HLA-A24

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Further information: HLA serotypes explained
HLA-A24
(MHC Class I, A cell surface antigen)
HLA-A24.png
Rendering of 2bck​: α (A*2402 gene product), β2-microglobulin, and telomerase peptide.
About
Protein transmembrane receptor/ligand
Structure αβ heterodimer
Subunits HLA-A*24--, β2-microglobulin
Older names HL-A9
Subtypes
Subtype
allele
Available structures
A24 *2402 2bck
A9.3 *2403
Alleles link-out to IMGT/HLA database at EBI

HLA-A24 (A24) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of α24 subset of HLA-A α-chains. For A24, the alpha, "A", chain are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele group and the β-chain are encoded by B2M locus.[1] This group currently is dominated by A*2402. A24 and A*24 are almost synonymous in meaning. A24 is a split antigen of the broad antigen HLA-A9 and it is a sister serotype of HLA-A23.

A*2402 has one of the highest "A" frequencies identified for a number of peoples, including Papua New Guineans, Indigenous Taiwanese (Eastern Tribals), Yupik and Greenland Eskimos. It is common over much of Southeastern Asia. In Eurasia it is least common in Ireland, and A24 is relatively uncommon in Africa except North Africa and Kenya.

Serotype[edit]

A24 recognition of some HLA A*24 gene products[2]
A*24 A24 A9 Sample
allele  %  % size (N)
*2402 97 3098
*2403 55 4  282

There are over 90 known A*24 alleles, 69 code for different isoforms and 7 are nulls. A*2403 can also be detected as A2403 serotype.

Associated disease[edit]

A24 has a secondary risk factor for myasthenia gravis,[3] Buerger's disease.[4]

Alleles[edit]

HLA A*2402 frequencies
Study population Freq.
 (in %)[5]
Taiwan Paiwan 86.3
Taiwan Tsou 78.4
Taiwan Rukai 76.0
Papua New Guinea Goroka 74.4
PNG Karimui Plateau 74.4
Taiwan Puyuma 64.0
Taiwan Ami 62.8
PNG Wanigela 62.7
Taiwan Atayal 61.8
Ecuador Cayapa 61.4
New Caledonia 60.7
Venezuela Perja Mtn. Bari 60.2
USA Alaska Yupik Natives 58.1
Taiwan Tao 54.0
PNG Wosera 51.3
Taiwan Siraya 47.1
Taiwan Taroko 44.5
Mexico Chihuahua Tarahuma… 37.5
USA Arizona Pima 36.0
Taiwan Pazeh 33.6
Japan Okinawa Ryukyuan 33.5
American Samoa 33.0
Japan (5) 32.7
Philippines Ivatan 32.0
PNG New Britain Rabaul 31.6
N. Mexico Canoncito Navaj… 30.5
Australia Indig. Yuendumu 29.8
Australia Indig. Groote E… 29.3
China Tibetans 27.2
S. Dakota Lakota Sioux 26.2
Mexico Mixtec Oaxaca 24.5
Japan Ainu Hokkaido 24.0
Venezuela Perija Mtns. Yu… 23.3
Mexico Zaptotec Oaxaca 23.1
USA North American Native… 22.7
Australia Indig. Cape Yor… 22.3
Ch. Guangdong Meizhou Han 22.2
Russia Tuva (2) 21.5
Singapore Chinese Han 21.5
India North Hindus 20.2
Mongolia Buriat 20.0
China Inner Mongolia 19.6
USA Asian 18.9
Taiwan Minnan (1) 18.6
China South Han 17.2
Georgia Tibilisi Georgian… 17.1
India Mumbai Marathas 16.7
Mexico Guadalajara Mestiz… 16.5
Singapore Riau Malay 16.5
Croatia 16.0
India Khandesh Pawra 16.0
Singapore Javanese Indone… 16.0
South Africa Natal Tamil 16.0
India Tamil Nadu Nadar 15.6
PNG Madang 15.3
China North Han 15.2
USA South Texas Hispanics 15.2
PNG West Schrader Ranges 14.2
China Guangxi Maonan 13.4
Mexico Mestizos 13.4
Georgia Svaneti Svans 13.1
Romanian 12.7
Pakistan Burusho 12.5
USA Hispanic 12.2
Bulgaria 11.8
Georgia Tibilisi Kurds 11.7
India New Delhi 11.4
Pakistan Sindhi 10.7
USA Caucasian 10.7
France South East 10.6
Pakistan Pathan 10.2
Cameroon Pygmy Baka 10.0
Finland 9.4
Brazil 8.6
Australia Indig. Kimberly 8.3
Australia New South Wales 8.2
Israel Arab Druse 8.0
Pakistan Baloch 8.0
Portugal Centre 8.0
Cameroon Sawa 7.7
Brazil Terena 7.5
Ireland South 6.8
Tunisia 6.7
Belgium 6.6
Morocco Berber Nador Meta… 6.2
Jordan Amman 5.9
Oman 5.9
Mexico Mixe Oaxaca 5.7
Portugal North 5.4
Sudanese 5.3
Mexico Sonora Seri 4.5
Uganda Kampala 4.3
Thailand 3.9
Iran Baloch 3.4
USA African America 2.8
Kenya 2.1
Guinea Bissau 1.5
Czech Republic 1.0
Kenya Nandi 1.0
Allele frequencies presented, only

A*2402 is a secondary risk factor,[6] alters type 1 diabetes risk,[7][8] and allele associated with thymoma-induced myasthenia gravis.

Haplotypes[edit]

HLA A24-B35 haplotype by Cw frequencies
freq Rank in
ref. Population (%) Pop.
[9] Java (Indonesia) 8.0 1 4
[9] S. Amer. Native 6.3 1 3
[9] N. Amer. Native 5.4 1 5
[9] Mexican 4.7 1
[9] Inuit 4.2 1
[9] Brazilian 3.8 1
[9] Austria 3.5 1
[9] Portuguese 3.1 1 3
[9] Yakut 2.9 1
[9] Mongolian 2.7 1
[9] Timor 2.5 1 5
[9] Bharghavas (India) 2.4 1
[9] Greek 2.3 1
[9] Italian 2.2 1
[9] Mongolian 1.9 1
[9] Vietnamese 1.8 1
[9] Japanese 1.6 2
[9] French 1.2 2
1 Cw4. 2 Cw9.

A24-Cw7-B39
A24-Cw10-B60
A24-Cw10-B61
A24-B48

A24-Cw4-B35[edit]

This particular haplotype is common across a fairly wide region, possibly the most widely spread A-Cw-B haplotype in humans. Cw4-B35 has a node within the region once referred to as Thracia/Dacia.

A24-Cw*14-B51[edit]

HLA A24-CBL-B51 (CBL=1402) haplotype frequencies
freq
ref. Population (%)
[9] Korean 3.5
[9] Iyers 3.4
[9] Mongolian 2.9
[9] Japanese 2.6
[9] Romanian 2.2
[9] Greek 2.1
[9] Hungarian 2.0
[9] Italian 0.6

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arce-Gomez B, Jones EA, Barnstable CJ, Solomon E, Bodmer WF (February 1978). "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in somatic cell hybrids: requirement for beta2 microglobulin". Tissue Antigens. 11 (2): 96–112. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978.tb01233.x. PMID 77067. 
  2. ^ Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European Bioinformatics Institute
  3. ^ Machens A, Löliger C, Pichlmeier U, Emskötter T, Busch C, Izbicki J (1999). "Correlation of thymic pathology with HLA in myasthenia gravis.". Clin Immunol. 91 (3): 296–301. doi:10.1006/clim.1999.4710. PMID 10370374. 
  4. ^ Numano F, Sasazuki T, Koyama T, Shimokado K, Takeda Y, Nishimura Y, Mutoh M (1986). "HLA in Buerger's disease.". Exp Clin Immunogenet. 3 (4): 195–200. PMID 3274054. 
  5. ^ Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003). "New allele frequency database: http://www.allelefrequencies.net". Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403–7. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00062.x. PMID 12753660. 
  6. ^ de Juan M, Reta A, Belzunegui J, Figueroa M, Maruri N, Cuadrado E (2004). "HLA-A*2402 and a microsatellite (D6S248) are secondary independent susceptibility markers to ankylosing spondylitis in Basque patients.". Hum Immunol. 65 (2): 175–80. doi:10.1016/j.humimm.2003.11.006. PMID 14969772. 
  7. ^ Noble J, Valdes A, Bugawan T, Apple R, Thomson G, Erlich H (2002). "The HLA class I A locus affects susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.". Hum Immunol. 63 (8): 657–64. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(02)00421-4. PMID 12121673. 
  8. ^ Nakanishi K, Inoko H (2006). "Combination of HLA-A24, -DQA1*03, and -DR9 Contributes to Acute-Onset and Early Complete {beta}-Cell Destruction in Type 1 Diabetes: Longitudinal Study of Residual {beta}-Cell Function.". Diabetes. 55 (6): 1862–8. doi:10.2337/db05-1049. PMID 16731854. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Sasazuki, Takehiko; Tsuji, Kimiyoshi; Aizawa, Miki (1992). HLA 1991: proceedings of the eleventh International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference, held in Yokohama, Japan, 6-13 November, 1991. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-262390-7.