Gytha of Wessex
|Gytha of Wessex|
|Died||1098 or 1107|
|Spouse||Vladimir II Monomakh|
|Issue||Mstislav the Great|
Yaropolk II of Kiev
Viacheslav I of Kiev
Yuri Dolgorukiy (possibly)
|House||House of Godwin (by birth)|
Rurik Dynasty (by marriage)
Gytha of Wessex (born c. 1053/1061 - died 1098 or 1107; Old English: Gȳð) was one of several daughters of Harold Godwinson, the last Anglo-Saxon King of England, by his consort, Edyth Swannesha. Through marriage to Vladimir II Monomakh Gytha became a Grand Princess consort of Kievan Rus'.
According to the thirteenth-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, after the death of their father Harold Godwinson (d. 1066), Gytha and two of her brothers (probably Magnus, son of Harold Godwinson and one of Godwin and Edmund) escaped to the court of their first cousin once-removed, King Sweyn Estridsson of Denmark. The two brothers were treated by Sweyn with hospitality, Magnus entering into high-level service with Bolesław II the Generous while their sister was married to Waldemar, King of Ruthenia, i.e. Vladimir II Monomakh, one of the most famous rulers of Kievan Rus. This took place in 1069/1070 when Bolesław restored Grand Prince Iziaslav I of Kiev and Gertruda (Bolesław's aunt) to power after they had been deposed. Gytha played little role in Vladimir’s rule. As Vladimir explained in a book of 'Instructions' (Pouchenie) for his sons, written in the twelfth-century: “Love your wives, but grant them no power over you.”
Gytha was the mother of Mstislav the Great, the last ruler of united Kievan Rus. In the Norse sagas, Mstislav is called Harald, after his grandfather. The patericon of St. Pantaleon Cloister in Cologne says that "Gytha the Queen" (Gida regina) died as a nun on 10 March. A year later Vladimir Monomakh married another woman.
With Vladimir, Gytha had several children, including:
- Mstislav the Great (1076–1132)
- Izyaslav Vladimirovich, Prince of Kursk († 6 September 1096)
- Svyatoslav Vladimirovich, Prince of Smolensk and Pereyaslav († 16 March 1114)
- Yaropolk II of Kiev († 18 February 1139)
- Viacheslav I of Kiev († 2 February 1154)
Through her son Mstislav the Great she was an ancestor of all major Rurik rulers in Russian history, including Alexander Nevsky, Ivan I Kalita, Dmitry Donskoy, Ivan III the Great and Ivan IV the Terrible.
Through her son Mstislav the Great she was an ancestor of both Philippa of Hainault and King Edward III of England, hence of all subsequent English and British monarchs.
- Mason, House of Godwine, p. 201.
- Zajac, 'Marriage,' p. 722.
- Mason, House of Godwine, p. 199.
- Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum, vol. 2, 798– 801; Mason, House of Godwine, p. 200.
- Zajac, ‘The social-political roles of the princess,’ p. 125, citing The Povĕst’ Vremennykh Lĕt: An Interlinear Collation and Paradosis, ed., D. Ostrowski , 3 vols. (Cambridge, MA , 2003), vol. 3, 1917.
- Necrologium Sanctis Pantalaeonis Coloniensis, p. 18 (VI ides of March).
- Mason, House of Godwine, p. 200.
- Necrologium Sanctis Pantalaeonis Coloniensis, in Rheinische Urbare: Sammlung von Urbaren und anderen Quellen zur rheinischen Wirtschaftsgeschichte (Bonn, 1902), vol. 1.
- Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum: The History of the Danes, 2 vols. (Oxford, 2015).
- E. Mason, The House of Godwine: The History of a Dynasty (London, 2004).
- T. Zajac, 'Marriage Impediments in Canon Law and Practice: Consanguinity Regulations and the Case of Orthodox-Catholic Intermarriage in Kyivan Rus, ca. 1000 – 1250,' in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Congress of Medieval Canon Law, Toronto, 5-11 August 2012, ed. Joseph Goering, Stephan Dusil, and Andreas Thier (Vatican City, 2016), pp. 711-29.
- T. Zajac, ‘The social-political roles of the princess in Kyivan Rus’, ca. 945-1240,’ in E. Woodacre, ed., A Global Companion to Queenship (Leeds, 2018), pp. 125-146.
- S. Lewis, 'Gytha of Wessex, an Anglo-Saxon Russian Princess', blogpost