HATU

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HATU
HATU PF6 - iminium isomer.png
Names
IUPAC name
1-[Bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxide hexafluorophosphate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.112.881 Edit this at Wikidata
UNII
  • InChI=1S/C10H15N6O.F6P/c1-14(2)10(15(3)4)17-16-9-8(12-13-16)6-5-7-11-9;1-7(2,3,4,5)6/h5-7H,1-4H3;/q+1;-1
    Key: JNWBBCNCSMBKNE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • InChI=1/C10H15N6O.F6P/c1-14(2)10(15(3)4)17-16-9-8(12-13-16)6-5-7-11-9;1-7(2,3,4,5)6/h5-7H,1-4H3;/q+1;-1
    Key: JNWBBCNCSMBKNE-UHFFFAOYAG
  • CN(C)C(=[N+](C)C)On1c2c(cccn2)nn1.F[P-](F)(F)(F)(F)F
Properties
C10H15F6N6OP
Molar mass 380.235 g·mol−1
Appearance White crystalline solid
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

HATU (1-[Bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxide hexafluorophosphate, Hexafluorophosphate Azabenzotriazole Tetramethyl Uronium) is a reagent used in peptide coupling chemistry to generate an active ester from a carboxylic acid. HATU is used along with Hünig's base (N,N-diisopropylethylamine, DIPEA), or triethylamine to form amide bonds. Typically DMF is used as solvent, although other polar aprotic solvents can also be used.[1]

History[edit]

HATU was first reported by Louis A. Carpino in 1993 as an efficient means of preparing active esters derived from 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt).[2] HATU can exist as either the uronium salt (O-form) or the less reactive iminium salt (N-form). HATU was initially reported as the O-form using the original preparation reported by Carpino; however, X-ray crystallographic and NMR studies revealed the true structure of HATU to be the less reactive guanidinium isomer.[3] It is, however, possible to obtain the uronium isomer by preparing HATU using KOAt in place of HOAt and working up the reaction mixture quickly to prevent isomerisation.

Reactions[edit]

HATU is commonly encountered in amine acylation reactions (i.e., amide formation). Such reactions are typically performed in two distinct reaction steps: (1) reaction of a carboxylic acid with HATU to form the OAt-active ester; then (2) addition of the nucleophile (amine) to the active ester solution to afford the acylated product.

The reaction mechanism of carboxylic acid activation by HATU and subsequent N-acylation is summarised in the figure below. The mechanism is shown using the more commonly encountered and commercially available iminium isomer; a similar mechanism, however, is likely to apply to the uronium form. In the first step, the carboxylate anion (formed by deprotonation by an organic base [not shown]) attacks HATU to form the unstable O-acyl(tetramethyl)isouronium salt. The OAt anion rapidly attacks the isouronium salt, affording the OAt-active ester and liberating a stoichiometric quantity of tetramethylurea. Addition of a nucleophile, such as an amine, to the OAt-active ester results in acylation.

The high coupling efficiencies and fast reaction rates associated with HATU coupling are thought to arise from a neighbouring group effect brought about by the pyridine nitrogen atom, which stabilises the incoming amine through a hydrogen-bonded 7-membered cyclic transition state.[4]

Mechanism of N-acylation using HATU

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Amine to Amide (Coupling) - HATU".
  2. ^ Carpino, Louis A (1993). "1-Hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole. An efficient peptide coupling additive". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 115 (10): 4397–4398. doi:10.1021/ja00063a082.
  3. ^ Carpino, Louis A; Imazumi, Hideko; El-Faham, Ayman; Ferrer, Fernando J; Zhang, Chongwu; Lee, Yunsub; Foxman, Bruce M; Henklein, Peter; Hanay, Christiane; Mügge, Clemens; Wenschuh, Holger; Klose, Jana; Beyermann, Michael; Bienert, Michael (2002). "The Uronium/Guanidinium Peptide Coupling Reagents: Finally the True Uronium Salts". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 41 (3): 441–445. doi:10.1002/1521-3773(20020201)41:3<441::AID-ANIE441>3.0.CO;2-N. PMID 12491372.
  4. ^ Carpino, Louis A; Imazumi, Hideko; Foxman, Bruce M; Vela, Michael J; Henklein, Peter; El-Faham, Ayman; Klose, Jana; Bienert, Michael (2000). "Comparison of the Effects of 5- and 6-HOat on Model Peptide Coupling Reactions Relative to the Cases for the 4- and 7-Isomers†,‡". Organic Letters. 2 (15): 2253–2256. doi:10.1021/ol006013z. PMID 10930256.