mentioning the Gutians: "
, prince of
... built the
[Sceptre] Temple at
, buried his foundation deposit [and] regulated the orders. At that time,
was king of Gutium." The name
appears in the last column.
Akkad was so thoroughly destroyed that its site is still not known. The Guti proved to be poor rulers. Under their crude rule, prosperity declined. They were too unaccustomed to the complexities of civilization to organize matters properly, particularly in connection with the canal network. This was allowed to sink into disrepair, with famine and death resulting. Thus, a short "dark age" swept over Mesopotamia. 
Akkad bore the brunt of this as the center of the Empire, so that it was in Akkad that the Guti established their own center in place of the destroyed Akkad.
Some of the Sumerian cities in the south took advantage of the distance and purchased a certain amount of self-government by paying tribute to the new rulers. 
Uruk was thus able to develop a fifth dynasty. Even in the city of Akkad itself, a local dynasty was said to have ruled.
The best known Sumerian ruler of the Gutian period was the  ensi of Lagash, Gudea. Under him, c. 2075 BC ( short), Lagash had a golden age, and seemed to enjoy a high level of independence from the Gutians.
After a few kings, the Gutian rulers became more cultured. Guti rule lasted only about a century — around 2050 BC, they were expelled from Mesopotamia by a coalition of rulers of Uruk and Ur,
when  Utu-hengal of Uruk defeated Gutian king Tirigan:
"By the envoys of
Utu-hengal, Tirigan and his wife and children in Dabrum were captured. They placed fetters on his hands and put a cloth (blindfold) over his eyes. Utuḫegal before Utu made him lie at his (Utu’s) feet, and on his neck he set his foot. Gutium, the fanged snake of the mountain ranges, he made drink from the cracks in the earth."
Victory Stele of Utu-Hengal  
Votive macehead of Gutian king
, circa 2150 BC, and its inscription "La-eraab, great King of Gutiim" (
𒆷𒂍𒊏𒀊 𒁕𒈝 𒈗 𒄖𒋾𒅎 la-e-ra-ab da-num lugal gutiim
). The name is quite damaged, and was initially read "Lasiraab".
 British Museum
Utu-hengal's victory revived the political and economic life of southern Sumer.
The year 11 of king  Ur-Nammu also mentions "Year Gutium was destroyed".
Weidner Chronicle [ edit ]
1,500 years later, the
Weidner Chronicle (ABC 19) accounts for the Gutian period as follows:
Naram-Sin destroyed the people of Babylon, so twice Marduk summoned the forces of Gutium against him. Marduk gave his kingship to the Gutian force. The Gutians were unhappy people unaware how to revere the gods, ignorant of the right cultic practices. Utu-hengal, the fisherman, caught a fish at the edge of the sea for an offering. That fish should not be offered to another god until it had been offered to Marduk, but the Gutians took the boiled fish from his hand before it was offered, so by his august command, Marduk removed the Gutian force from the rule of his land and gave it to Utu-hengal.
There are scholars who state that the description of the Gutian rule over parts of Mesopotamia was fiction or that it at least gave undue importance to the Guti horde. This is believed to be perpetuated by the chroniclers of Uruk to turn Utu-hegal's minor victory into an event of universal significance for the purpose of solidifying support for his emergent regime.
This view is based on the varying accounts of the surviving manuscripts, with many of them in total disagreement as to the length of the king's reign and even the identities of the Guti kings. 
List of Gutian kings [ edit ]
According to the
In the army of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years.
Gutian kings not on the SKL [ edit ]
Length of reign
fl. c. 2141—2138 BC
Known from a royal inscription at Nippur.
or Imta Nibia
fl. c. 2138—2135 BC
Nothing is known about the ruler.
Gutian kings on the SKL [ edit ]
The listed reign lengths throughout much of the Gutian period are comparatively short and uniform:
Modern connection theories: Kurds and Gutian dynasty [ edit ]
The historical Guti have been regarded by many scholars as having contributed to the ethnogenesis of the
Kurds.     
In the abstract, Kurdish highland split up between today’s Iran and Iraq is considered as the original settlement area of Guteans. Some sources even mention Gutium and Kurdistan interchangeably. For instance: “Under Cyrus the Great of Persia Gobryas I is counted as governor of Kurdistan (Kutium).”
Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav V. Ivanov, the Gutian language was close to the Tocharian languages of the Indo-European family.
See also [ edit ]
Notes and references [ edit ]
^ a b c
Crawford, Harriet (2004). . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. Sumer and the Sumerians, Second Edition 21, 22. ISBN . 0-521-53338-4
^ a b c
Glassner, Jean-Jacques (2004). Mesopotamian Chronicles. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Lit. pp. 97, 98. ISBN . 1-58983-090-3
^ De Mieroop, Marc Van. (2004). A History of the Ancient Near East: c. 3000-323 BC. (pp.67) Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
^ a b c d e f g
Corporation, Marshall Cavendish (2010). . Marshall Cavendish. p. 54–56. Ancient Egypt and the Near East: An Illustrated History ISBN . 978-0-7614-7934-5
^ De Mieroop, Marc Van. (2004). A History of the Ancient Near East: c. 3000-323 BC. (p.67) Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
^ Full transcription and translation in:
"CDLI-Found Texts". cdli.ucla.edu.
THUREAU-DANGIN, Fr. (1912). "La Fin de la Domination Gutienne". Revue d'Assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale. 9 (3): 111–120. ISSN 0373-6032. JSTOR 23283609.
The Sumerian Kings List (PDF). p. 119, note 305.
"Year names of Ur-Nammu". cdli.ucla.edu.
Omran Yahya Feili; Arlene R. Fromchuck (1986). Michael Curtis (ed.). . Transaction Books. p. 123. The Middle East Reader ISBN . 9781412837798
Jamie Stokes, ed. (2009). "Kurds". Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Facts on File. p. 380. ISBN . 9781438126760
William Linn Westermann (1944). . Peoples of the Near East Without a National Future Council on Foreign Relations. p. 8.
D. P. Erdbrink (1968). "Reviewed Work: Türken, Kurden und Iraner seit dem Altertum by E. von Eickstedt". Central Asiatic Journal. Harrassowitz Verlag. 12 (1): 64–65. JSTOR 41926760.
Prokhorov, Aleksandr Mikhaĭlovich (1982). "Great Soviet Encyclopedia".
"Art and Archaeology". 1931.
Easton, Matthew George (2015). The Ultimate Bible Dictionary. Jazzybee Verlag (September 20, 2015). p. 208. ISBN . 3849694232
Гамкрелидзе Т. В., Иванов Вяч. Вс. Первые индоевропейцы на арене истории: прототохары в Передней Азии // Вестник древней истории. 1989. № 1.
Howorth 1901: "The Early History of Babylonia", Henry H. Howorth, The English Historical Review, Vol. 16, No. 61 (Jan. 1901), p. 1-34
dates     Egypt
Chronology of the Neolithic period
Naqada culture (4000–3100 BCE)
Sumerian period (4000–2340 BCE) Susa I
Pre-Dynastic period (4000–2900 BCE)
Naqada I Naqada II
Uruk period (4000-3100 BCE) (Anonymous "King-priests") Legendary ante-deluvian rulers: In Eridu: Alulim, Alalngar, then in Bad-tibira: En-men-lu-ana, En-men-gal-ana, Dumuzid, the Shepherd, then in Larag: En-sipad-zid-ana, then in Zimbir: En-men-dur-ana, then in Shuruppag: Ubara-Tutu "then the flood swept over"
 Susa II (Uruk influence or control)
Proto-Dynastic period ( Naqada III) Early or legendary kings:
Upper Egypt Finger Snail Fish Pen-Abu Animal Stork Canide Bull Scorpion I Shendjw Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer / Menes
Lower Egypt Hedju Hor Ny-Hor Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Nat-Hor Mekh Double Falcon Wash
Early Dynastic Period First Dynasty of Egypt Narmer Menes Neithhotep ♀ (regent) Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith ♀ (regent) Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka
Jemdet Nasr period Proto-Elamite period ( Susa III) (3100-2700 BCE)
Second Dynasty of Egypt Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy
Early Dynastic Period I (2900–2700 BCE)
First Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic)
First kingdom of Mari (Semitic)
Kish I dynasty Jushur, Kullassina-bel Nangishlishma, En-tarah-ana Babum, Puannum, Kalibum
Kalumum Zuqaqip Atab Mashda Arwium Etana Balih En-me-nuna Melem-Kish Barsal-nuna
Uruk I dynasty Mesh-ki-ang-gasher
Enmerkar ("conqueror of Aratta")
Early Dynastic Period II (2700–2600 BCE)
Zamug, Tizqar, Ilku Iltasadum
Lugalbanda Dumuzid, the Fisherman
Enmebaragesi ("made the land of Elam submit")
Aga of Kish
Old Elamite period (2700–1500 BCE) Indus-Mesopotamia relations
Third Dynasty of Egypt Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Nebka Khaba Qahedjet Huni
Early Dynastic Period III (2600–2340 BCE)
Sagisu Abur-lim Agur-lim Ibbi-Damu Baba-Damu
Kish II dynasty (5 kings) Uhub Mesilim
Ur-Nungal Udulkalama Labashum
Lagash En-hegal Lugalshaengur
Ur A-Imdugud Ur-Pabilsag Meskalamdug (Queen Puabi) Akalamdug
Enun-dara-anna Mes-he Melamanna Lugal-kitun
Adab Nin-kisalsi Me-durba Lugal-dalu
Old Kingdom of Egypt Fourth Dynasty of Egypt Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf
Thamphthis Ur I dynasty Mesannepada "King of Ur and Kish", victorious over Uruk
Phoenicia (2500-539 BCE)
Second kingdom of Mari (Semitic) Ikun-Shamash Iku-Shamagan Ansud Sa'umu Ishtup-Ishar Ikun-Mari Iblul-Il Nizi
Akshak dynasty Unzi Undalulu
Kish III dynasty Ku-Baba
Uruk II dynasty Enshakushanna
Umma I dynasty Pabilgagaltuku
Lagash I dynasty Ur-Nanshe Akurgal
A'annepada Meskiagnun Elulu Balulu
Awan dynasty Peli Tata Ukkutahesh Hishur
Fifth Dynasty of Egypt Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas
Elamite invasions (3 kings)  Shushuntarana Napilhush
Eannatum (King of Lagash, Sumer, Akkad, conqueror of Elam)
Adub-Damu Igrish-Halam Irkab-Damu
Kish IV dynasty Puzur-Suen Ur-Zababa
Ur-Lumma Il Gishakidu (Queen Bara-irnun)
Enannatum Entemena Enannatum II Enentarzi
Ur II dynasty Nanni Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna II
Sixth Dynasty of Egypt Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah
Adab dynasty Lugalannemundu "King of the four quarters of the world"
Enna-Dagan Ikun-Ishar Ishqi-Mari
Mari Anbu, Anba, Bazi, Zizi of Mari, Limer, Sharrum-iter
Puzur-Nirah Ishu-Il Shu-Sin
Uruk III dynasty Lugalzagesi (Governor of Umma, King of all Sumer)
Akkadian Period (2340–2150 BCE)
Akkadian Empire (Semitic) Sargon of Akkad Rimush Manishtushu
Akkadian Governors: Eshpum Ilshu-rabi Epirmupi Ili-ishmani
Lugal-ushumgal (vassal of the Akkadians)
First Intermediate Period Seventh Dynasty of Egypt Eighth Dynasty of Egypt Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare Pepiseneb Neferkamin Anu Qakare Ibi Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare
Second Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic) (Vassals of UR III)
Third kingdom of Mari Shakkanakku dynasty (Semitic) Ididish Shu-Dagan Ishma-Dagan (Vassals of the Akkadians)
Igigi, Imi, Nanum, Ilulu (3 years) Dudu Shu-turul
Uruk IV dynasty Ur-nigin Ur-gigir
Lagash II dynasty Puzer-Mama Ur-Ningirsu I Pirig-me Lu-Baba Lu-gula Ka-ku
Hishep-Ratep Helu Khita Puzur-Inshushinak
Ninth Dynasty of Egypt Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut
Neo-Sumerian Period (2150–2000 BCE)
Nûr-Mêr Ishtup-Ilum Ishgum-Addu Apil-kin
Gutian dynasty (21 kings) La-erabum Si'um
Kuda (Uruk) Puzur-ili Ur-Utu
Umma II dynasty Lugalannatum (vassal of the Gutians)
Ur-Baba Gudea Ur-Ningirsu Ur-gar Nam-mahani
Tenth Dynasty of Egypt Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare
Iddi-ilum Ili-Ishar Tura-Dagan Puzur-Ishtar Hitial-Erra Hanun-Dagan (Vassals of Ur III)
 Uruk V dynasty Utu-hengal
Ur III dynasty "Kings of Ur, Sumer and Akkad" Ur-Nammu Shulgi Amar-Sin Shu-Sin Ibbi-Sin
Middle Kingdom of Egypt Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV
circa 2000 BCE
Amorite invasions Elamite invasions Kindattu ( Shimashki Dynasty)
Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu ♀
Third Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic) Ibbit-Lim Immeya Indilimma
Lim Dynasty Yaggid-Lim Yahdun-Lim Yasmah-Adad Zimri-Lim (Queen Shibtu)
Isin-Larsa period ( Amorites) : Dynasty of Isin Ishbi-Erra Shu-Ilishu Iddin-Dagan Ishme-Dagan Lipit-Eshtar Ur-Ninurta Bur-Suen Lipit-Enlil Erra-imitti Enlil-bani Zambiya Iter-pisha Ur-du-kuga Suen-magir Damiq-ilishu Dynasty of Larsa: Naplanum Emisum Samium Zabaia Gungunum Abisare Sumuel Nur-Adad Sin-Iddinam Sin-Eribam Sin-Iqisham Silli-Adad Warad-Sin Rim-Sin I (...) Rim-Sin II Uruk VI dynasty: Alila-hadum Sumu-binasa Naram-Sin of Uruk Sîn-kāšid Sîn-iribam Sîn-gāmil Ilum-gamil Anam of Uruk Irdanene Rim-Anum Nabi-ilišu
Sukkalmah dynasty Siwe-Palar-Khuppak
Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Abraham ( Biblical) Kings of Byblos Kings of Tyre Kings of Sidon
Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1378 BCE) Puzur-Ashur I Shalim-ahum Ilu-shuma Erishum I Ikunum Sargon I Puzur-Ashur II Naram-Sin Erishum II Shamshi-Adad I Ishme-Dagan I Mut-Ashkur Rimush Asinum Ashur-dugul Ashur-apla-idi Nasir-Sin Sin-namir Ipqi-Ishtar Adad-salulu Adasi Bel-bani Libaya Sharma-Adad I Iptar-Sin Bazaya Lullaya Shu-Ninua Sharma-Adad II Erishum III Shamshi-Adad II Ishme-Dagan II Shamshi-Adad III Ashur-nirari I Puzur-Ashur III Enlil-nasir I Nur-ili Ashur-shaduni Ashur-rabi I Ashur-nadin-ahhe I Enlil-Nasir II Ashur-nirari II Ashur-bel-nisheshu Ashur-rim-nisheshu Ashur-nadin-ahhe II
First Babylonian dynasty ("Old Babylonian Period") ( Amorites) Sumu-abum Sumu-la-El Sin-muballit Sabium Apil-Sin Sin-muballit Hammurabi Samsu-iluna Abi-eshuh Ammi-ditana Ammi-saduqa Samsu-Ditana Early Kassite rulers
Second Babylonian dynasty (" Sealand Dynasty") Ilum-ma-ili Itti-ili-nibi Damqi-ilishu Ishkibal Shushushi Gulkishar mDIŠ+U-EN Peshgaldaramesh Ayadaragalama Akurduana Melamkurkurra Ea-gamil
Second Intermediate Period Sixteenth Dynasty
Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt (" Hyksos") Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi
Mitanni (1600–1260 BCE) Kirta Shuttarna I Parshatatar
New Kingdom of Egypt Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ahmose I Amenhotep I
Third Babylonian dynasty ( Kassites) Agum-Kakrime Burnaburiash I Kashtiliash III Ulamburiash Agum III Karaindash Kadashman-harbe I Kurigalzu I Kadashman-Enlil I Burnaburiash II Kara-hardash Nazi-Bugash Kurigalzu II Nazi-Maruttash Kadashman-Turgu Kadashman-Enlil II Kudur-Enlil Shagarakti-Shuriash Kashtiliashu IV Enlil-nadin-shumi Kadashman-Harbe II Adad-shuma-iddina Adad-shuma-usur Meli-Shipak II Marduk-apla-iddina I Zababa-shuma-iddin Enlil-nadin-ahi
Middle Elamite period
Kidinuid dynasty Igehalkid dynasty Untash-Napirisha
Thutmose I Thutmose II Hatshepsut ♀ Thutmose III
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten ♀ Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb
Hittite Empire Ugarit
Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret ♀
Elamite Empire Shutrukid dynasty Shutruk-Nakhunte
Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI Third Intermediate Period
Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II
Phoenicia Kings of Byblos Kings of Tyre Kings of Sidon Kingdom of Israel Saul Ish-bosheth David Solomon
Middle Assyrian Empire Eriba-Adad I Ashur-uballit I Enlil-nirari Arik-den-ili Adad-nirari I Shalmaneser I Tukulti-Ninurta I Ashur-nadin-apli Ashur-nirari III Enlil-kudurri-usur Ninurta-apal-Ekur Ashur-dan I Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur Mutakkil-Nusku Ashur-resh-ishi I Tiglath-Pileser I Asharid-apal-Ekur Ashur-bel-kala Eriba-Adad II Shamshi-Adad IV Ashurnasirpal I Shalmaneser II Ashur-nirari IV Ashur-rabi II Ashur-resh-ishi II Tiglath-Pileser II Ashur-dan II
Fourth Babylonian dynasty (" Second Dynasty of Isin") Marduk-kabit-ahheshu Itti-Marduk-balatu Ninurta-nadin-shumi Nebuchadnezzar I Enlil-nadin-apli Marduk-nadin-ahhe Marduk-shapik-zeri Adad-apla-iddina Marduk-ahhe-eriba Marduk-zer-X Nabu-shum-libur
Neo-Elamite period (1100–540 BCE)
Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth Babylonian dynasties ("Period of Chaos") Simbar-shipak Ea-mukin-zeri Kashshu-nadin-ahi Eulmash-shakin-shumi Ninurta-kudurri-usur I Shirikti-shuqamuna Mar-biti-apla-usur Nabû-mukin-apli
Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Pedubast II Osorkon IV
Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini
Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt Tefnakht Bakenranef
Kingdom of Samaria Kingdom of Judah
Neo-Assyrian Empire Adad-nirari II Tukulti-Ninurta II Ashurnasirpal II Shalmaneser III Shamshi-Adad V Shammuramat ♀ (regent) Adad-nirari III Shalmaneser IV Ashur-Dan III Ashur-nirari V
Ninth Babylonian Dynasty Ninurta-kudurri-usur II Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina Shamash-mudammiq Nabu-shuma-ukin I Nabu-apla-iddina Marduk-zakir-shumi I Marduk-balassu-iqbi Baba-aha-iddina (five kings) Ninurta-apla-X Marduk-bel-zeri Marduk-apla-usur Eriba-Marduk Nabu-shuma-ishkun Nabonassar Nabu-nadin-zeri Nabu-shuma-ukin II Nabu-mukin-zeri
Humban-Tahrid dynasty Urtak Teumman Ummanigash Tammaritu I Indabibi Humban-haltash III
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt (" Black Pharaohs") Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun
( Sargonid dynasty) Tiglath-Pileser † Shalmaneser † Marduk-apla-iddina II Sargon † Sennacherib † Marduk-zakir-shumi II Marduk-apla-iddina II Bel-ibni Ashur-nadin-shumi † Nergal-ushezib Mushezib-Marduk Esarhaddon † Ashurbanipal Ashur-etil-ilani Sinsharishkun Sin-shumu-lishir Ashur-uballit II
Assyrian conquest of Egypt
Late Period Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III
Neo-Babylonian Empire Nabopolassar Nebuchadnezzar II Amel-Marduk Neriglissar Labashi-Marduk Nabonidus
Median Empire Deioces Phraortes Madius Cyaxares Astyages
Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt ( Achaemenid conquest of Egypt)
Kings of Byblos Kings of Tyre Kings of Sidon
Achaemenid Empire Cyrus Cambyses Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes III Artaxerxes IV Darius III
Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt
Ptolemaic dynasty Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II Philadelphus Arsinoe II ♀ Ptolemy III Euergetes Berenice II Euergetis ♀ Ptolemy IV Philopator Arsinoe III Philopator ♀ Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra ♀ Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra II Philometor Soter ♀ Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra III ♀ Ptolemy IX Lathyros Cleopatra IV ♀ Ptolemy X Alexander Berenice III ♀ Ptolemy XI Alexander Ptolemy XII Auletes Cleopatra V ♀ Cleopatra VI Tryphaena ♀ Berenice IV Epiphanea ♀ Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra VII Philopator ♀ Ptolemy XV Caesarion Arsinoe IV ♀
Hellenistic Period : Argead dynasty Alexander I Philip Alexander II Antigonus
: Seleucid Empire Seleucus I Antiochus I Antiochus II Seleucus II Seleucus III Antiochus III Seleucus IV Antiochus IV Antiochus V Demetrius I Alexander III Demetrius II Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes
Kingdom of Judea Simon Thassi John Hyrcanus Aristobulus I Alexander Jannaeus Salome Alexandra Hyrcanus II Aristobulus II Antigonus II Mattathias
Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus
Parthian Empire Mithridates I Phraates Hyspaosines Artabanus Mithridates II Gotarzes Mithridates III Orodes I Sinatruces Phraates III Mithridates IV Orodes II Phraates IV Tiridates II Musa Phraates V Orodes III Vonones I Artabanus II Tiridates III Artabanus II Vardanes I Gotarzes II Meherdates Vonones II Vologases I Vardanes II Pacorus II Vologases II Artabanus III Osroes I
30 BCE–116 CE
Roman conquest of Egypt) Province of Egypt
Province of Mesopotamia under Trajan
Parthamaspates of Parthia
Province of Mesopotamia
Sinatruces II Mithridates V Vologases IV Osroes II Vologases V Vologases VI Artabanus IV
Sasanian Empire Province of Asoristan Ardashir I Shapur I Hormizd I Bahram I Bahram II Bahram III Narseh Hormizd II Adur Narseh Shapur II Ardashir II Shapur III Bahram IV Yazdegerd I Shapur IV Khosrow Bahram V Yazdegerd II Hormizd III Peroz I Balash Kavad I Jamasp Kavad I Khosrow I Hormizd IV Khosrow II Bahram VI Chobin Vistahm
Palmyrene Empire Vaballathus Zenobia Antiochus
Province of Egypt
Province of Mesopotamia
Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda
Sasanian conquest of Egypt) Province of Egypt Shahrbaraz Sahralanyozan Shahrbaraz
Sasanian Empire Province of Asoristan Khosrow II Kavad II
Byzantine Empire Ardashir III Shahrbaraz Khosrow III Boran Shapur-i Shahrvaraz Azarmidokht Farrukh Hormizd Hormizd VI Khosrow IV Boran Yazdegerd III Peroz III Narsieh
Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda
Muslim conquest of Egypt
Muslim conquest of the Levant
Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia
Rulers of Ancient Central Asia