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Gymnodinium sp.jpg
Scientific classification

Stein, 1878

Gymnodinium is a genus of dinoflagellates, a type of marine plankton. It is one of the few naked dinoflagellates, or species lacking armor (cellulosic plates). Since 2000, the species which had been considered to be part of Gymnodinium have been divided into several genera, based on the nature of the apical groove and partial LSU rDNA sequence data.[2] Amphidinium was redefined later.[3][4] Gymnodinium belong to red dinoflagellates that, in concentration, can cause red tides.[5]


  1. ^ Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "Gymnodinium". AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved 2009-02-21.
  2. ^ Daugbjerg, N.; Hansen, G.; Larsen, J.; Moestrup, Ø. (2000). "Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates". Phycologia. 39 (4): 302–317. doi:10.2216/i0031-8884-39-4-302.1.
  3. ^ Jorgensen, M. Flo; Murray, S.; Daugbjerg, N. (2004). "Amphidinium revisited. I. Redefinition of Amphidinium (Dinophyceae) based on cladistic and molecular phylogenetic analysis". Journal of Phycology. 40 (2): 351–365. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004.03131.x.
  4. ^ Murray, S.; Flo Jorgensen, M.; Daugbjerg, N.; Rhodes, L. (2004). "Amphidinium revisited. II. Resolving species boundaries in the Amphidinium operculatum species complex (Dinophyceae), including the descriptions of Amphidinium trulla sp. nov. and Amphidinium gibbosum comb. nov". Journal of Phycology. 40 (2): 366–382. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.03132.x.
  5. ^ Rollo, Franco; Sassarolil, Stefano; Boni, Laurita; Marota, Isolina (1995-04-28). "Molecular typing of the red-tide dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra in phytoplankton suspensions" (PDF). Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 9: 55. doi:10.3354/ame009055. Retrieved 2015-04-25.

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