|Archbishop-Emeritus of Olinda e Recife|
|See||Olinda e Recife (Emeritus)|
|Installed||12 March 1964|
|Term ended||2 April 1985|
|Predecessor||Carlos Gouveia Coelho|
|Successor||José Cardoso Sobrinho|
|Consecration||20 April 1952|
by Jaime de Barros Câmara
|Birth name||Hélder Pessoa Câmara|
|Born||7 February 1909|
|Died||27 August 1999 (aged 90)|
|Motto||In manus tuas (into your hands)|
|Coat of arms|
Dom Hélder Pessoa Câmara (Portuguese: [dõ ˈɛwdeɾ peˈsoɐ ˈkɐ̃mɐɾɐ]; 7 February 1909 – 27 August 1999) was a Brazilian Catholic Archbishop. He was the Archbishop of Olinda and Recife, serving from 1964 to 1985, during the military regime of the country.
Câmara was an advocate of liberation theology. He did social and political work for the poor and for human rights and democracy during the military regime. Câmara preached for a church closer to the disfavoured people and for non-violence. He is quoted as having said, "When I give food to the poor, they call me a saint. When I ask why they are poor, they call me a communist."
Early life and education
He was born Hélder Pessoa Câmara in Fortaleza, Ceará, in the poor Northeast Region of Brazil. His father was an accountant and his mother was a primary school teacher. He was educated in local Catholic schools and entered seminary in 1923.
He was ordained a priest in 1931, with direct authorization of the Holy See over his premature age. Câmara was named auxiliary bishop of Rio de Janeiro by Pope Pius XII on 3 March 1952. During his first years as a priest he was a supporter of the far-right organization Integralismo, an ideological choice that he later rejected. He also founded two social organizations: the Ceará Legion of Work, in 1931, and the Women Workers' Catholic Union, in 1933. On 12 March 1964, Pope Paul VI appointed him Archbishop of Olinda e Recife.
During his tenure, Câmara was informally called the 'Bishop of the slums' for his clear position on the side of the urban poor. With other clerics, he encouraged peasants to free themselves from their conventional fatalistic outlook by studying the gospels in small groups and proposing the search for social change from their readings. He was active in the formation of the Brazilian Bishops’ Conference in 1952, and served as its first general secretary until 1964. In 1959 he founded Banco da Providência in Rio de Janeiro, a philanthropic organization to fight poverty and social injustice by facilitating the contraction of loans by poorer populations.
He attended all four sessions of the Second Vatican Council and played a significant role in drafting the Pastoral Constitution on The Church in the Modern World. On 16 November 1965, a few days before the Council ended, 40 bishops led by bishop Hélder Câmara met at night in the Catacombs of Domitilla outside Rome. They celebrated the Eucharist and signed a document under the title of the Pact of the Catacombs. In 13 points, they challenged their brother bishops to live lives of evangelical poverty: without honorific titles, privileges, and worldly ostentation. They taught that "the collegiality of the bishops finds its supreme evangelical realization in jointly serving the two-thirds of humanity who live in physical, cultural, and moral misery". They called for openness "to all, no matter what their beliefs".
Under the guidance of archbishop Hélder Câmara, the Roman Catholic church in Brazil became an outspoken critic of the 1964-85 military dictatorship and a powerful movement for social change. Câmara spoke out and wrote about the implications of using violence to repress rebellion resulting from poverty and injustice in other venues than Brazil. Traditionalist Catholics urged the military government to arrest Câmara for his support of land reform and Câmara's colleague, Father Antônio Henrique Pereira Neto, was murdered by unknown conservative forces.
A proponent of liberation theology, he was Archbishop of the Diocese of Olinda and Recife from 1964 to 1985, during a period when the country had a series of military rulers. Liberation theology politicised the church's charitable work and brought criticisms that it was encouraging the armed revolutionary struggles that swept Latin America during the 1970s and 1980s.
He published Spiral of Violence (1971), a short tract written when the United States was immersed in a still escalating Vietnam War. It is distinctive for linking structural injustice (Level 1 violence) with escalating rebellion (Level 2 violence) and repressive reaction (Level 3 violence). In it, Câmara called on the youth of the world to take steps to break the spiral, saying their elders became addicted to those escalating steps. By the early 21st century, this book had been out of print in the United Kingdom for about 20 years.
He died in Recife on 27 August 1999 at the age of 90.
Câmara had some controversial views, endorsing the position of the Orthodox church that spouses who were abandoned should be allowed to remarry within the Church. He criticized Pope Paul VI's removal of artificial contraception from the purview of Vatican II as "a mistake" meant to "torture spouses, to disturb peace of many homes", "a new condemnation of Galileo", "the death of the Council" and "the practical denial of collegiality". However, by Humanae Vitae, he had changed his mind about contraception, being the first person to telegram the Vatican's Secretariat of State praising the controversial encyclical.
In his famous interview with Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci, he also stated that, despite his support for non-violence, he did not oppose violent tactics: "And I respect a lot priests with rifles on their shoulders; I never said that to use weapons against an oppressor is immoral or anti-Christian. But that's not my choice, not my road, not my way to apply the Gospels".
Câmara identified himself as a socialist and not as a Marxist, and while disagreeing with Marxism, had Marxist sympathies. In the Oriana Fallaci interview he stated, "My socialism is special, its a socialism that respects the human person and goes back to the Gospels. My socialism it is justice." He said, concerning Marx, that while he disagreed with his conclusions, he agreed with his analysis of the capitalist society.
Legacy and honors
- In 1973, Câmara was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC). His candidacy was however undermined by two conservative members (Sjur Lindebrække and Bernt Ingvaldsen) of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, who cooperated with the Brazilian ambassador in Oslo as the military dictatorship in Brazil was vehemently against him receiving the Nobel peace prize.
- In 1975, he was awarded the Pacem in Terris Award, initiated by the Catholic Interracial Council of the Diocese of Davenport, Iowa. It was named after a 1963 encyclical letter by Pope John XXIII that calls upon all people of good will to secure peace among all nations. Pacem in terris is Latin for "Peace on Earth".
- In 2015, the Vatican's Congregation for the Causes of the Saints granted its nihil obstat, authorizing the Archbishop of Olinda and Recife to open the beatification and canonization process for Câmara.
Servant of God
On 27 May 2014, the Archbishop of Olinda and Recife, Archbishop Antônio Fernando Saburido announced that he was sending a letter to the Vatican requesting the opening of the process of canonization of Archbishop Hélder. The letter was received by the Vatican on 16 February 2015, and less than ten days later, the assent was given by the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, with which it received the title of Servant of God on 7 April 2015. The opening of the beatification process was called for 3 May at Olinda Cathedral. The installation of the court on that date marked the beginning of the diocesan phase of the beatification process.
- "Dom Hélder Câmara é declarado "Servo de Deus" pela Santa Sé". Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- Quote: "Quando dou comida aos pobres, chamam-me de santo. Quando pergunto por que eles são pobres, chamam-me de comunista." – cited in Zildo Rocha, Helder, O Dom: uma vida que marcou os rumos da Igreja no Brasil (Helder, the Gift: A Life that Marked the Course of the Church in Brazil), Page 53, Editora Vozes, 2000, ISBN 978-85-326-2213-6. – 208 pages (in Portuguese)
- O'Shaughnessy, Hugh (8 August 2003). "Helder Câmara – Brazil's archbishop of the poor". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- Santana, Ana Lucia. «Dom Helder Camara». InfoEscola. Retrieved 17 September 2016. (Portuguese).
- Acta Apostolicae Sedis (PDF). XLIV. 1952. p. 433. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
- Acta Apostolicae Sedis (PDF). LVI. 1964. pp. 461, 861, 874. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
- Healy, Barry (14 July 2009), "'Bishop of the slums' — Dom Hélder Camara and Brazil's church of the poor", Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal, retrieved 20 April 2015
- O'Connell, Gerard (27 April 2015), "Call Him a Saint?", America, retrieved 18 April 2015
- Bellos, Alex. "Helder Camara" (obit), The Guardian, August 31, 1999
- The Pact of the Catacombs (Domitilla); A poor servant Church (PDF), Rome: SEDOS - Documentation and Research Centre, archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2015, retrieved 20 April 2015
- Sobrino, Jon, SJ (24 March 2010), "The urgent need to return to being the church of the poor", National Catholic Reporter, retrieved 20 April 2015
- Lernoux, Penny (1989), People of God: The Struggle for World Catholicism, New York: Viking, p. 341, ISBN 0-670-81529-2
- Browne, Malcolm W. (12 July 1969), "Church Liberals in Argentina Target of Rightists", New York Times, p. 8
- "Priest and Civilian Murdered in Brazil", New York Times, p. 7, 29 May 1969
- Come i progressisti non vinsero al Concilio / Una recensione di Roma, Due del Mattino di Monsignor Hélder Câmara / di Massimo Introvigne, CESNUR Official Website (Italian)
- Camara, Helder (2015) , "15a Circular (Reservada) - Roma 24/25.9.1965", in Luiz Carlos Luz Marques; Roberto de Araújo Faria (eds.), Dom Helder Camara Circulares Conciliares (in Portuguese), I, Recifé (PE), Brazil: Companhia Editora de Pernambuco, ISBN 9788578581558, retrieved 9 April 2016
- Blessed Paul VI, the Pope who led the Church's barque in troubled waters, Catholic News Agency
- Entrevistas históricas: Oriana Fallaci entrevista dom Helder Câmara, Socialista Morena Website (Portuguese)
- Nobel Peace Prize nominations. American Friends Service Committee
- "På lag med diktaturet" (english: "Cooperating with the dictatorship", NRK 9 March 2017
- Modino, Luis Miguel (10 April 2015), "The initiation of Dom Helder Camara's path to sainthood now has a date", Iglesia Descalza, retrieved 18 April 2015
- [http:// www. jb.com.br/pais/noticias/2014/05/27/Arbbishop-of-olinda-send-the-can-application-of-dom-helder-camara/ Archbishop of Olinda sends to Rome request for canonization of Dom Helder Camara], Jornal do Brasil, 27 May 2014, accessed 28 May 2014.
- Dom Helder Camara is declared “Servant of God” by the Holy See http://news.cancaonova.com/dom-helder-camera-and-declared-service-for-santa-se/ Accessed 9 April 2015.
- and-canonization-of-dom-helder-camara / Notice - Process of beatification and canonization of Dom Helder Camara. Accessed 9 April 2015.
- http://site.adital.com.br /site/noticia.php?lang=EN&cod=84903 https://web.archive.org/web/20150518093834/http://site.adital.com.br/site/noticia.php?lang=EN&cod=84903
- " Norms for the Christian Year ". Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil. 27 November 2014. Available at:  Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Page visited on 20 July 2015.
- Regan, David. C.S.Sp (2002), Why Are They Poor?: Helder Camara in Pastoral Perspective, Theologie und Praxis, 13, Münster: Lit, ISBN 3-8258-6151-1
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hélder Câmara.|
- Links for Dom Helder Camara
- Text of Câmara's Spiral of Violence, Alastair McIntosh website
- Text of Câmara's 1972 speeches to Mani Tese, University of St. Thomas
- The 1965 "Pact of the catacombs" for a servant and poor church
|Catholic Church titles|
Carlos Gouvêa Coelho
| Archbishop of Olinda e Recife
José Cardoso Sobrinho