Gymnemic acid

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Gymnemic acids are glycosides isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae). Gymnemic acids like ziziphin and hodulcine are anti-sweet compounds, or sweetness inhibitors. After chewing the leaves, solutions sweetened with sucrose taste like water.

Gymnemic acid [1]? itself is C43H66O14[1] (it has a 5 ring core with an attached sugar).

The simplest is gymnemagenin, C30H50O6.[2] The other members have variations at up to four sites around the 5 ring core.[3]

More than 20 homologues of gymnemic acid are found in the leaves.[4] Gymnemic acid 1 has the highest anti-sweet properties. It suppresses the sweetness of most of the sweeteners including intense artificial sweeteners such as aspartame and natural sweeteners such as thaumatin, a sweet protein. The anti-sweet activity is reversible, but sweetness recovery on the tongue can take more than 10 minutes.[5]

See also[edit]

  • other anti-sweetners :
    • Hodulcine, a dammarane-type triterpene glycoside from the leaves of Hovenia dulcis
    • Lactisole, Sodium 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoate
    • Ziziphin, a triterpene glycoside, C51H80O18


  1. ^ Gymnemic acid shows structure
  2. ^ gymnemagenin
  3. ^ Synthesis, biology and clinical significance of pentacyclic triterpenes: a multi-target approach to prevention and treatment of metabolic and vascular diseases for structure list see external links below
  4. ^ AD kinghorn and CM Compadre. Less common high-potency sweeteners. In Alternative Sweeteners: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, L O'Brien Nabors,Ed., New York, 1991. ISBN 0-8247-8475-8
  5. ^ Kurihara, Y. 1992. Characteristics of antisweet substances, sweet proteins, and sweetness-inducing proteins. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 32:231-252.

External links[edit]