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Scientific classification

Mikrjukov & Mylnikov, 1996
  • Gymnophrea Mikrjukov & Mylnikov 1998
  • Gymnophryida

Gymnophryidae is a small family of amoeboids that lack shells and produce thin, reticulose pseudopods. These contain microtubules and have a granular appearance, owing to the presence of extrusomes, but are distinct from the pseudopods of Foraminifera. They are included among the Cercozoa (along with Lecythium),[1][2] but differ from other cercozoans in having mitochondria with flat cristae, rather than tubular cristae.

Gymnophrys cometa, found in freshwater and soil, is representative of the group. The cell body is under 10 μm in size, and has a pair of reduced flagella, which are smooth and insert parallel to one another. It may also produce motile zoospores and cysts. Gymnophrys and Borkovia are the only confirmed genera, but other naked reticulose amoebae such as Biomyxa may be close relatives.


  • Family Gymnophryidae Mikrjukov & Mylnikov 1996
    • Genus Gymnophrys Cienkowski 1876
    • Genus Borkovia Mikrjukov & Mylnikov 1996
      • Species Borkovia cometa Mikrjukov & Mylnikov 1996 [Gymnophrys cometa Cienkowski 1876 sensu Penard 1921 non Cienkowski 1876; Borkovia desaedeleeri Mikrjukov & Mylnikov 1996][4]


  1. ^ Nikolaev, S.I.; et al. (2003). "Gymnophrys cometa and Lecythium sp. are Core Cercozoa: Evolutionary Implications" (PDF). Acta Protozoologica. 42: 183–190. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-06-17.
  2. ^ Bass D, Chao EE, Nikolaev S, et al. (February 2009). "Phylogeny of novel naked Filose and Reticulose Cercozoa: Granofilosea cl. n. and Proteomyxidea revised". Protist. 160 (1): 75–109. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2008.07.002. PMID 18952499.
  3. ^ Brands, Sheila (August 14, 2008). "Systema Naturae 2000 / Classification, Species Gymnophrys cometa". The Taxonomicon. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  4. ^ Brands, Sheila (August 14, 2008). "Systema Naturae 2000 / Classification, Species Borkovia cometa". The Taxonomicon. Retrieved 9 November 2016.