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Gyromitra esculenta
Gyromitra esculenta
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Pezizomycetes
Order: Pezizales
Family: Discinaceae
Genus: Gyromitra
Fr. (1849)
Type species
Gyromitra esculenta
(Pers.) Fr. (1849)

Gyromitra (/ˌrˈmtrə, ˌɪrə-/[1]) is a genus of ascomycete mushrooms found in the northern hemisphere. The genus contains about 18 species.[2]

Analysis of the ribosomal DNA of many of the Pezizales showed the genus Gyromitra to be most closely related to the genus Discina, and also Pseudorhizina, Hydnotrya, and only distantly related to Helvella. Thus the four genera are now included in the family Discinaceae.[3][4]

Gyromitra comes from gyro meaning convoluted and mitra meaning turban.


Some types of Gyromitra are highly poisonous when raw due to the presence of gyromitrin, although some species are edible when cooked and Gyromitra are sought after in Scandinavian countries. Widespread hemolysis has been reported from ingestion which can result in renal failure. Methemoglobinemia has also been seen, although it is typically responsive to treatment with methylene blue. Seizures can also develop via inhibition of the neurotransmitter GABA.[5]

List of species[edit]


  1. ^ "Gyromitra". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
  2. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  3. ^ O'Donnell K, Cigelnik E, Weber NS, Trappe JM. (1997). "Phylogenetic relationships among ascomycetous truffles and the true and false morels inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis". Mycologia. 89 (1): 48–65. doi:10.2307/3761172. JSTOR 3761172.
  4. ^ Hansen K, Pfister DH. (2006). "Systematics of the Pezizomycetes—the operculate discomycetes". Mycologia. 98 (6): 1029–1040. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.1029. PMID 17486978.
  5. ^ Brozen, R. "Mushroom Toxicity - Gyromitra Toxin.", Last updated: 2/29/08.