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Gymnodinium sp.jpg
Scientific classification
(unranked): SAR
(unranked): Alveolata
Phylum: Dinoflagellata
Class: Dinophyceae[1]
Order: Gymnodiniales
Family: Gymnodiniaceae
Genus: Gymnodinium
Stein, 1878

Gymnodinium is a genus of dinoflagellates. It is one of the few naked dinoflagellates, or species lacking armor (cellulosic plates). Since 2000, the species which had been considered to be part of Gymnodinium have been divided into several genera, based on the nature of the apical groove and partial LSU rDNA sequence data.[2] Amphidinium was redefined later.[3][4]


  1. ^ Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "Gymnodinium". AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  2. ^ Daugbjerg, N.; Hansen, G.; Larsen, J.; Moestrup, Ø. (2000). "Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates". Phycologia. 39: 302–317. doi:10.2216/i0031-8884-39-4-302.1. 
  3. ^ Flo Jorgensen, M., Murray, S., Daugbjerg, N. 2004a. Amphidinium revisited. I. Redefinition of Amphidinium (Dinophyceae) based on cladistic and molecular phylogenetic analysis, Journal of Phycology 40, 351-365.
  4. ^ Murray, S.; Flo Jorgensen, M.; Daugbjerg, N.; Rhodes, L. "Amphidinium revisited. II. Resolving species boundaries in the Amphidinium operculatum species complex (Dinophyceae), including the descriptions of Amphidinium trulla sp. nov. and Amphidinium gibbosum comb. nov". Journal of Phycology. 40: 366–382. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.03132.x. 

Further reading[edit]

Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Shoshani, Liora (December 2014). "Apoptosis of hemocytes from lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus induced with paralyzing shellfish poison from Gymnodinium catenatum". Contreras. 219 (12): 964–974. doi:10.1016/j.imbio.2014.07.006. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 

Thessen, Annie E.; Patterson, David J.; Murray, Shauna A. (30 August 2012). "The Taxonomic Significance of Species That Have Only Been Observed Once: The Genus Gymnodinium (Dinoflagellata) as an Example". PLOS ONE. 7 (8): e44015. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044015. PMC 3431360Freely accessible. PMID 22952856. Retrieved 12 February 2015.