Epoch J2000.0 Equinox J2000.0
|Right ascension||21h 14m 57.769s|
|Declination||−20° 47′ 21.15″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||+8.08|
|U−B color index||?|
|B−V color index||0.714|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||? km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)||RA: -38.40 ± 0.94 mas/yr
Dec.: -119.81 ± 0.37 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||22.06 ± 0.82 mas|
|Distance||148 ± 5 ly
(45 ± 2 pc)
|Absolute magnitude (MV)||+4.75|
|Temperature||5765 ± 40 K|
|Age||(5.6 ± 1.2) × 109 years|
HD 202206 is a yellow dwarf star approximately 148 light-years away in the constellation Capricornus. The star is orbited by a brown dwarf and a planetary companion in a 5:1 resonant configuration.
Distance, age and metallicity
Measurements by the Hipparcos astrometric satellite give a parallax of 22.06 milliarcseconds, which corresponds to a distance of 45 parsecs. It is similar in mass, radius, and luminosity to the Sun, though estimated to be older at around 5.6 Gyr old. It is also more metal-rich than our Sun based on the amount of iron relative to hydrogen.
In 2000, analysis of radial velocity measurements of the star revealed the existence of a brown dwarf companion (designated HD 202206 b) with at least 17 times the mass of Jupiter around the star in an eccentric orbit with a period of around 256 days. This mass exceeds the 13 Jupiter mass limit above which an object can undergo deuterium fusion in its core, which some take to be the dividing line between planets and brown dwarfs, a definition which is supported by the IAU. However, some authors have suggested that the core accretion process (the traditional model for planet formation) can form objects above this limit, up to around 25–30 Jupiter masses. The classification of HD 202206 b as a brown dwarf or "superplanet" is currently unclear.
Even after HD 202206 b was accounted for, the star still showed a drift in the radial velocity measurements, indicating another companion in a longer-period orbit. In 2004 after further observations, the parameters of a companion was announced. This companion is about Jupiter's size, has a planetary mass at least 2.44 times that of Jupiter, and has an eccentric orbit taking around 1384 days to complete. The planet is located in a 5:1 orbital resonance with the inner companion.
The formation history of this planetary system is interesting: depending on the method of formation of the inner companion, the system can either be regarded as consisting of a superplanet and a planet, or alternatively a planet revolving in a circumbinary orbit.
(in order from star)
|b||>17.4 MJ||0.83||255.87 ± 0.06||0.435 ± 0.001||—||—|
|c||>2.44 MJ||2.55||1383.4 ± 18.4||0.267 ± 0.021||—||—|
- van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv: . Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. Vizier catalog entry
- Udry; Mayor, M.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N. C.; Burnet, M. (2002). "The CORALIE survey for southern extra-solar planets VIII. The very low-mass companions of HD 141937, HD 162020, HD 168443, HD 202206: Brown dwarfs or "superplanets"?". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 390 (1): 267–279. arXiv: . Bibcode:2002A&A...390..267U. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020685.
- "Exoplanets Galore!" (Press release). Garching, Germany: European Southern Observatory. April 15, 2000. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- "Definition of a "Planet"". Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (WGESP) of the International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
- Mordasini, C.; Alibert; Benz; Naef; et al. (2007). "Giant Planet Formation by Core Accretion". arXiv: [astro-ph].
- Correia, A.; Udry, S.; Mayor, M.; Laskar, J.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N. C.; et al. (2005). "The CORALIE survey for southern extra-solar planets. XIII. A pair of planets around HD202206 or a circumbinary planet?" (abstract). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 440 (2): 751–758. arXiv: . Bibcode:2005A&A...440..751C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20042376.
- HD 202206 on SIMBAD
- HD 202206 on Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia
- Extrasolar Planet Interactions by Rory Barnes & Richard Greenberg, Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona