HIV/AIDS in Thailand
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Since HIV/AIDS was first reported in Thailand in 1984, 1,115,415 adults had been infected as of 2008, with 585,830 having died since 1984. 532,522 Thais were living with HIV/AIDS in 2008. In 2009 the adult prevalence of HIV was 1.3%. As of 2009, Thailand had the highest prevalence of HIV in Asia.
A 2011 report from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) identified Thailand among the eleven countries in the Asia-Pacific with a majority of the world's HIV-infected people.
After Thailand’s first case of HIV/AIDS was reported in 1984, the incidence of infection increased steadily in the country. Information on the prevalence of AIDS in Thailand was initially suppressed due to the concern of affecting the economy of the tourist industry. In 1991, the government adopted a strategy to combat the disease, and in recent years, the number of new infections has declined. HIV prevalence had remained the same from 2003 to 2005 (1.4 percent) with more people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART).[dead link]
According to the AVERT (formerly also known as the AIDS Education and Research Trust) organisation, the second-highest prevalence of HIV in Asia existed in Thailand in 2002, with a rate of 1.8 percent.
Thailand’s early cases of HIV/AIDS occurred primarily among gay men. The virus then spread rapidly to injecting drug users (IDUs), followed by prostitutes. Between 2003 and 2005, there were increases in HIV prevalence from 17 to 28 percent among men who have sex with men in Bangkok. In addition, prevalence among IDUs still ranges from 30 to 50 percent.
In 2005, more than 40 percent of new infections were among women, the majority of whom were infected through intercourse with long-term lovers. Money and a low level of condom use due to women’s activity in the illegal sex trade are factors responsible for the spread of HIV among this group. Although the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Thailand has declined, the epidemic has moved to the general population and there is a greater need to match prevention efforts with recent changes in the epidemic.[dead link]
As of 2011, IDUs in Thailand are the among the most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS and number between 40,000-97,300.
Several factors put Thailand at risk of a resurgence of HIV/AIDS cases. Awareness of HIV status is low. For example, 80 percent of HIV-positive MSM had never been tested or thought they were HIV-negative, according to a 2006 study cited by UNAIDS. A large portion of IDUs – 35 percent according to one study – use nonsterile injecting equipment.
Other research has noted an increased trend of erratic condom use by female prostitutes. In some cases, women selling sex reported using a condom in just over one half of commercial sex encounters. Finally, premarital sex, once taboo, is increasingly common among young Thais, only 20 to 30 percent of whom use condoms consistently, according to the United Nations Development Program.[dead link]
According to the World Health Organization, Thailand has a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, with 63 new cases per 100,000 people in 2005. Approximately 7.6 percent of TB patients are co-infected with HIV; HIV-TB co-infections pose a challenge to treatment provision and care for both diseases.
Thailand’s initial response to the epidemic was weak. However, since the National AIDS Control Program was moved from the Ministry of Public Health to the Office of the Prime Minister in 1991, the country’s HIV/AIDS prevention efforts have been recognized[by whom?] as among the world’s most successful. The Ninth National Economic and Social Development Plan (2002–2006) emphasized the adoption of a human-centered approach to bring about reform through the public health system, especially the health care system. Thailand’s policy on AIDS has worked toward educating its citizens on HIV/AIDS and prevention measures; developing a system of medical, public health, social, and consultation services to improve the quality of life of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA); developing medical biotechnology, medicine, and AIDS vaccination research; and working with all parties involved, such as the government and private sector, to prevent and alleviate the HIV/AIDS situation.[dead link]
Thailand’s HIV/AIDS activities include conducting a public education campaign targeting the general public and most-at-risk populations (MARPs), improving sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment, discouraging men from visiting sex workers, promoting condom use, and requiring sex workers to receive monthly STI tests and carry records of the test results.[dead link]
In 2004, Thailand received a third-round grant from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to prevent HIV/AIDS among IDUs and increase care and support for them. Objectives of the grant are to train peer leaders within IDU communities; create harm-reduction centers; educate health care providers, police, prison staff, and policymakers; and provide peer-based outreach, education, counseling, referral services, and HIV testing support. The U.S. Government provides one-third of the Global Fund’s contributions.[dead link]
Since the change of government in 2006, Thailand has reinvigorated its HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. In 2007, Thailand adopted a three-year strategic plan that focuses on scaling up HIV prevention efforts, particularly for people most likely to be exposed to HIV and for difficult-to-reach populations. Early in 2007, the government announced that it was breaking patents on drugs to treat HIV. Thus, the government continues to strive for achieving universal access to treatment. As of the end of 2006, 88 percent of HIV-infected people were receiving ART, according to UNAIDS.[dead link]
Despite the efforts put into anti-HIV strategies, it is estimated that condom use remains quite low: in 2010, the Department of Disease Control (DDC) estimated that 60% of sexually active teenagers, more than 50% of MSM and 40% of sex workers do not regularly use condoms.
The American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a study in partnership with the Thailand Ministry of Public Health to ascertain the effectiveness of providing people who inject drugs illicitly with daily doses of the anti-retroviral drug Tenofovir as a prevention measure. The results of the study were released in mid-June 2013 and revealed a 48.9% reduced incidence of the virus among the group of subjects who received the drug, in comparison to the control group who received a placebo. The Principal Investigator of the study stated in the Lancet medical journal: “We now know that pre-exposure prophylaxis can be a potentially vital option for HIV prevention in people at very high risk for infection, whether through sexual transmission or injecting drug use.”
- Pongphon Sarnsamak (25 November 2008). "More teenaged girls getting HIV infection". The Nation. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Thailand". HIV InSite. UCSF Center for HIV Information. July 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "COUNTRY COMPARISON :: HIV/AIDS - ADULT PREVALENCE RATE". The CIA World Factbook. CIA. 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "HIV/AIDS: Pakistan has one of Asia's highest HIV prevalence rates". The Express Tribune. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Jackson, Peter A. Male homosexuality in Thailand: an interpretation of contemporary Thai sources. Elmhurst, NY: Global Academic Publishers, 1989. Print.
- "Health Profile: Thailand". United States Agency for International Development (March 2008). Accessed August 25, 2008. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Archived August 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Timeline of AIDS in Asia". AVERT. AVERT. 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Slideshow: The Need for Clean Needles in Thailand". World Bank Thailand. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Celetano, David D.; Kenrad Nelson; Cynthia Lyles; Chris Beyner; Sakol Eiumtrakal; Vivian Go; Surinda Kuntolbutra; Chirasak Khamboonruang (1998). "Decreasing Incidence of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Disease in Young Thai Men: Evidence for Success of HIV/AIDS Control and Prevention Program.". AIDS. 12 (29): 29–36. doi:10.1097/00002030-199805000-00004. PMID 9543437.
- Emma Bourke (14 June 2013). "Preventive drug could reduce HIV transmission among injecting drug users". The Conversation Australia. The Conversation Media Group. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Nemoto, Tooru, Mariko Iwamoto, Usaneya Perngparn, Chitlada Areesantichai, Emiko Kamitani, and Maria Sakata. "HIV-related Risk Behaviors among Kathoey (male-to-female Transgender) Sex Workers in Bangkok, Thailand." AIDS Care (2011): 1-10. Web.