H2AFX

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H2AFX (H2A histone family, member X) is one of several genes coding for histone H2A. In humans and other eukaryotes, the DNA is wrapped around histone-groups, consisting of core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Thus, the H2AX contributes to the nucleosome-formation and therefore the structure of DNA.

H2AX becomes phosphorylated on serine 139, then called gamma-H2AX, as a reaction on DNA Double-strand breaks (DSB). The kinases of the PI3-family (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated, ATR and DNA-PKcs) are responsible for this phosphorylation, especially ATM. The modification can happen accidentally during replication fork collapse or in the response to ionizing radiation but also during controlled physiological processes such as V(D)J recombination. Gamma-H2AX is a sensitive target for looking at DSBs in cells. The role of the phosphorylated form of the histone in DNA repair is under discussion but it is known that because of the modification the DNA becomes less condensed, potentially allowing space for the recruitment of proteins necessary during repair of DSBs. Mutagenesis experiments have shown that the modification is necessary for the proper formation of ionizing radiation induced foci in response to double strand breaks, but is not required for the recruitment of proteins to the site of DSBs.

Interactions[edit]

H2AX has been shown to interact with:

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b Chen A, Kleiman FE, Manley JL, Ouchi T, Pan ZQ (Jun 2002). "Autoubiquitination of the BRCA1*BARD1 RING ubiquitin ligase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (24): 22085–92. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201252200. PMID 11927591. 
  3. ^ Paull TT, Rogakou EP, Yamazaki V, Kirchgessner CU, Gellert M, Bonner WM. "A critical role for histone H2AX in recruitment of repair factors to nuclear foci after DNA damage". Current Biology. 10 (15): 886–95. doi:10.1016/s0960-9822(00)00610-2. PMID 10959836. 
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  5. ^ Stewart GS, Wang B, Bignell CR, Taylor AM, Elledge SJ (Feb 2003). "MDC1 is a mediator of the mammalian DNA damage checkpoint". Nature. 421 (6926): 961–6. doi:10.1038/nature01446. PMID 12607005. 
  6. ^ Xu X, Stern DF (Oct 2003). "NFBD1/MDC1 regulates ionizing radiation-induced focus formation by DNA checkpoint signaling and repair factors". FASEB Journal. 17 (13): 1842–8. doi:10.1096/fj.03-0310com. PMID 14519663. 
  7. ^ Kobayashi J, Tauchi H, Sakamoto S, Nakamura A, Morishima K, Matsuura S, Kobayashi T, Tamai K, Tanimoto K, Komatsu K (Oct 2002). "NBS1 localizes to gamma-H2AX foci through interaction with the FHA/BRCT domain". Current Biology. 12 (21): 1846–51. doi:10.1016/s0960-9822(02)01259-9. PMID 12419185. 
  8. ^ Fernandez-Capetillo O, Chen HT, Celeste A, Ward I, Romanienko PJ, Morales JC, Naka K, Xia Z, Camerini-Otero RD, Motoyama N, Carpenter PB, Bonner WM, Chen J, Nussenzweig A (Dec 2002). "DNA damage-induced G2-M checkpoint activation by histone H2AX and 53BP1". Nature Cell Biology. 4 (12): 993–7. doi:10.1038/ncb884. PMID 12447390. 
  9. ^ Ward IM, Minn K, Jorda KG, Chen J (May 2003). "Accumulation of checkpoint protein 53BP1 at DNA breaks involves its binding to phosphorylated histone H2AX". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (22): 19579–82. doi:10.1074/jbc.C300117200. PMID 12697768. 

Further reading[edit]