H-II Transfer Vehicle

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H-II Transfer Vehicle
H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV-1) approaching the ISS
Description
Role: Automated cargo spacecraft to resupply the International Space Station
Crew: None
Dimensions
Height: ~9.8 m (including thrusters)[1]
Diameter: 4.4 m[1]
Spacecraft Mass: 10,500 kg[1]
Total Launch Payload: 6,000 kg[2]
Pressurized Payload: 5,200 kg[2]
Unpressurized Payload: 1,500 kg[2]
Return Payload: None[3]
Mass at launch: 16.5 ton[2]
Pressurized Volume: 14 m3[4]
Performance
Endurance: Solo flight about 100 hours, stand-by more than a week, docked with the ISS about 30 days[1]
Apogee: 460 km[1]
Perigee: 350 km[1]
Inclination: 51.6 degrees[1]

The H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), also called Kounotori (こうのとり Kōnotori?, "Oriental Stork" or "White Stork"), is an automated cargo spacecraft used to resupply the Kibō Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) and the International Space Station (ISS). The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been working on the design since the early 1990s. The first mission, HTV-1, was originally intended to be launched in 2001. It launched at 17:01 UTC on 10 September 2009 on an H-IIB launch vehicle.[5] The name Kounotori was chosen for the HTV by JAXA because "a white stork carries an image of conveying an important thing (a baby, happiness, and other joyful things), therefore, it precisely expresses the HTV's mission to transport essential materials to the ISS".[6]

Design[edit]

Structure
Inside view of the Pressurised Logistics Carrier section of HTV-1.
Canadarm2 removing unpressurised payload from HTV-2.

The HTV is about 9.8 m long (including maneuvering thrusters at one end) and 4.4 m in diameter. Total mass is 10.5 tonnes, with a 6,000 kilograms (13,000 lb) payload.[1] The HTV are comparable in function to the Russian Progress, European ATV, commercial Dragon, and commercial Cygnus spacecraft, all of which bring or are planned to bring supplies to the ISS. Like the ATV, the HTV carries more than twice the payload of the Progress, but is launched less than half as often. Unlike Progress capsules and ATVs, which dock automatically, HTVs and American commercial crafts approach the ISS in stages, and are signaled by ISS crew or ground control to continue from one holding point to the next. Once they reach their closest parking orbit to the ISS, crew grapple them using the robotic arm Canadarm2 and berth them to an open berthing port on the Harmony module.[7]

The HTV has an external payload bay which is accessed by robotic arm after it has been berthed to the ISS. New payloads can be moved directly from the HTV to Kibō's exposed facility. Internally, it has eight International Standard Payload Racks (ISPRs) in total which can be unloaded by the crew in a shirt-sleeve environment. After the retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle in 2011, HTVs became the only spacecraft capable of transporting ISPRs to the ISS. (The SpaceX Dragon and Orbital Sciences Cygnus can carry resupply cargo bags but not ISPRs.)

The four main thrusters. Smaller attitude control thrusters can be seen at the right side of this view of HTV-1.

The intention of HTV's modularized design was to use different module configuration to match the mission requirement.[8] However, to reduce the development cost it was decided to fly the mixed PLC/ULC configuration only.

To control the HTV's attitude and to perform the orbital maneuvers such as rendezvous and re-entry, the craft has four 500 N class main thrusters and twenty-eight 110 N class attitude control thrusters. Both use bipropellant, namely monomethylhydrazine (MMH) as fuel and mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON3) as oxidizer.[9] HTV-1, -2, and -4 use Aerojet's 110 N R-1E, Space Shuttle's vernier engine, and the 500 N based on the Apollo spacecraft's R-4D.[9] Later HTVs use 500 N class HBT-5 thrusters and 120 N class HBT-1 thrusters made by Japanese manufacturer IHI Aerospace Co., Ltd.[10] The HTV carries about 2400 kg of propellant in four tanks.[9]

After the unloading process is completed, the HTV will be loaded with waste and undocked. The vehicle will then deorbit and be destroyed during reentry, the debris falling into the Pacific Ocean.[3]

Flights[edit]

HTV-2 departing Tanegashima spaceport bound for the International space station

Initially seven missions were planned in 2008-2015. With the extension of ISS project after 2015 through 2020, three more missions are planned, possibly replacing the tenth flight with an improved, cost-reduced version (HTV-X).[11]

The first vehicle was launched on an H-IIB rocket, a more powerful version of the earlier H-IIA, at 17:01 GMT on 10 September 2009, from Launch Pad 2 of the Yoshinobu Launch Complex at the Tanegashima Space Center.[12]

As of March 2015, five subsequent missions are planned—one each year for 2015–2019[13] —one fewer total mission than had been planned in August 2013 at the time the fourth HTV mission was underway.[14][unreliable source?]

HTV Launch date/time (UTC) Berth date/time (UTC)[15] Carrier rocket Re-entry date/time
HTV-1 10 September 2009, 17:01:56 17 September 2009, 22:12 H-IIB F1 1 November 2009, 21:26[16]
HTV-2 22 January 2011, 05:37:57 27 January 2011, 14:51 H-IIB F2 30 March 2011, 03:09[17]
HTV-3 21 July 2012, 02:06:18 27 July 2012, 14:34 H-IIB F3 14 September 2012, 05:27
HTV-4 3 August 2013, 19:48:46 9 August 2013, 15:38 H-IIB F4[18] 7 September 2013, 06:37[19]
HTV-5 16 August 2015, 13:01 (planned)[20] H-IIB F5
HTV-6 2016[13] H-IIB
HTV-7 2017[13] H-IIB
HTV-8 2018[13] H-IIB
HTV-9 2019[13] H-IIB

Evolution prospects[edit]

HTV-R[edit]

As of 2010, JAXA was planning to add a return capsule option. In this concept, HTV's pressurized cargo would be replaced by a reentry module capable of returning 1.6 tonnes (1.8 tons) cargo from ISS to Earth.[21][22][dated info]

Further, conceptual plans in 2012 included a follow-on spacecraft design by 2022 which would accommodate a crew of three and carry up to 400 kilograms (880 lb) of cargo.[23][dated info]

Lagrange outpost resupply[edit]

As of 2014, both JAXA and Mitsubishi have conducted studies of a next generation HTV as a possible Japanese contribution to the proposed international manned outpost at Earth-Moon L2.[24][25] This variant of HTV is to be launched by H-X Heavy and can carry 1.8 tons of supplies to EML2.[24] Modifications from the current HTV includes the addition of solar electric paddles and extension of the propellant tank.[24]

HTV-X[edit]

On May 2015, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology announced a proposal to replace HTV with an improved, cost-reduced version preliminary called HTV-X.[26][11]

Proposed concept of HTV-X as of July 2015 is:[27]

  • To re-use the HTV's Pressurized Logistics Carrier (PLC) as much as possible, except adding a side hatch for late access cargo,
  • To replace the Unpressurized Logistics Carrier, Avionics Module, and Propulsion Module with a new Service Module
  • Instead of loading the unpressurized cargo inside the spacecraft, load them on top of the Service Module.

Re-using the PLC will allow minimizing the development cost and risk. Concentrating the Reaction Control System (RCS) and the solar panels to Service Module will allow simplifying the wiring and piping, to reduce the weight and the manufacturing cost. Loading the unpressurized cargo outside the spacecraft allows larger cargo, only limited by the launch vehicle fairing. The aim is to cut the cost in half, while keeping or extending the capability of existing HTV.[27]

As of July 2015, flight of HTV-X1(Technical Demonstration Vehicle) is proposed for 2021.[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "H-II Transfer Vehicle "KOUNOTORI" (HTV)". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. 2007. Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  2. ^ a b c d Overview of the "KOUNOTORI". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
  3. ^ a b JAXA (2007). "HTV Operations". Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  4. ^ "JAXA H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV)" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  5. ^ "NASA Sets Briefing, TV Coverage of Japan's First Cargo Spacecraft". NASA. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  6. ^ ""KOUNOTORI" Chosen as Nickname of the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV)". JAXA. 11 November 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
  7. ^ http://www.aprsaf.org/data/aprsaf17_data/DAY1-seu_0950-Kibo_Utilization_Status.pdf[dead link]
  8. ^ Miki, Yoichiro; Abe, Naohiko; Matsuyama, Koichi; Masuda, Kazumi; Fukuda, Nobuhiko; Sasaki, Hiroshi (March 2010). "Development of the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV)" (PDF). Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries) 47 (1). 
  9. ^ a b c IAC paper IAC-05-C4.1.03 - Shinobu Matsuo and al. "The design characteristics of the HTV propulsion module"
  10. ^ "宇宙ステーション補給機「こうのとり」3号機(HTV3)ミッションプレスキット" (PDF) (in Japanese). June 20, 2012. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b Research and Development Division, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (May 20, 2015). 2016年~2020年のISS共通システム運用経費(次期CSOC)の我が国の負担方法の在り方について (PDF). Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  12. ^ Launch of the H-IIB Launch Vehicle Test Flight, JAXA Press release, 8 July 2009 (JST)
  13. ^ a b c d e "International Space Station Flight Schedule". SEDS. 2015-03-13. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  14. ^ "International Space Station Flight Schedule". SEDS. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  15. ^ "H-II Transfer Vehicle "KOUNOTORI" (HTV) Topics". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. 
  16. ^ Stephen Clark (1 November 2009). "History-making Japanese space mission ends in flames". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 13 November 2010. 
  17. ^ Stephen Clark (29 March 2011). "Japan's HTV cargo freighter proves useful to the end". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 21 April 2011. 
  18. ^ Stephen Clark (3 August 2013). "Japan launches resupply mission to space station". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  19. ^ Stephen Clark (9 August 2013). "JJapan's cargo craft makes in-orbit delivery to space station". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  20. ^ "Launch of the H-II Transfer Vehicle "KOUNOTORI5" (HTV5) aboard the H-IIB Launch Vehicle No. 5". JAXA. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  21. ^ "回収機能付加型宇宙ステーション補給機(HTV-R)検討状況" (in Japanese). JAXA. August 11, 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2011. 
  22. ^ "回収機能付加型HTV(HTV-R)" (in Japanese). JAXA. Retrieved September 7, 2011. [dead link]
  23. ^ Rob Coppinger. "Japan Wants Space Plane or Capsule by 2022". Space.com. Retrieved October 25, 2012. 
  24. ^ a b c "International Human Lunar Mission Architecture / System and its Technologies" (PDF). JAXA. 2014-04-10. Retrieved 22 January 2015. 
  25. ^ "An International Industry Perspective on Extended Duration Missions Near the Moon" (PDF). Lockheed Martin Corporation. 2014-04-10. Retrieved 22 January 2015. 
  26. ^ "国際宇宙ステーション計画を含む有人計画について" (PDF) (in Japanese). June 3, 2015. Retrieved July 13, 2015. 
  27. ^ a b c HTV-X(仮称)の開発(案)について (PDF) (in Japanese). July 2, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2015. 

External links[edit]