Historically black colleges and universities
Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African-American community. This was because the overwhelming majority of predominantly white institutions of higher-learning disqualified African Americans from enrollment during segregation. There are now[when?] 101 HBCUs in the United States, including public and private institutions. This figure is down from the 121 institutions that existed during the 1930s. Of these remaining HBCU institutions in the United States, 27 offer doctoral programs and 52 schools provide master's programs. Of these, 83 colleges allow their students to obtain their bachelor's degree and 38 schools offer associate degrees.
Most HBCUs were established in the Southern United States after the American Civil War, often with the assistance of northern United States religious missionary organizations. However, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania (1837) and Lincoln University (Pennsylvania) (1854), were established for blacks before the American Civil War. In 1856 the African Methodist Episcopal Church of Ohio collaborated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, a predominantly white denomination, in sponsoring the third college Wilberforce University in Ohio. Established in 1865, Shaw University was the first HBCU in the South to be established after the American Civil War.
In 1862, the federal government's Morrill Act provided for land grant colleges in each state. Some educational institutions in the North or West were open to blacks before the Civil War. But 17 states, mostly in the South, had segregated systems and generally excluded black students from their land grant colleges. In response, Congress passed the second Morrill Act of 1890, also known as the Agricultural College Act of 1890, requiring states to establish a separate land grant college for blacks if blacks were being excluded from the existing land grant college. Many of the HBCUs were founded by states to satisfy the Second Morrill Act. These land grant schools continue to receive annual federal funding for their research, extension and outreach activities.
In the 1920s and 1930s the historically black colleges developed a strong interest in athletics. Sports were expanding rapidly at state universities, but very few black stars were recruited there. Race newspapers hailed athletic success as a demonstration of racial progress. Black schools hired coaches, recruited and featured stellar athletes, and set up their own leagues.
Florida’s black junior colleges
After the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954, the legislature of Florida, with support from various counties, started a series of eleven junior colleges serving the African-American population. The purpose was to show that separate but equal education was working in Florida. Prior to this, there had been only one junior college in Florida serving African Americans: Booker T. Washington Junior College, in Pensacola. The new ones, with their year of founding, are:
- Gibbs Junior College (1957)
- Roosevelt Junior College (1958)
- Volusia County Junior College (1958)
- Hampton Junior College (1958)
- Rosenwald Junior College (1958)
- Suwannee River Junior College (1959)
- Carver Junior College (1960)
- Collier-Blocker Junior College (1960)
- Lincoln Junior College (1960)
- Johnson Junior College (1960)
- Jackson Junior College (1961)
The new junior colleges began as extensions of black high schools, using the same facilities and often the same faculty. Some, over the next few years, did build their own buildings. After passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandating an end to school segregation, the colleges were all abruptly closed. Only a fraction of the students and faculty were able to transfer to the previously all-white junior colleges, where they found, at best, an indifferent reception.
The Higher Education Act of 1965 established a program for direct federal grants to HBCUs, including federal matching of private endowment contributions.
The Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, defines a "part B institution" as: "...any historically black college or university that was established before 1964, whose principal mission was, and is, the education of black Americans, and that is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary [of Education] to be a reliable authority as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an agency or association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation." Part B of the 1965 Act provides for direct federal aid to Part B institutions. Some colleges with a predominantly black student body are not classified as a HBCU because they were founded (or opened their doors to African Americans) after the implementation of the Sweatt v. Painter (1950) and Brown v. Board of Education (1954) rulings by the U.S. Supreme Court (the court decisions which outlawed racial segregation of public education facilities) and the Higher Education Act of 1965.
In 1980, Jimmy Carter signed an executive order to distribute adequate resources and funds to strengthen the nation's public and private HBCUs. His executive order manifested the White House Initiative on historically black colleges and universities (WHIHBCU), which is a federally funded program that operates within the U.S. Department of Education. In 1989, George H. W. Bush continued to adopt Carter’s pioneering spirit through signing Executive Order 12677, which created the presidential advisory board on HBCUs, to counsel the government and the secretary on the future development of these organizations.
Starting in 2001, directors of libraries of several HBCUs began discussions about ways to pool their resources and work collaboratively. In 2003, this partnership was formalized as the HBCU Library Alliance, "a consortium that supports the collaboration of information professionals dedicated to providing an array of resources designed to strengthen historically black colleges and Universities and their constituents."
In 2015, the Bipartisan Congressional Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Caucus was established by U.S. Representatives Alma S. Adams and Bradley Byrne. The purpose of the caucus is to serve as an advocate for HBCUs on Capitol Hill. As of September 2017, there are 62 elected politicians who are members of the caucus.
Every year, the U.S. Department of Education deems one week in the Fall as "National HBCU Week." During this week, several conferences and events are held in Washington, D.C. centered on discussing and celebrating HBCUs as well as acknowledging select scholars and alumni from the HBCU community.
Current status of HBCUs
In 2015, the share of black students attending HBCUs had dropped to 8.5% of the total amount of black students enrolled in degree granting institutions nationwide. This figure is a decline from the 13% of black students that enrolled in an HBCU in the year 2000 which went down from the 17% that enrolled in 1980. This is a result of desegregation, rising incomes and increased access to financial aid which has resulted in more college options for Black students in the 21st century.
The percentages of bachelor's and master's degrees awarded to Black students by HBCUs has decreased over time. HBCUs awarded 35% of the bachelor's degrees and 21% of the master's degrees blacks earned in 1976–77, compared with 14 and 6% respectively, of bachelor's and master's degrees Blacks earned in 2014–15. Additionally, the percentage of Black doctor’s degree recipients who received their degrees from HBCUs was lower in 2014–15 (12%) than in 1976–77 (14%).
The number of total students enrolled at an HBCU rose by 32% between 1976 and 2015, from 223,000 to 293,000. In comparison, total enrollment in degree-granting institutions nationwide increased by 81%, from 11 million to 20 million, during the same period.
Although HBCUs were originally founded to educate Black students, diversity has increased over time. In 2015, students who were either white, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, or Native American made up 22% of total enrollment at HBCUs, compared with 15% in 1976.
In 2007, the Thurgood Marshall College Fund published a study of minority recruiting practices by Fortune 400 companies and by government agencies that found that 13% of minority college graduates were recruited from HBCUs while 87% of minority college students were recruited from non-HBCU institutions.
Racial diversity at HBCUs today
Following the enactment of Civil Rights laws in the 1960s, all educational institutions in the United States that receive federal funding have undertaken affirmative action to increase their racial diversity.[dubious ] Some historically black colleges and universities now have non-black majorities, notably West Virginia State University and Bluefield State College, whose student bodies have had large white majorities since the mid-1960s.
As HBCUs work harder to maintain enrollment levels and because of increased racial harmony and the low cost of tuition in the 21st century, the percentage of non–African American enrollment has risen. The following table highlights HBCUs with high non–African American enrollments:
|Bluefield State College||West Virginia||8.41||91.59|
|West Virginia State University||West Virginia||7.58||92.42|
|Kentucky State University||Kentucky||46.3||53.7|
|Delaware State University||Delaware||64.17||35.83|
|Lincoln University (Pennsylvania)||Pennsylvania||83.89||16.11|
|University of the District of Columbia||District of Columbia||59||41|
|Elizabeth City State University||North Carolina||75.86||24.14|
|Fayetteville State University||North Carolina||60||40|
|Winston Salem State University||North Carolina||70.76||29.24|
|Xavier University of Louisiana||Louisiana||69.94||30.06|
|North Carolina A&T State University||North Carolina||80||20|
Other HBCUs with relatively high non–African American student populations
The following list[where?] illustrates the percentage of white student populations currently attending historically black colleges and universities according to statistical profiles compiled by the U.S. News and World Report Best Colleges 2011 edition: Langston University 12%; Shaw University 12%; Tennessee State University 12%; University of Maryland Eastern Shore 12%; North Carolina Central University 10%. The U.S. News and World Report's statistical profiles indicate that several other HBCUs have relatively significant percentages of non-African American student populations consisting of Asian, Hispanic, International and white American students.
Special academic programs
HBCU libraries have formed the HBCU Library Alliance. That alliance together with Cornell University have a joint program to promote the digitization of HBCU collections. The project is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Additionally, an increasing number of historically black colleges and universities are offering online education programs. As of November 23, 2010, 19 historically black colleges and universities offer online degree programs. Much of the growth in these programs is driven by partnerships with online educational entrepreneurs like Ezell Brown.
NCAA Division I has two historically black athletic conferences: Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference and Southwestern Athletic Conference. The top football teams from the conferences have played each other in postseason bowl games: Pelican Bowl (1970s), Heritage Bowl (1990s) and Celebration Bowl (2010s). These conferences are home to all Division I HBCUs except for Tennessee State University, which instead competes in the Ohio Valley Conference.
The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference are part of the NCAA Division II, whereas the Gulf Coast Athletic Conference is part of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Division I.
HBCUs have a rich legacy of matriculating many African-American leaders in the fields of business, law, science, education, military service, entertainment, art, and sports. This list of alumni includes people such as Martin Luther King Jr., who began his studies at Morehouse College, following in the footsteps of his father, Martin Luther King, Sr.. Oprah Winfrey attended Tennessee State University to pursue a broadcasting career. W. E. B. Du Bois, relying on money donated by neighbors, attended Fisk University, from 1885 to 1888. After Dubois earned his doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology, and economics at Clark Atlanta University, between 1897 and 1910. Althea Gibson entered Florida A&M University on a full athletic scholarship. Michael Strahan played one season of high school football, which was enough for him to get a scholarship offer from Texas Southern University. Thurgood Marshall attended Frederick Douglass High School in Baltimore and was placed in classes with the best students. He later went on to graduate from Lincoln University, in Pennsylvania and Howard University School of Law. In 1933, he graduated first in his law class at Howard. Roscoe Lee Browne also attended Lincoln University, in Pennsylvania, where he graduated with a bachelor's degree, in 1946. Browne also occasionally returned to Lincoln, between 1946–52, to teach English, French and comparative literature. Spike Lee enrolled in Morehouse College, where he made his first student film, Last Hustle in Brooklyn. He took film courses at Clark Atlanta University and graduated with a BA in mass communication from Morehouse. Rod Paige earned a bachelor's degree from Jackson State University in Jackson, Mississippi. Anika Noni Rose attended Florida A&M University where she earned a bachelor's degree in theater. The Tuskegee Airmen were educated at Tuskegee University. Douglas Wilder received his bachelor's degree from Virginia Union University and his law degree from Howard University School of Law. Astronaut Dr. Ronald McNair graduated from North Carolina A&T State University. NASA mathematician Katherine Johnson along with first African American on a Fortune 500 Company General Motors Board, and Leon H. Sullivan, developer of the Sullivan Principles used to end apartheid in South Africa, attended West Virginia State College (now West Virginia State University).
- Historically black law schools
- List of historically black colleges and universities
- Minority-serving institution
- Thurgood Marshall College Fund
- United Negro College Fund
- Honda Battle of the Bands
- A Different World
- "White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities". Ed.gov. 2008-04-11. Archived from the original on 2015-10-05. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- E., Wooten, Melissa (2016). In the face of inequality. [Place of publication not identified]: State Univ Of New York Pr. ISBN 9781438456904. OCLC 946968175.
- "A look at historically black colleges and universities as Howard turns 150". Pewresearch.org. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Historically Black Colleges and Universities - American School Search". American-school-search.com. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- Patrick B. Miller, "To “bring the race along rapidly”: Sport, student culture, and educational mission at historically black colleges during the interwar years." History of Education Quarterly 35#2 (1995): 111-133.
- Patrick B. Miller and David Kenneth Wiggins, eds. Sport and the color line: Black athletes and race relations in twentieth-century America (Psychology Press, 2004).
- Smith, Walter L. (1994), The Magnificent Twelve: Florida's Black Junior Colleges, Winter Park, Florida: FOUR-G Publishers, ISBN 1885066015
- 20 U.S.C. § 1062.
- U.S Department of Education (2008-01-15). "HBCUs: A National Resource". White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Archived from the original on 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
- 20 U.S.C. § 1061.
- "About Us - White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities". Sites.ed.gov. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Gasman, Marybeth; Tudico, Christopher L. (2008). Historically Black Colleges and Universities: triumphs, troubles, and taboos (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-230-61726-1.
- "HBCU Library Alliance". Hbuclibraries.org. 2010-04-23. Retrieved 2010-05-15.
- "Members of Congress Launch Bipartisan Congressional HBCU Caucus". Byrne.house.gov. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
-  Archived 2017-10-03 at the Wayback Machine.
- "2015 HBCU Week Conference - White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities". Sites.ed.gov. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "The NCES Fast Facts Tool provides quick answers to many education questions (National Center for Education Statistics)". Nces.ed.gov. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Digest of Education Statistics, 2016". Nces.ed.gov. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "How Corporations and Government Recruit Talent From Historically Black Colleges and Universities" (PDF). Thurgood Marshall College Fund. 2007. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
- "Economic Impact of the Nation's Historically Black Colleges and Universities" (PDF). Nces.ed.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
- "More Non-Black Students Attending HBCUs". Newsone.com (2010-10-07). Retrieved on 2013-08-09.
- "Why Black Colleges Might Be the Best Bargains". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "Apart No More? HBCUs Heading Into an Era of Change". hbcuconnect.com. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "Bluefield State College : Student Profile Analysis : COLLEGE WIDE SUMMARY : Fall Term 2017 Census" (PDF). Bluefieldstate.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "West Virginia State University : Office of Institutional Research and Assessment : 2015-2016 University Factbook" (PDF). Wvstateu.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Kentucky State University : Statistics" (PDF). Kysu.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Delaware State University : Factbook" (PDF). Desu.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Lincoln State University : Factbook" (PDF). Lincoln.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "University of the District of Columbia : Factbook" (PDF). Docs.udc.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Elizabeth City State University : Factbook" (PDF). Ecsu.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Fayetteville State University : Fact Book : 2016-2017" (PDF). Uncfsu.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "Tableau Public". Public.tableau.com. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges, 2011 ed.Directory p182
- "NCAT IR - University Fast Facts". ir.ncat.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- US News & World Report Best Colleges, 2011 ed. Directory p. 129
- "HBCU Library Alliance—Cornell University Library Digitization Initiative Update" (PDF). Hbculigraries.org. 2006. Retrieved 2010-12-01.
- "Modest Gains for Black Colleges Online". Insidehighered.com. 2010. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
- "Home Page". Cauduboislegacy. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- Arnold, Bruce Makoto, Roland Mitchell, Noelle W. Arnold, "Massified Illusions of Difference: Photography and the Mystique of the American Historically Black Colleges and Universities," Journal of American Studies of Turkey 41 (2015): 69–94. online
- Betsey, Charles L., ed. Historically Black colleges and universities (Transaction Publishers, 2011)
- Brooks, F. Erik and Glenn L. Starks. Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Encyclopedia (Greenwood, 2011).
- Cohen, Rodney T. The Black Colleges of Atlanta (College History Series).
- Gasman, Marybeth, and Christopher L. Tudico, eds. Historically Black colleges and universities (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)
- Lovett, Bobby L. 2015. America's Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Mercer University Press.
- Mays, Benjamin E. "The Significance of the Negro Private and Church-Related College," Journal of Negro Education (1960) 29#3, pp. 245–251 in JSTOR
- Minor, James T., "A Contemporary Perspective on the Role of Public HBCUs: Perspicacity from Mississippi", Journal of Negro Education, 77 (Fall 2008), 323–35.
- Palmer, Robert T., Adriel A. Hilton, and Tiffany P. Fountaine, eds. Black graduate education at historically Black colleges and universities: Trends, experiences, and outcomes (IAP, 2012).
- Stephen, Provasnik; Shafer, Linda L. (2004). "Historically Black Colleges and Universities, 1976 to 2001". Historically Black Colleges and Universities, 1976 to 2001 (NCES 2004–062). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
- Roebuck, Julian B., et al. eds. Historically Black colleges and universities: Their place in American higher education (1993) online
- Wright, Stephanie R. "Self-Determination, Politics, and Gender on Georgia's Black College Campuses, 1875-1900". Georgia Historical Quarterly 92 (2008): 93-119.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Historically black colleges and universities.|
- White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities – details about this federal initiative, including its history and recent achievements
- Information about HBCU from Peterson's including tuition, selectivity and cost