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|Place of origin||China|
|Region or state||East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Western Asia|
|Main ingredients||Dough, ground meat or vegetables|
|Cookbook: Jiaozi Media: Jiaozi|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||pot sticker|
|Second alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||flat food|
|Nepali||म:म: or ममचा|
Jiaozi are a kind of Chinese dumpling, commonly eaten across Eastern, Central, Southern and Western Asia. Though considered part of Chinese cuisine, jiaozi are often eaten in many other Asian countries.
Jiaozi typically consist of a ground meat and/or vegetable filling wrapped into a thinly rolled piece of dough, which is then sealed by pressing the edges together or by crimping. Jiaozi should not be confused with wonton, jiaozi have a thicker skin and a relatively flatter, more oblate, double-saucer like shape (similar in shape to ravioli), and are usually eaten with a soy-vinegar dipping sauce (and/or hot chili sauce); while wontons have thinner skin and are usually served in broth. The dough for the jiaozi and wonton wrappers also consist of different ingredients.
Chinese dumplings (jiaozi) may be divided into various types depending on how they are cooked:
- Boiled dumplings (Chinese: 水餃; pinyin: shuǐjiǎo; literally: "water dumpling")
- Steamed dumplings (Chinese: 蒸餃; pinyin: zhēngjiǎo; literally: "steam dumpling")
- Pan fried dumplings (Chinese: 鍋貼; pinyin: guōtiē; literally: "pan stick", also referred to as Chinese: 煎餃; pinyin: jiānjiǎo; literally: "dry-fried dumplings").
Dumplings that use egg rather than dough to wrap the filling are called "egg dumplings" (Chinese: 蛋餃; pinyin: dànjiǎo; literally: "egg dumpling").
Common dumpling meat fillings include pork, mutton, beef, chicken, fish, and shrimp, which are usually mixed with chopped vegetables. Popular vegetable fillings include napa cabbage, scallion (spring onions), leek, celery and garlic chives.
Origin and customs
Traditionally, jiaozi were thought to invented by Zhang Zhongjing during the Eastern Han, who was one of the greatest practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine in history. They were originally referred to as "tender ears" (Chinese: 娇耳; pinyin: jiao'er) because they were used to treat frostbitten ears. There are various other theories. It has been suggested that jiaozi may have derived from dumplings in Western Asia, particularly during Mongol rule of the Yuan, however, sources indicate that similar dumplings were already sold and eaten during and before the Song dynasty. Some researchers do not discount the possibility that it may have originated in the Middle East and spread eastward to China and Korea through the Silk Road.
Jiaozi are one of the major foods eaten during the Chinese New Year and year round in the northern provinces. They look like the golden ingots yuan bao used during the Ming Dynasty for money and the name sounds like the word for the earliest paper money, so serving them is believed to bring prosperity. Many families eat these at midnight on Chinese New Year's Eve. Some cooks will even hide a clean coin for the lucky to find.
Jiaozi were so named because they were horn shaped. The Chinese word for "horn" is jiao (Chinese: 角; pinyin: jiǎo), and jiaozi was originally written with the Chinese character for "horn", but later it was replaced by a specific character 餃, which has the food radical on the left and the phonetic component jiāo (交) on the right.
Jiaozi are eaten all year round, and can be eaten at any time of the day – breakfast, lunch or dinner. They can constitute one course, starter or side dish, or the main meal. In China, jiaozi are sometimes served as a last course during restaurant meals. As a breakfast dish, jiaozi are prepared alongside xiaolongbao at inexpensive, roadside restaurants. Typically, they are served in small steamers containing ten pieces each. Although mainly consumed at breakfast, these small restaurants keep them hot on steamers, and ready to eat all day.
As a dish prepared at home, each family has its own preferred method of making them, using favourite fillings, with types and methods of preparation varying widely from region to region.
Gaau and jau gok
Cantonese style Chinese dumplings called gaau (Chinese: 餃; Tongyong Pinyin: gaau) are standard fare in dim sum. The immediate noted difference to jiaozi is that they are smaller and wrapped in a thinner translucent skin, and usually steamed. The smaller size and the thinner wrapper make the dumplings easier to cook through with steaming. In contrast to jiaozi, gaau are rarely home-made. Similar to jiaozi, many types of fillings exist. The most common type are shrimp dumplings (har gow), but fillings can include scallop, chicken, tofu, mixed vegetables, and others; dim sum restaurants often feature their own house specials or innovations. Dim sum chefs and artists often use ingredients in new or creative ways, or draw inspiration from other Chinese culinary traditions, such as Chaozhou, Hakka, or Shanghai. More creative chefs may even incorporate a fusion from other cultures, such as Japanese (teriyaki) or Southeast Asian (satay, curry), while upscale restaurants may use expensive or exotic ingredients such as lobster, shark fin and bird's nest.
Guotie (simplified Chinese: 锅贴; traditional Chinese: 鍋貼; pinyin: guōtiē; literally: "pot stick") is pan-fried jiaozi, also known as potstickers in North America (a direct character translation), or yaki-gyoza in Japan. They are a Northern Chinese style dumpling popular as a street food, appetizer, or side order in Chinese. This dish is sometimes served on a dim sum menu, but may be offered independently. The filling for this dish usually contains pork (sometimes chicken, or beef in Muslim areas), cabbage (or Chinese cabbage and sometimes spinach), scallions (spring or green onions), ginger, Chinese rice wine or cooking wine, and sesame seed oil.
Guotie are shallow-fried in a wok (Mandarin "guo"). A small quantity of water is added and the wok is covered. While the base of the dumplings is fried, the upper part is steamed and this gives a texture contrast typical of Chinese cuisine.
An alternative method is to steam in a wok and then fry to crispness on one side in a shallow frying pan.
Exactly the same dumpling is boiled in plenty of water to make jiaozi and both are eaten with a dipping sauce or chilli paste.
Three or five folds are made on one side of the round wrapper that is rolled so that the edges are thinner than the middle. This gives the base a large surface area that helps to give the dumpling stability to stand up in the pan.
The Chinese method of preparing the dough is to pour boiling water onto the flour and letting stand for five minutes and then adding a small quantity of cold water. This helps to activate the gluten in the dough.
Other names for guotie:
- Peking ravioli – In Boston, guotie are known as "Peking ravioli", a name first coined at the Joyce Chen Restaurant in Cambridge, MA, in 1958.
- Wor tip (Cantonese Jyutping: wo1 tip3) is the Cantonese reading of the same Chinese characters that in Mandarin is read as guotie'
Guotie is said to date back over four millennia. However, the first mention in literature dates back to the Song Dynasty (960–1280 AD) in ancient China reporting guotie as being exceptionally good for the human soul.
There are many methods for folding the skin, including putting a single pleat in the middle, putting multiple pleats along the edge, making a wavy edge like a pie crust, turning a pleated edge in toward the body resulting in a rounded edge, and putting both ends together resulting in a round shape.
The Japanese word gyōza (ギョーザ, ギョウザ) was derived from the reading of 餃子 in the Shandong Chinese dialect (giaozi) and is written using the same Chinese characters read as Kanji. The selection of characters indicates that the word is of non-Japanese origin.
The most prominent differences between Japanese-style gyōza and Chinese-style jiaozi are the rich garlic flavor, which is less noticeable in the Chinese version, the light seasoning of Japanese gyōza with salt and soy sauce, and the fact that gyōza wrappers are much thinner. Of course, jiaozi vary greatly across regions within China, so these differences are not always substantial. Gyōza are usually served with soy-based tare sauce seasoned with rice vinegar and/or rāyu (known as chili oil in English, làyóu (辣油) in China). The most common recipe is a mixture of minced chicken, cabbage, and nira (Chinese chives), and sesame oil, and/or garlic, and/or ginger, which is then wrapped into thinly rolled dough skins. In essence, gyōza are similar in shape to pierogi.
The most popular preparation method is the pan-fried style called yaki-gyōza (焼き餃子), in which the dumpling is first fried on one flat side, creating a crispy skin. Then, water is added and the pan sealed with a lid, until the upper part of the gyōza is steamed. Other popular methods include boiled sui-gyōza (水餃子) and deep fried age-gyōza (揚げ餃子).
Store bought frozen dumplings are often prepared at home by first placing them in a pot of water which is brought to a boil, and then transferring them to a pan with oil to fry the skin.
The Nepali version is known as momo (Nepali: मम). The word "momo" comes from a Chinese loanword "momo" (馍馍). which translates to "steamed bread". When preparing momo, flour is filled, most commonly with ground water buffalo meat. Often, ground lamb or chicken meat is used as alternate to water buffalo meat. Finely chopped onion, minced garlic, fresh minced ginger, cumin powder, salt, coriander/cilantro, etc. are added to meat for flavoring. Sauce made from cooked tomatoes flavored with timur (Szechwan pepper), minced red chilies is often served along with momo.
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- "Frozen ears: The story of gyozas". The Malay Mail.
One would always have suspected that the ubiquitous Japanese gyoza originated from China – and one would be completely right, unlike most economists. The origins of the gyoza are said to stem from the treatments invented by Zhang Zhongjing (150 – 219 AD), a Han Dynasty physician born in Nanyang. One of his inventions was the jiaozi (though it was originally called “tender ears”) and they were used to treat frostbitten ears during the freezing winters.
- "Seeking XLB". The Austin Chronicle.
Chinese dumplings are said to have begun near the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty with Zhang Zhongjing (AD150-219), a famous northern Chinese medicinal herbalist known as "The Medicine Saint."
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- 'Harold M. Tanner, "China: A History", p. 261'
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- Norman, Jerry (1988) Chinese, Cambridge University Press, p76-77.
- "What is Peking Ravioli?". About.com. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Hansen 2012, p. 11.
- "餃子". 百度百科. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- Jīn Péng 金鹏 (ed.): Zàngyǔ jiǎnzhì 藏语简志. Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社, Beijing 1983, p. 31.