Gypsy horse

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Gypsy Vanner horse)
Jump to: navigation, search
Gypsy horse
Distinguishing features Cob conformation, often piebald or skewbald, feathered heels
Alternative names
  • Cob
  • Coloured Cob
  • Gypsy Cob
  • Gypsy Horse
  • Irish Cob
  • Tinker Horse
  • Gypsy Vanner
Country of origin Ireland, United Kingdom
Common nicknames Gypsy (USA), Tinker (Europe)
Breed standards
Gypsy Vanner Horse Society (USA) Breed standards
Irish Cob Society (Ireland, UK) Breed standards
Gypsy Cob and Drum Horse Association (USA) Breed standards
Gypsy Horse Registry of America (USA) Breed standards
Gypsy Horse Association (USA) Breed standards
Australasian Gypsy Horse Society Breed standards
Equus ferus caballus

The Irish Cob or Coloured Cob is a type or breed of domestic horse from the British Isles. It a small, solidly-built horse of cob conformation and is often, but not always, piebald or skewbald. It is the only broken-coloured horse breed of the British Isles, and is particularly associated with the Pavee and Roma travelling peoples of Britain and Ireland. There was no stud-book or breed association for horses of this type until 1996.[1] It is now considered a breed[1] and can be registered with a number of breed associations.[a] It may also be known as the Gypsy Horse, Gypsy Cob, Gypsy Vanner or Tinker Horse. The Drum Horse is similar in appearance, but larger.

From about 1850 travelling people in the British Isles began to use a distinct type of horse to pull their vardos, the caravans in which they had just begun to live and travel. The colour and look of the breed were refined in the years after the Second World War. Horses of this type were first exported to the United States in 1996.


The Gypsy horse is usually, but not always, piebald.[11] It may also be skewbald or any solid colour; a solid-coloured horse with white splashing on the underbelly is called "blagdon" or "splashed".[12] There is no coat colour requirement in the breed standard of the Irish Cob Society,[12]Gypsy Vanner Horse Society,[13] Gypsy Horse Registry of America, [14] or Australasian Gypsy Horse Society.[15] Since the horse originates in the British Isles, British colour names may be used in registration in the United States.[13][16]

Feather on the lower legs
A solid-coloured cob
Hocks of a foal

There are many breed societies for the Gypsy horse, with mostly minor variations in their respective breed standards. The range of desired heights is generally from 13 to 16 hands (52 to 64 inches, 132 to 163 cm) in the United States and Australasia,[16][15] but in Ireland and continental Europe, the desired height limit goes up to 16.2 hands (66 inches, 168 cm) for some types and they permit both lighter-boned as well as larger horses than typically desired by the American organisations.[12][12][17][17] [b] Some stud-books have different categories: The Gypsy Horse Registry of America has two height classifications: Section A for purebred horses under 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) and Section B for purebred horses 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) and over. Its Section C is for Gypsy Crossbred horses.[20] The Netherlands stud-book for Gypsy horses, the Nederlands Stamboek voor Tinkers, identified there as the "Tinker horse," classifies horses into three groups: "cob," "vanner," and "grai," based on height in metres and degree of refinement. The cob type is approximately 14.3 to 15.1 hands (59 to 61 inches, 150 to 155 cm), and the vanner 15.1 to 16.2 hands (61 to 66 inches, 155 to 168 cm). The more refined "grai" may be of any size but is typically within the 14.3- to 16.2-hand range.[17]

Feathering or "Feather", long hair starting below the knee of the front legs and the hock of the hind legs and running down the leg to flow over the front and back of the hooves, is a highly valued attribute of the Gypsy Horse.[13][16][14] Silky straight hair and feather are desirable, though somewhat coarser and even wavy hair and feather are permitted.[15] Kinky hair, however, is considered to be a fault.[13] Feathering is not a requirement for registration with the Irish Cob Society, which, however, considers feathering a "characteristic and decorative feature of the Irish Cob breed"; the standard states: "[l]eg hair/feathering, should at the very least, fall from the back of the knees and hocks, down to a thick covering of hair/feathers on the heels. Leg hair/feathering should also fall over the front of the hoof, from at least the coronet."[12][c]

A Gypsy Horse's facial profile should be straight, neither overly dished nor roman nosed. A "sweet" head, more refined than that of most draught horses, is desired.[22] The GHA's breed standard states that the head may be "sweet", "a small, tidy pony type head",[23] meaning without coarseness and in proportion with the body,[16] but the AGHS calls unequivocally for a sweet head, "more refined than a Shire might have . . . with broad forehead, generous jaw, square muzzle, and even bite".[15] According to GVHS, the "forehead must be flat and broad . . . with [t]he frontal facial bone . . . flat to slightly convex".[13]

The neck is strong, muscular, and of medium length "with a throat latch slightly deeper than lighter breeds".[16][24] The chest should be broad, deep, and well muscled.[16][15][14] Withers are "well rounded, not high and fine, i.e., hardly noticeable".[15] Most standards call for a "well-sloped" shoulder [16][15][24] But the GVHS's standard is more precise, specifying a shoulder angle ranging from 45 degrees to 60 degrees.[13] The back is to be short coupled with well sprung ribs and a deep heart girth.[15][14] The length of line of the belly should be twice that of the topline of the back and the horse should not appear 'wasp waisted'.[23] The Dutch breed standard for vanner and cob types requires a strong, well-muscled build with abundant feathering, similar to that of other associations. The "grai" is classified as a lighter and more refined riding type.[17]

Strong hindquarters define the breed as a small draught horse, "designed for strength and power, but with class, presence and style."[13] They are sometimes described as having an "apple butt"[16][23] as the croup is well rounded and "very generous, smooth and broad".[14] Poorly-muscled hindquarters or a too-sloping rump are unacceptable.[15] According to GVHS, the length of the hip from the point of the hip to the tailhead, should be slightly longer than the total length of the topline. The line measuring the length of the hip should also be horizontal; if the tailhead falls below the horizontal line intersecting the point of the hip, the horse's "hip/croup will be approaching too steep an angle for the Gypsy Vanner".[13]

Bone in the legs should be heavy, clean, and flat.[16][15][14][23][24] GVHS's standard calls for a length of forearm to cannon ratio of 55% to 45%.[13] The front legs should be clean and flat in joints as well as bone; front pasterns should slope at the same angle as the shoulder and should not be short.[23] A line drawn from the point of the buttock should touch the back of the hock, run "parallel" to the cannon bone, and touch the ground directly behind "the center of the heel".[13][23] Pastern and hoof angles of the hindlegs are more vertical than the forelegs, usually over 50 degrees.[13] Hooves have strong walls and a well shaped frog,[14] round and with wide heels.[16]

The hind legs of the Gypsy Horse should display proper angulation for a pulling horse,[23] although not to the degree found in larger feathered draught breeds such as the modern Shire and Clydesdale.[13][23][25] Unlike the equine conformational flaw of cow-hockedness,[25] where only the lower leg is turned outward, a Gypsy Horse's entire hind leg is set so as to angle outward. As a result, when the hind legs of a horse set up squarely are viewed from the rear, their cannon bones appear parallel.[23][26]

The Gypsy horse has distinct gaits. According to GHA's standard, "The stride should be correct, supple, and powerful. Showing good impulsion from behind, demonstrating powerful drive. Flowing, effortless in appearance".[16] The horse's movement should be "natural, not artificial . . . . Some have higher knee action than others, it's[sic] way of going can vary from short and economical to longer, reaching strides."[16] GHRA's standard requires "[a] steady forward walk with impulsion. Ground covering trot with a slight flick of feather at the point of extension."[14]

The Gypsy horse should be a "strong, kind, (very) intelligent partner that works willingly and harmoniously with its handler. They are also described as mannerly and manageable, eager to please, confident, courageous, alert, and loyal with a genuine sociable outlook. The Gypsy Horse is renowned for its gentle, tractable nature and sensible disposition."[27]

The Gypsy Horse is prone to diseases common to feathered draught horses. The most serious of these is chronic progressive lymphedema.[28] This condition may have a genetic component, as is a similar condition in humans. However, studies to date have not identified a causative gene.[29] Of less concern is pastern dermatitis ("greasy heels"). The moist environment under the feathering is an ideal environment for the combination of fungus and mites which are believed to cause it.


Historic image of a traveller family, vardo, and horse

The Gypsy Horse was bred by the Roma of Great Britain to pull the vardoes in which they lived and travelled.[30] The Roma had arrived in the British Isles by 1500 AD, but they did not begin to live in vardoes until around 1850.[31] Prior to that, they travelled in tilted carts or afoot and slept either under or in these carts or in small tents.[32] The peak usage of the Gypsy caravan occurred in the latter part of the 19th century and the first two decades of the 20th.[33]

Some aspects of training, management, and characteristics of a horse used to pull a vardo are unique. For example, the horse is trained not to stop until it reaches the top of a hill; otherwise it may not be able to get started again. Training begins at a very early age with the young horse tied "with a short rope from the head to the trace-ring on the collar of the shaft-horse", and led along on the off side.[34] An old hat is sometimes placed on a fearful horse's head so as to keep him from seeing back over the top of his blinkers at the wagon looming at his back. A horse used to pull a vardo which was a permanent home was usually in very good condition due to a combination of exercise, grazing a variety of greens in the hedgerows, and good quality care; the horse was considered part of the family.[35] Since the family's children lived in close proximity to the horse, one having "an unreliable temper could not be tolerated".[36]

The Gypsy Horse was also used to pull the "tradesman's cart . . . used in conjunction with the caravan as a runabout and work vehicle and whilst on a journey".[37] This is also known as a flatbed or a trolley, and examples appear in the annual London Harness Horse Parade.[38]

Horse and bow-top wagon near Broadwell, Warwickshire

The Gypsy Horse breed as it is today is thought to have begun to take shape shortly after the Second World War.[36][39] When the British Roma had first begun to live in vardoes around 1850, they used mules and cast off horses of any suitable breed to pull them.[30] These later included coloured horses which had become unfashionable in mainstream society and were typically culled.[40] Among these were a significant number of coloured Shire horses.[41] Many of these ended up with Romani breeders, and by the 1950s, they were considered valuable status symbols within that culture.[36] Spotted horses were very briefly in fashion around the time of the Second World War, but quickly went out of fashion in favour of the coloured horse, which has retained its popularity until the present day.[1] The initial greater height of the breed derived from the influence of both Clydesdales and Shires,[36] both of which possess "feather", long hair starting at the knee or hock and growing down to cover the hooves. Feather became and still remains highly valued.[42]

In the formative years of the Gypsy Horse, the Roma bred not only for specific colour, profuse feather, and greater bone, but also for increased action and smaller size. To increase action at the trot, they first tried Hackney Pony breeding, but this blood reduced both feather and bone. The Roma therefore turned to the Section D Welsh Cob to add a more animated trot to the breed without loss of other desired traits. Another trend in breeding was a steady decrease in height, a trend still present among many Roma breeders. In the 1990s, the breed's average height still was in excess of 15 hands (60 inches, 152 cm), but horses of 14.3 to 15 hands (59 to 60 inches, 150 to 152 cm) were beginning to be viewed as more desirable, primarily for economic reasons. John Shaw, a carriage painter from Milnrow, Rochdale, Lancaster, was quoted in 1993 as saying, "Very big, hairy coloureds are now in vogue. They are status symbols . . . but they are not really an economical animal. They cost too much to feed, harness and shoe. . . and they don't stand up to the work. For that you want the vanner type of 14.3 to 15 hands (59 to 60 inches, 150 to 152 cm)"; larger horses require more fodder than smaller ones, as well as larger harnesses and horseshoes.[42]

The breed most used by the Romani breeders to set not only the size but also the type of the future Gypsy Horse was the Dales Pony, described as "thick, strong, . . . active yet a great puller".[36] The Dales, a draught pony, preserved the bone, feather, and pulling capabilities derived from the Shire and Clydesdale breeds but in a smaller and therefore more economical package. The Dales and, to a lesser extent, the Fell Pony interbred with the Shire and Clydesdale provided the basis of today's Gypsy Horse.[39]

Since the Romani people who developed the Gypsy Horse[43] communicated pedigree and breed information orally,[1] information on foundation bloodstock and significant horses within the breed is mostly anecdotal. The two foundation sires of the breed are reportedly known as The Old Coal Horse and Sonny Mays' Horse.[39] A tentative pedigree of the Coal Horse, who supposedly earned his name by pulling a coal wagon in Dublin, Ireland, at some time in his life, has been pieced together from oral tradition.[44] It is said that The Coal Horse goes back to a grey Shire stallion known as Shaw's Grey Horse of Scotland. The origins of the breed appear to be Irish, and the name Connors appears prominently in the breed history. In a poorly recorded interview, well-respected breeder Henry Connors gives some of the lineage of the horse.[45] It includes horses with names such as Ben's of Bonafay, Jimmy Doyle's Horse of Ballymartin, Henry Connors' White Horse, The Lob Eared Horse, The Sham Horse, and Old Henry.

The Irish cob can be traced to the 18th century but also was long considered a type, not a breed, and varied somewhat in characteristics, though generally was bred for light draught and farm work but was also capable of being ridden. It originated from crossing Thoroughbred, Connemara pony and Irish Draught horses.[46]

Mare and foal near Builth Wells, Powys, Wales
At a horse show in Prague, in the Czech Republic

Beginning in 1996, a series of breed associations and societies was formed in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Among the are: the Gypsy Vanner Horse Society (1996), the Irish Cob Society (1998), the Gypsy Cob and Drum Horse Association (2002), the Gypsy Cob Society of America, later the Gypsy Horse Registry of America (2003), the Australasian Gypsy Horse Society (2007), and the NZ Gypsy Cob Association (2012).[citation needed]

The first known Gypsy Horses to come to America arrived in 1997 and were imported by American "discoverers" of the breed, Dennis and Cindy Thompson. Another early importer was Black Forest Shires & Gypsy Horses (2000-2012) which imported around 1700 horses, primarily Gypsy Horses. Since the Gypsy Horse had no registration before its entry into North America, horses' provenances, including importer, are of particular importance to their owners.[citation needed]

Coloured Cobs are bred by a number of well-established Romani breeders, many of whose families have done so for several generations.[47] And the trend of breeding down in size continues with 11- and 12-hand horses now common. Except for special occasions, these horses are typically not being used for their original purpose, pulling a living wagon, but are instead viewed in terms of heirloom bloodlines and are a source of great pride.[citation needed]


Breeders of the Gypsy Horse have typically called it simply "Cob" and "Coloured Cob" with a particularly good specimen being a "proper Cob". However, the term cob, defined as a short-legged, stout horse, is a body type rather than a breed.[48] As part of several efforts to have the Gypsy Horse recognised as a breed outside the Roma community, a more descriptive name was sought for it, starting in the 1990s.

The first known importers of the Gypsy Horse to North America, Dennis and Cindy Thompson, viewed the breed as unnamed and wanted it to be given what they viewed as a proper name. For this, they selected "Vanner",[49] which they had seen used in reference to a Gypsy Horse in Edward Hart's 1993 book,[d][50] and they incorporated it into the name of the American society they founded in 1996, the Gypsy Vanner Horse Society.[39]

The term "vanner" dates to at least 1888 and, prior to the Thompsons' adoption of it, also referred to a type of horse rather than to a distinct breed. According to the OED, a "vanner" is "a light horse suitable for drawing a small van", where "van", appearing in print with this meaning for the first time in the early 1800s, is "a covered vehicle chiefly employed for the conveyance of goods, usually resembling a large wood box with arched roof and opening from behind, but varying in size (and to some extent in form) according to the use intended".[51] Thus "vanner" was derived from the word "van", which the OED states was derived from "caravan". Since this latter term was not applied to a "chimneyed house on wheels", or vardo, until 1872,[52] the term "vanner" has no inherent connection with the Roma.

Writing in 1897, M. Horace Hayes described the "light vanner" as a horse of indeterminate breed "which we meet in vans, 'buses and tram-cars". It is in "a class intermediate between the light harness horse and the heavy draught horse".[53] Light vanners are thus "active, light cart horses that can trot freely and at fair speed".[54]

Caravans at Appleby Horse Fair

Before the formation of the American society in 1996, the term "vanner" appears in two printed sources in association with these horses, both ascribing the vanner type to the horse. In 1979, Harvey described a Roma-owned horse, most likely an ancestor of today's Gypsy Horse and clearly a crossbred, as "[a] fair-sized vanner, about 15.2hh (15 1/2 hands) high, . . . [c]ross-shire, with a touch of Clydesdale? Lineage is often hard to trace."[55] Publishing in 1993 in the first known acknowledgment of the Gypsy Horse as a distinct breed outside Romani culture, Hart employs the term three times in reference to a Gypsy Horse, identifying specific Gypsy Horses as vanners.[42][50][56]

Founded subsequently in 1998, 2002, and 2003, respectively, the Irish Cob Society,[12] the Gypsy Cob and Drum Horse Association,[57] and the Gypsy Cob Society of America[58] referred to the breed as "Cob", the name used by its Romani breeders. The Gypsy Horse Association, incorporated in 2008, employed the name "Gypsy Horse" and states on its website that the organisation recognizes all breed names currently in use.[59] Also in 2008, the GCSA renamed itself the Gypsy Horse Registry of America.[60]

Another name used for the breed is "Tinker".[61] Breed associations in Belgium, Sweden and the Netherlands are listed in the Universal Equine Life Number database under the breed names "Tinker Horse" and "Tinker Pony."[62]

The Drum Horse[edit]

Mounted bands of the Household Cavalry at Trooping the Colour in 2007; the rider of the piebald drum horse works the reins with his feet

The Drum Horse in America is patterned after and named for the drum horse of the Household Cavalry, which carries the large silver drums which are beaten to mark march time. The drummer guides the horse with reins attached to his stirrups since his hands are needed for the drums. The drum horse is usually a Clydesdale cross and has frequently been coloured.[63]

The American Drum Horse may be treated as a breed, or as a specific Gypsy cross, depending on the breed society. GCDHA treats the Drum as a breed and maintains a stud-book for it. GCDHA's Drum Horse breed standard specifies a Gypsy Horse cross with Clydesdale, Shire, and/or Friesian making up the other bloodlines. Solid and blagdon patterned horses are registered but only as foundation stock.[64] Formed in 2006, the American Drum Horse Association, now the International Drum Horse Association, also treats the Drum as a breed but excludes Friesian bloodlines, allowing only Gypsy and Shire and/or Clydesdale and accepts solid and blagdon horses into its Drum Horse stud book.[65] In 2010, the Gypsy Horse Association opened a Gypsy Heritage Division for horses of Gypsy heritage (i.e., non-purebred horses having some Gypsy blood). It maintains stud books for Drum Horses, which it treats as a specific Gypsy Horse crossbreed having no less than 25% Gypsy with Clydesdale, Shire, and/or Friesian constituting the rest, and for Gypsy crossbreeds other than Drum Horses.[66]

One view of a Drum is as the return of coloured patterns to the Shire, from which it was culled when colour fell out of fashion in all UK breeds during the mid-1900s.[67] This vision of the Drum implicitly excludes the Friesian as a direct constituent breed for the Drum.


Horse-trading in the street in Appleby-in-Westmorland

Among the assorted associations and societies dedicated to the breed, there is some variety in services offered. The Gypsy Horse Registry of America includes size classifications in its stud-book.[68] The Gypsy Horse Association provides access to the identifying DNA markers, pedigrees (both anecdotal and DNA verified), and registration photos of most of its registered horses online and free of charge.[69] The Gypsy Horse Association[69] and the Gypsy Horse Registry of America[70] provide online stud-books. The Gypsy Vanner Horse Society provides access to its stud-book for a fee.[71] The Gypsy Cob and Drum Horse Association offers inspections[72] and some shows.[73]

Since registration for the Gypsy Horse has only existed within the last 20 years, most associations require a genetic analysis for registration, to verify identity and identify future offspring. All of the North American Gypsy Horse and Drum Horse societies employ the Animal Genetics Research Laboratory of the University of Kentucky to perform DNA analysis and maintain a database of registered horses' DNA markers.[74] UKY currently tests markers at 17 loci of a horse's genetic makeup. The aim of this analysis is to either exclude or fail to exclude another horse as a parent.[75][76] In a spirit of co-operation, five American breed societies have jointly granted the University of Kentucky permission to employ DNA markers in confirming parentage.[clarification needed] Since information regarding the past histories, including parentage, of many of the Gypsy Horses imported to North America was lost, many owners seek to reclaim the genetic roots of their animals, and services have sprung up to satisfy this desire.[77][78]

Because many of the horses submitted for registration have never been registered, the American organisations evaluate horses for registration by way of photos and provenance information such as import papers and bills of sale.[79][80][81][82]

Beginning in 2014, GVHS began restricting registration to horses sired by GVHS-registered stallions and out of mares whose DNA markers are available and confirm parentage. Only horses falling between 13 and 16 hands in height are eligible for registration, although the status of animals whose heights fall outside that range can be appealed to GVHS's board of directors.[80]

The Netherlands stud-book only allows full registration to offspring of horses previously registered with the NSvT; horses identified as Irish Cob, Gypsy Cob, Gypsy Vanner, Coloured Horse, Traveller Pony, Black and White, or Traditional Cob may be evaluated as potential breeding stock and, if suitable, recorded in a secondary register, with their offspring eligible for full registration. Horses must pass an inspection to be registered.[17] The Irish Cob Society also requires an inspection process.[12]


Under western saddle

Coloured horses are shown and traded at traditional horse fairs, of which Appleby Horse Fair is the most important. Many travellers go there in traditional horse-drawn caravans.[83] American photographer John S. Hockensmith documented such a journey in 2004, travelling with and photographing the Harker family's 60-mile journey to Appleby in bow-top living wagons.[84] Capstick and Donogue also published photographs taken at Appleby Fair, some vintage,[85] and Jones published photos taken at Yorkshire horse fairs, some from the early 1900s.[86]

In North America, the first known show classes dedicated to the Gypsy Horse were held at the Colorado Horse Park on 28–29 August 2004, during its annual draught horse show, employing the breed standard of the Gypsy Cob Society of America, now the Gypsy Horse Registry of America.[87] The first Gypsy breed show, the Ohio State Fair Gypsy Vanner Horse Show, sponsored by the Gypsy Vanner Horse Society, was held in 2005 in Columbus, Ohio. The 2006 and 2007 Ohio State Fair Gypsy Vanner Horse Shows included the first classes for Drum Horses ever held in the US. Currently there are a number of breed shows for the Gypsy Horse, including some classes for the Drum Horse, in the US and Canada.[88]

In harness

In the United States, the Gypsy Horse is used in many equestrian sports, by amateurs and youths,[89] and has done well in combined driving and dressage. A pair of Gypsies comprised a 2001 grand champion tandem driving team.[90][91] In 2004, the United States Dressage Federation accepted the Gypsy Vanner Horse Society as an affiliate member,[92] allowing horses registered with GVHS to compete in its dressage and dressage-related events.[39] The Gypsy Horse Association was accepted into the USDF programme in 2008; two other coloured horse associations had joined by 2011.[93] In 2010, a Gypsy stallion earned a championship in the USDF's All Breeds Program for his achievements in third level dressage.[94]


  1. ^ This includes breed organisations in Ireland,[2] the Netherlands,[3] Germany,[4] Denmark[5] Sweden[6] Czech Republic,[7] New Zealand,[8] four in the USA,[9] and two in Australia[10]
  2. ^ The Gypsy Vanner Horse Society prefers height between 13.2 to 15.2 hands (54 to 62 inches, 137 to 157 cm),[13] and will decline to register horses outside of the range 13 to 16 hands (52 to 64 inches, 132 to 163 cm)[18] The Australian Gypsy Horse Society between 13 to 15.1 hands (52 to 61 inches, 132 to 155 cm)[15] the Gypsy Horse Association[16] and Western Australian Gypsy Horse Society prefers animals 13 to 15.2 hands (52 to 62 inches, 132 to 157 cm)[19]
  3. ^ With respect to feather, note that the plural (i.e., "feathers") is never used in reference to a horse's feather. Instead this is always referred to as "feather" or "feathering".[21]
  4. ^ The Coloured Horse and Pony, p. 58-71.


  1. ^ a b c d Hart 1993 p. 58
  2. ^ "Irish Cob Society, Ltd.". Irish Cob Society. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  3. ^ "Vereniging NSvT - Het Nederlands Stamboek voor Tinkers". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  4. ^ "ish And Traditional Cobs Europe". 6 August 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  5. ^ "Dansk Tinker Forening". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  6. ^ "Svenska Tinkerhästsällskapet". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  7. ^ "Index". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  8. ^ "New Zealand". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  9. ^ these are Gypsy Cob Society of America, Gypsy Horse Association, Gypsy Horse Registry of America, and Gypsy Vanner Horse Society
  10. ^ These are the Gypsy Horse Australasian Society and Western Australian Gypsy Horse Society.
  11. ^ Johnson 2008, p. 314
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Irish Cob Society Ltd. Breed Standard". Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Gypsy Vanner Horse Society". Retrieved 28 February 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h "Gypsy Horse Registry of America Breed Standard". Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "AGCS Breed Standard". Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Gypsy Horse Association". Retrieved 28 February 2013. 
  17. ^ a b c d e "Registration rules and Stud Rules" (PDF). Nederlands Stamboek voor Tinkers. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  18. ^ "GVHS Registration Process" (PDF). Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  19. ^ "Western Australian Gypsy Horse Society". Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  20. ^ "G§ypsy Horse Registry of America". Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  21. ^ Hockensmith, p.
  22. ^ Lynghaug 2009, p. 393-394
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Black Forest Shires and Gypsy Horses". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  24. ^ a b c "NZ Gypsy Cob Association Inc. Breed Standard". Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  25. ^ a b "Gypsy Horse Association". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  26. ^ "Gypsy Vanner Horse Society". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  27. ^ "GHA Articles of Incorporation". Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  28. ^ "UCDavis". Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  29. ^ "Microsoft PowerPoint - CPL updated 2007.ppt" (PDF). Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  30. ^ a b Hart 1993 p. 62
  31. ^ Ward-Jackson p. 22
  32. ^ Ward-Jackson p. 29
  33. ^ Ward-Jackson p. 51
  34. ^ Ward-Jackson p. 59
  35. ^ Ward-Jackson p. 61
  36. ^ a b c d e Hart 1993 p. 63
  37. ^ Jones p. 23
  38. ^ "London Harness Horse Parade". Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  39. ^ a b c d e "History". Gypsy Vanner Horse Society. Retrieved 28 February 2013. 
  40. ^ Hart 1993 pp. 62-63
  41. ^ Hart 1993 p. 43
  42. ^ a b c Hart 1993 p. 64
  43. ^ Lynghaug 2009, p. 387
  44. ^ "Coal Horse Pedigree". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  45. ^ "Interview with Old Henry Connors". Clononeen Farm. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  46. ^ Hendricks 2007, p. 234
  47. ^ "Dunn Roaming". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  48. ^ "British Horse Show Association Rule Book 2013". 2013. p. 4. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  49. ^ "Tribute to Fred Walker" (PDF). Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  50. ^ a b Hart 1993 p. 59
  51. ^ OED, p. 3588
  52. ^ OED, p. 337
  53. ^ Hayes 1897 p. 125
  54. ^ Hayes 1897 p. 252
  55. ^ Harvey p. 56
  56. ^ Hart 1993 p. 126
  57. ^ "Gypsy Cob and Drum Horse Association". Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  58. ^ "GHRA". "GHRA". Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  59. ^ "Gypsy Horse Association". Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  60. ^ "Gypsy Horse Registry of America". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  61. ^ Breed data sheet: Tinker/Germany. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed November 2015.
  62. ^
  63. ^ Dallal pp. ?
  64. ^ "GCDHA Drum Horse Information". "GCDHA". Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  65. ^ "ADHA". Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  66. ^ "GHA Gypsy Heritage Division". Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  67. ^ "Black Forest Shires & Gypsy Horses: Drums". Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  68. ^ "GHRA Rulebook" (PDF). Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  69. ^ a b "GHA Registered Horses". Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  70. ^ "GHRA Stud Book" (PDF). Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  71. ^ "GVHS Studbook". Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  72. ^ "GCDHA Inspections". Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  73. ^ "GCDHA Shows". Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  74. ^ "GHA DNA Testing". Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  75. ^ "UKY" (PDF). Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  76. ^ "GHADNA". Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  77. ^ "DNA Database". Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  78. ^ "GVHSStudbook". Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  79. ^ "Gypsy Horse Association Registration Rules". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  80. ^ a b "GVHS Registration Procedures" (PDF). Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  81. ^ "GHRA Registration Procedure". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  82. ^ "IDHA Registration Rules". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  83. ^ "Appleby Horse Fair". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  84. ^ Hockensmith 2006 p. 12
  85. ^ Capstick and Donoghue
  86. ^ Jones
  87. ^ "Parker CO Horse Show". Black Forest Shires & Gypsy Horses. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  88. ^ "Events". Gypsy Horse Association. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  89. ^ Graybeal Gypsy Horse Association p. 58
  90. ^ "Esmeralda". WR Ranch. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  91. ^ "Showing". Bit a Both Farm. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  92. ^ "United States Dressage Federation". Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  93. ^ "USDF Connection" (PDF). Dec 2010 – Jan 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  94. ^ "Lake Ridge Gypsy Vanner Horses". 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 


External links[edit]