|• Total||54.1 km2 (20.9 sq mi)|
|• Density||620/km2 (1,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code||(+36) 37|
Gyöngyös [ˈɟøɲɟøʃ] is a town in Heves county in Hungary, 80 km (50 mi) east of Budapest. Situated at the foot of the Sár-hegy and Mátra mountains, it is the home of numerous food production plants, including milk production and sausage factories. It is also the home of many vineyards on the slopes of the Sárhegy.
The Art-Nouveau and Baroque buildings around the main square were reconstructed after a disastrous fire started in the local hospital in 1917, destroying a number of buildings housing important Jewish institutions and leaving in all around 8,000 homeless.
The meaning of the town's name is "Made of Pearls"; Croats from Hungary call this city Đunđuš (pronounced as "Dyun-dyush"). The 16/17th-century historian Miklós Istvánffy wrote that the name of the town comes from the Hungarian word for mistletoe (fagyöngy literally "wood-pearl"), which is abundant in the local woods.
Gyöngyös was home to a large Jewish community before World War II. In 1942, anti-Jewish laws were adopted in the province, affecting the Jews of the town. Following the occupation of Hungary by the German army in March 1944, 1800 Jews were locked in a ghetto. Some will be saved by an Hungarian Righteous Among the Nations but most of were deported to Auschwitz and killed.
Sights to visit
There are many monuments and places of interest in the town, such as the Orczy mansion, home of the Mátra Museum, Saint Bartholomew's Church (Saint Bartholomew Church, Gyöngyös, Hungary) in the center of town, and its Treasury.
- Gyöngyi Horváth, sociologist, conference organiser
- Rudolph Ritter von Brudermann (1851-1941), general of Austria-Hungary during the First World War
- Béla Kerékjártó (1898-1946), mathematician
- Sandor Kenyeres (1949-), property developer, scientific philanthropist, and cultural visionary
- Gedeon Richter (1872-1944), pharmacist, business magnate, philanthropist, founder of Gedeon Richter plc, pioneer of the Hungarian pharmaceutical industry
- Soma Visontai (1854-?), lawyer, deputy
- Paul Vay de Vaya (1735-1800), Major General (1794), Feldmarschall-leutnant (1799-1800)
- Margit Gréczi (1941-), painter
- Gábor Vona (1978-), politician, leader of the political party Jobbik
- Gábor Fodor (1962-), jurist, politician, leader of the Hungarian Liberal Party
- Pál Almásy (1818-1882), lawyer, politician, Speaker of the House of Representatives (1849)
- Károly Kamermayer (1829-1897), jurist, councillor, the first mayor of Budapest (1873-1896)
- József Balázs (1965-), politician
- Viktor Szabó (1986-), footballer
- Dárius Csillag (1995-), footballer
- Dávid Ficsór (1986-), footballer
- Gergő Gohér (1987-), footballer
- András Herczeg (1956-), football manager, former player, manager of Debreceni VSC
- Zsófia Kovács (1988-), professional triathlete
- József Éles (1969-), former handball player, handball coach of the Dominican Republic women's national team
- Attila Szekrényessy (1913-1995), pair skater
- Gabriella Csépe (1973-), former breaststroke swimmer
- László Polgár (1946-), chess teacher and educational psychologist
Twin towns — Sister cities
Gyöngyös is twinned with:
- Pieksämäki, Finland
- Ringsted, Denmark
- Sanok, Poland
- Shusha, Azerbaijan (de facto, Nagorno-Karabakh)
- Târgu Secuiesc, Romania
- Zeltweg, Austria
- Charles Hebbert; Norm Longley; Dan Richardson (2002). Hungary (Rough Guide Travel Guides). Rough Guides Ltd. p. 323. ISBN 1-85828-917-3.
- Adrian Phillips, Jo Scotchmer (2010). Bradt Travel Guides. Hungary. p. 222. ISBN 1-84162-285-0.
- A declaration of fraternization between Gyöngyös, at the foot of the Mátra, the highest mountain range in Hungary, and the occupied Shusha town of Azerbaijan.
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