|Born||5 November 1921|
|Died||15 January 1994 (aged 72)|
Senlis, Oise, France
|Occupation(s)||Pianist, composer, arranger|
György Cziffra (in Hungarian form Cziffra György, Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈt͡sifrɒ ˈɟørɟ], also known as Georges Cziffra and George Cziffra; 5 November 1921 – 15 January 1994), was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer. He is considered to be one of the greatest pianists of all time. Among his teachers were István Thomán, who was a favourite pupil of Franz Liszt.
He became a French citizen in 1968. Cziffra is known for his recordings of works of Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin and Robert Schumann, and also for his technically demanding arrangements of several orchestral works for the piano – among them, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's Flight of the Bumblebee and Johann Strauss II's The Blue Danube.
Cziffra was born to a poor family in Budapest in 1921. In his memoirs Cziffra describes his father as "a cabaret artist". His parents had lived in Paris before World War I, when they were expelled as enemy aliens.
His earliest training in piano came from watching his sister practice. She had decided she was going to learn the piano after finding a job which allowed her to save the required amount of money for buying an upright piano. Cziffra, who was weak as a child, often watched his sister practice, and mimicked her. He learned without sheet music, instead repeating and improvising over tunes sung by his parents. Later he earned money as a child improvising on popular music at a local circus.
In 1930 Cziffra began to study at the Franz Liszt Academy under the tuition of Ernő Dohnányi until 1941, when he was conscripted into the Hungarian Army. He gave numerous concerts in Hungary, Scandinavia and the Netherlands.
Hungary was allied with the Axis during the Second World War. Cziffra had just married his wife Soleilka, who was pregnant when he entered military training. His unit was sent to the Russian front. He was captured by Russian partisans and held as a prisoner of war. After the war he earned a living playing in Budapest bars and clubs, touring with a European Jazz band from 1947–1950 and earning recognition as a superb Jazz pianist and virtuoso.
After attempting to escape communist Hungary in 1950 he was again imprisoned and subject to hard labour in the period 1950–1953. In 1956 Cziffra escaped with his wife and son to Vienna, where his recital was warmly received. His successful Paris debut the following year preceded his London debut at the Royal Festival Hall playing Liszt's first piano concerto and Hungarian Fantasy which was also well received. His career continued with concerts throughout Europe and debuts at the Ravinia Festival (Grieg and Liszt concertos with Carl Schuricht) and Carnegie Hall, New York with Thomas Schippers.
Cziffra always performed with a large leather wristband to support the ligaments of his wrist, which were damaged after he was forced to carry 130 pounds of concrete up six flights of stairs during his two years in a labor camp.
In Cannons and Flowers, his autobiography, which has been described as "a hallucinatory journey through privation, acclaim, hostility and personal tragedy", Cziffra recounts his life story up until 1977. In 1966, he founded the Festival de la Chaise-Dieu in the Auvergne, and three years later he inaugurated the piano competition named after him at Versailles. In 1968 he took French citizenship and adopted the first name 'Georges'. In 1977 he founded the Cziffra Foundation, sited in the Saint Frambourg chapel in Senlis, Oise, which he bought and restored, with the aim of helping young musicians at the outset of their careers.
Cziffra's son, György Cziffra Jr., was a professional conductor and participated in several concerts and recordings with his father. However, his promising career was cut short by his death in an apartment fire in 1981. Cziffra never again performed or recorded with an orchestra, and some critics have commented that the severe emotional blow affected his playing quality.
List of compositions
- Improvisation en forme de valse (1950)
- Ouverture Solennelle (Solemn Overture), for piano
- Pastorale pour Gerbert, for piano or organ (1976)
Arrangements and transcriptions
- Johannes Brahms: 15 Hungarian Dances (transcriptions of Nos. 1-6, 8-10, 12, 13, 16, 17, 19, and 21, from piano duet to piano solo) (c.1950?)
- Johannes Brahms: Hungarian Dance No. 5 (improv version) (1950s?)
- Johannes Brahms: Waltz Op. 39 No. 15 (1993?, much earlier?)
- Frederic Chopin: Minute Waltz (1993?)
- Antonin Dvorak: Improvisation (1988)
- Manuel de Falla: Ritual Fire Dance (c.1955?)
- Edvard Grieg: The Hall of the Mountain King (1988)
- Aram Khachaturian: Sabre Dance (c.1955?)
- Franz Lehar: Gold and Silver Waltz (1993)
- Franz Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 19 (1950s?)
- Jacques Offenbach: Barcarolle (1993)
- Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov: Flight of the Bumblebee (c.1955?)
- Gioachino Rossini: La Danza (1950s?)
- Gioachino Rossini: Improvisations on Themes from Rossini's William Tell (AKA William Tell Fantasy) (version of the William Tell Overture) (1956)
- Johann Strauss II: An der schönen, blauen Donau (The Blue Danube) (c.1955?)
- Johann Strauss II: Die Fledermaus (1st version) (1950-55)
- Johann Strauss II: Die Fledermaus (2nd, shortened version) (1955)
- Johann Strauss II: Réminiscences de Johann Strauss (from various Strauss compositions) (1956)
- Johann Strauss II: Tritsch-Tratsch Polka (c.1955?)
- Johann Strauss II: Der Zigeunerbaron (The Gypsy Baron) (c.1955?)
- Franz von Vecsey: Valse triste (c.1955?)
- Giuseppe Verdi: Concert Paraphrase on Themes from the Opera Il trovatore by G. Verdi (c.1955?)
- Giuseppe Verdi: Improvisation on a Theme from La Traviata (Libiamo ne' lieti calici) (1993)
- Vincent Youmans: Tea for Two, improvisation (1977)
- Traditional: Román cigányfantázia (Rumanian Gypsy Fantasy) (AKA Fantaisie roumaine, improvisation in gypsy style) (1957)
- Many improvisations on various classical pieces, performed in live concerts throughout Cziffra's concertizing career, beginning mostly around 1953)
- Numerous improvisations on popular tunes, performed early in Cziffra's career beginning in 1926)
- Numerous jazz improvisations (mostly 1947-50, 1977-78)
- Siek, Stephen (2016). A Dictionary for the Modern Pianist. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 34. ISBN 9780810888807. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
- Morrison (n.d.).
- Cziffra (2006), "Prelude"
- Cziffra (2006), "In the Circus Ring"
- Summers (n.d.)
- "We remember Georges Cziffra". PORT.hu. 1994. Retrieved 5 June 2018. Cited in: LOPARITS, ELIZABETH, D.M.A. Hungarian Gypsy Style in the Lisztian Spirit: Georges Cziffra’s Two Transcriptions of Brahms’ Fifth Hungarian Dance. Dissertation, University of North Carolina Greensboro, 2008.
- Seidle, Peter (2001). "Georges Cziffra". In Finscher, Ludwig (ed.). Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Allgemeine Enzyklopedie der Musik. Kassel: Bärenreiter. p. 235. Cited in: LOPARITS, ELIZABETH, D.M.A. Hungarian Gypsy Style in the Lisztian Spirit: Georges Cziffra’s Two Transcriptions of Brahms’ Fifth Hungarian Dance. Dissertation, University of North Carolina Greensboro, 2008.
- "Gyorgy Cziffra, Pianist And Artists' Patron, 72". The New York Times. 1994-01-18. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- Cziffra, György, tr. John Hornsby (2006). Cannons and Flowers, on MusicWeb International web site, accessed 8 September 2016.
- Morrison, Bryce (n.d.). "Cziffra, György [Georges]"[permanent dead link] in Oxford Music Online, accessed 6 September 2016. (subscription required).
- Summers, Jonathan (n.d.). "Gyorgy Cziffra", from A-Z of Pianists, Naxos Records web-site, accessed 6 September 2016.
- New York Times, Obituaries, Published: January 18, 1994.