Gwanghaegun of Joseon

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Gwanghaegun
光海君
광해군
Crown Prince of Joseon
Reign29 April 1592 – 2 February 1608[1]
PredecessorCrown Prince Sunhoe
SuccessorCrown Prince Yi Ji
King of Joseon
Reign1608–1623
PredecessorSeonjo of Joseon
SuccessorInjo of Joseon
Regent of Joseon
Regency1592–1608
MonarchSeonjo of Joseon
Born4 June 1575
Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon
Died7 August 1641 (1641-08-08) (aged 66)
Jeju Island, Kingdom of Joseon
ConsortDeposed Queen Yu
HouseJeonju Yi
FatherSeonjo of Joseon
MotherRoyal Noble Consort Gong of the Gimhae Kim clan
ReligionConfucianism
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationGwanghae
McCune–ReischauerKwanghae
Birth name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationI Hon
McCune–ReischauerI Hon

Gwanghae-gun or Prince Gwanghae (4 June 1575 – 7 August 1641), personal name Yi Hon (Hangul: 이혼, Hanja: 李琿), was the 15th ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. As he was deposed in a coup d'état, he did not receive a temple name.

Biography[edit]

Birth and background[edit]

Gwanghaegun was the second son of King Seonjo, born to Lady Kim Gong-bin, a concubine. When Japan invaded Korea to attack the Ming Empire, he was installed as Crown Prince. When the king fled north to the border of Ming, he set up a branch court and fought defensive battles. During and after the Seven Year War (1592–1598), he acted as the de facto ruler of the Joseon Dynasty, commanding battles and taking care of the reconstruction of the nation after the devastating wars, in the place of old and weak King Seonjo.

Although it brought prestige to him, his position was still unstable. He had an elder but incompetent brother Prince Imhae (Imhaegun, 임해군, 臨海君) and a younger but legitimate brother Grand Prince Yeongchang (Yeongchang Daegun, 영창대군, 永昌大君), who was supported by the Lesser Northerners faction. Fortunately for Gwanghae, King Seonjo's abrupt death made it impossible for his favorite son Yeongchang to succeed to the throne.

Violence of Greater Northerner faction[edit]

Before King Seonjo died, he named Prince Gwanghae as his official successor to the throne and ordered his advisers to make a royal document. However, Lyu Young-gyong of the Lesser Northerners faction hid the document and plotted to install Grand Prince Yeongchang as king, only to be found out by the head of the Great Northerners faction (대북; 大北), Jeong In-hong. Lyu was executed immediately and Grand Prince Yeongchang was arrested and died the next year.

After the incident, Gwanghae tried to bring officials from various political and regional background to his court, but his plan was interrupted by Greater Northerners including Yi I-cheom and Jeong In-hong. Then, Greater Northerners began to take members of other political factions out of the government, especially Lesser Northerners. In 1613, the Greater Northerners moved against Grand Prince Yeongchang; his grandfather Kim Je-nam was found guilty of treason and executed, while Yeong-chang was sent into exile, where he too was executed. At the same time, Greater Northerners suppressed the Lesser Northerners; in 1618, Yeongchang's mother, Queen Inmok, was stripped of her title and imprisoned. Gwanghae had no power to stop this even though he was the official head of the government.[citation needed]

Achievements[edit]

Despite his poor reputation after his death, he was a talented and pragmatic politician. He endeavored to restore the country and sponsored the restoration of documents. As a part of reconstruction, he revised land ordinance and redistributed land to the people; he also ordered the rebuilding of Changdeok Palace along with several other palaces. Additionally, he was responsible for the reintroduction of the hopae identification system after a long period of disuse.[2]

In foreign affairs he sought a balance between the Ming Empire and the Manchus. Since he realized Joseon was unable to compete with Manchu military power, he tried to maintain friendly relationship with the Manchus while the kingdom was still under the suzerainty of Ming, which angered the Ming and dogmatic Confucian Koreans. The critically worsened Manchu-Ming relationship forced him to send ten thousand soldiers to aid Ming in 1619. However, the Battle of Sarhū ended in Manchu's overwhelming victory. The Korean General Gang Hong-rip lost two-thirds of his troops and surrendered to Nurhaci. Gwanghaegun negotiated independently for peace with the Manchus and managed to avoid another war. He also restored diplomatic relationship with Japan in 1609 when he reopened trade with Japan through Treaty of Giyu, and sent his ambassadors to Japan in 1617.

In the domestic sphere, Gwanghaegun implemented the Daedong law, which let his subjects pay their taxes more easily. However, this law was activated only in Gyeonggi Province, which was the largest granary zone at that time, and it took a century for the law to be extended across the whole kingdom. He encouraged publishing in order to accelerate reconstruction and to restore the kingdom's former prosperity. Many books were written during his reign, including the famous medical book Dongui Bogam, and several historical records were rewritten in this period. In 1616, tobacco was first introduced to Korea and it soon became popular amongst the Korean aristocracy.

Dethronement and later life[edit]

On April 11, 1623, Gwanghaegun was deposed in a coup by the Westerners faction. The coup directed by Kim Yu took place at night, Gwanghaegun fled but was captured later.[3] He was confined first on Ganghwa Island and then on Jeju Island, where he died in 1641. He does not have a royal mausoleum like the other Joseon rulers. His and Lady Ryu's remains were buried at a comparatively humble site in Namyangju in Gyeonggi Province. The Westerners faction installed Neungyanggun as the sixteenth king Injo who promulgated pro-Ming and anti-Manchu policies, which resulted in two subsequent Manchu invasions.

Legacy[edit]

Gwanghaegun's tomb

Although Gwanghaegun is one of only two deposed kings who were not restored and given a temple name (the other one being Yeonsangun), many people[who?] consider him a victim of feuds between political factions.[citation needed] However he did a better job of caring for his country than his predecessor King Seonjo, or his successor King Injo.[citation needed] They both contributed to invasions—the Japanese invasions of Korea, the Seven Year War; and the Manchu Invasion.

In modern South Korea, Gwanghaegun is considered one of the wiser kings rather than a despot.[citation needed]

Family[edit]

Consorts and their Respective Issue(s):

  1. Deposed Queen Yu of the Munhwa Yu clan (폐비 유씨) (15 August 1576 – 31 October 1623)[6][7]
    1. First son (1596 – 1596)
    2. Yi Ji, Deposed Crown Prince (이지 폐세자) (31 December 1598 – 22 July 1623), second son[8][9][10]
    3. Third son (? – 1603)
  2. Royal Consort So-ui of the Papyeong Yun clan (? – 14 March 1623) (소의 윤씨)[11][12]
    1. Princess Hwain (1619–1664) (옹주)[13][14]
  3. Royal Consort So-ui of the Pungsan Hong clan (소의 홍씨) (? – 1623)[15]
  4. Royal Consort So-ui of the Andong Gwon clan (숙의 권씨)[16]
  5. Royal Consort Sug-ui of the Yangcheon Heo clan (숙의 허씨)[17][18]
  6. Royal Consort Sug-ui of the Wonju Won clan (숙의 원씨)[19]
  7. Royal Consort So-yong of the Dongnae Jeong clan (소용 정씨) (? – 1623)[20][21]
  8. Royal Consort So-yong of the Pungcheon Im clan (소용 임씨) (1598 – 1628)[22][23][24]
  9. Royal Consort So-won of the Yeongsan Shin clan (소원 신씨)[25][26]
  10. Royal Consort Sug-won of the Han clan (숙원 한씨)[27]
  11. Court Lady Kim (상궁 김씨) (1584 – 1623)[28][29]
  12. Court Lady Yi (상궁 이씨)
  13. Court Lady Choe (상궁 최씨)
  14. Court Lady Jo of the Hanyang Jo clan (궁인 조씨)[30]
  15. Court Lady Byeon (궁인 변씨)[31]

His eulogistic name[edit]

  • The Great King Checheon Heung'un Jundeok Honggong Sinseong Yeongsuk Heummun Inmu Seoryun Ipgi Myeongseong Gwangryeol Yungbong Hyeonbo Mujeong Junghui Yecheol Jang'ui Jangheon Sunjeong Geon'ui Sujeong Changdo Sung'eop of Korea
  • 체천흥운준덕홍공신성영숙흠문인무서륜입기명성광렬융봉현보무정중희예철장의장헌순정건의수정창도숭업대왕

In popular culture[edit]

Film and television[edit]

Music[edit]

  • Referenced in rapper Agust D's 2020 regnal march inspired Daechwita.[32][33] Both the song's lyrics and accompanying Lumpens music video draw further from the 2012 film Masquerade with Agust D portraying a scarred tyrant threatened by the arrival of his modern era doppelganger.[34][35]

Literature[edit]

  • Gwanghae's Lover, a 2013 novel written by Euodia. Originally posted on web portal Naver, it is a love story about Gwanghae and a time traveling high school girl.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ In Lunar calendar.
  2. ^ Rutt, Richard; Pratt, Keith L.; Hoare, James (1999). Korea: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary. United Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-0463-9. (p252)
  3. ^ "승정원일기 1책(탈초본 1책) 인조 1년 3월 12일 임인". 승정원일기. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  4. ^ Was honored as “Queen Gongseong of the Gimhae Kim clan” (공성왕후, 恭聖王后) and was given the posthumous title “자숙단인공성왕후, 慈淑端仁恭聖王后” during her son’s reign.
  5. ^ Was given the royal title of “Internal Prince Haeryeong” (해령부원군, 海寧府院君)
  6. ^ After her husband's deposition, she was known as "Deposed Queen Yu" (폐비 유씨).
  7. ^ She was posthumously referred to as "Queen Hyejang" (혜장왕후).
  8. ^ Married Deposed Crown Princess Park of the Miryang Park clan (폐빈 밀양 박씨, 廢嬪 密陽 朴氏) (1598–1623) and had a daughter (died prematurely).
  9. ^ With an unnamed concubine, he had a daughter, Princess Yi Ah-gi (현주 이아기, 縣主 李娥其) (1618 – ?).
  10. ^ His second concubine, Royal Consort Heo of the Yangcheon Heo clan (소훈 양천 허씨, 昭訓 許氏), was the daughter Heo Gyun (the younger brother of Heo Nanseolheon).
  11. ^ Daughter of Yun Hong-yeop (윤홍업, 尹弘業) and Lady Yu of the Changwon Yu clan (창원 유씨).
  12. ^ Her personal name was Yun Yeong-shin (윤영신, 尹永新).
  13. ^ Was also known was Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan of 8th rank (단인 전주 이씨). “Danin” (단인, 端人) is a rank given to wives whose husband have a government position of 8th rank.
  14. ^ Married Park Jing-won (박징원, 朴澂遠).
  15. ^ Daughter of Hong Mae (홍매, 洪邁) and Lady Seo of the Icheon Seo clan (이천 서씨, 利川徐氏).
  16. ^ Daughter of Gwon Yeo-gyeong (권여경, 權餘慶) and Lady Kim of the Sangsan Kim clan (상산 김씨, 商山 金氏).
  17. ^ Daughter of Heo Gyeong (허경, 許儆) and Lady Shin of the Pyeongsan Shin clan (평산 신씨, 平山 申氏).
  18. ^ Her personal name was Heo Hee (허희, 許姬).
  19. ^ Daughter of Won Soo-shin (원수신, 元守身) and sister of Won Yu-hyeong (원유형, 元有亨).
  20. ^ Was known before as Royal Consort Sug-won of the Dongnae Jeong clan (숙원 정씨, 淑媛 鄭氏).
  21. ^ Daughter of Jeong Sang-heon (정상헌, 鄭象獻), niece of Jeong Ji-san (정지산, 鄭之産) (? – 1617), and granddaughter of Jeong Sa-ryong (정사룡, 鄭士龍) (19 December 1491 – 2 October 1570/1573).
  22. ^ Daughter of Im Mong-jeong (임몽정, 任夢正) and his concubine. Niece of Im Choi-jeong (임취정, 任就正) (1561 – 1628).
  23. ^ Her personal name was Im Ae-yeong (임애영, 任愛英).
  24. ^ Was first known as Royal Consort So-won (소원 임씨), then as Royal Consort Sug-won (숙원 임씨).
  25. ^ Daughter of Shin Gyeong (신경, 辛鏡) and Lady Kim of the Suwon Kim clan (수원 김씨, 水原 金氏).
  26. ^ She is a niece of Royal Noble Consort In of the Sunwon Kim clan (a concubine of King Seonjo).
  27. ^ Her personal name was Han Bo-hyang (보향, 保香).
  28. ^ She is said to be his father's concubine.
  29. ^ Her personal name was Kim Gae-si.
  30. ^ Daughter of Jo Ui (조의, 趙誼).
  31. ^ Daughter of Byeon Chong-gil (변충길, 邊忠吉).
  32. ^ Agust D (May 22, 2020). "D-2" (in Korean). Big Hit Music. Archived from the original on May 22, 2020. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  33. ^ Agust D (May 22, 2020). "'D-2'" (in Korean). Big Hit Music. Archived from the original on May 22, 2020. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  34. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: Agust D '대취타' MV, retrieved 2021-04-11
  35. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: Agust D 'D-2' Mixtape Interview, retrieved 2021-04-11
  36. ^ Baek, Byung-yeul (31 May 2013). "Recent Book: Gwanghae's Lover". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
Gwanghaegun of Joseon
Born: 1575 Died: 1641
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Joseon
1608–1623
Succeeded by