HLA-A31

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HLA-A31
(MHC Class I, A cell surface antigen)
Illustration HLA-A.png
HLA-A31
About
Protein transmembrane receptor/ligand
Structure αβ heterodimer
Subunits HLA-A*3101, β2-microglobulin
Older names A19
Subtypes
Subtype
allele
Available structures
A31 *3101
{{{cNick2}}} *31{{{cAllele2}}}
{{{cNick3}}} *31{{{cAllele3}}}
{{{cNick4}}} *31{{{cAllele4}}}
Rare alleles
Subtype
allele
Available structures
A31.2 *3102
{{{rnick2}}} *31{{{rallele2}}}
{{{rnick3}}} *31{{{rallele3}}}
Alleles link-out to IMGT/HLA database at EBI

HLA-A31 (A31) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of α31 subset of HLA-A α-chains. For A31, the alpha "A" chain are encoded by the HLA-A*31 allele group and the β-chain are encoded by B2M locus.[1] This group currently is dominated by A*3101. A31 and A*31 are almost synonymous in meaning. A31 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A19. A31 is a sister serotype of A29A30A32A33, and A74.

A31 is more common in South and Central America.

Serotype[edit]

A31 recognition of some HLA A*31 gene products[2]
A*31 A31 A19 A30 Sample
allele  %  %  % size (N)
*3101 90 1 3 3517
*3102 100 0 0 11


There is substantive false reaction of A30 with A*3101, otherwise serological identification is good.

Distribution[edit]

HLA A*3101 frequencies
Study population Freq.
 (in %)[3]
USA New Mexico Canoncito … 26.8
Argentina Chiriguanos 26.4
Argentina Salta Wichis 23.7
India Tamil Nadu Nadar 18.9
Mexico Michoacan Tarasco 18.4
Brazil Terena 18.3
USA South Dakota Lakota S… 18.1
Mexico Sonora Seri 15.2
Japan Hyogo 14.1
Colombia Mestizos 13.3
India Andhra Pradesh Goll… 13.1
Mexico Teenek Huasteca Re… 12.1
Japan Ainu Hokkaido 12.0
Guatemala Mayans 10.9
Brazil Parana Oriental 10.6
Mexico Chihuahua State Ta… 10.2
Peru Lamas City Lama 10.2
Russia Tuva (2) 9.8
China Tibetan 9.2
Saudi Arabia Guraiat and … 8.7
India Kerala Hindu Ezhava 8.3
Mexico Guadalajara Mestiz… 8.3
Japan Okinawa Ryukyuan 8.1
USA North American Native… 7.8
Japan Aichi 7.6
USA Arizona Pima 7.6
Mongolia Buriat 7.5
China North Han 7.1
Japan Central 7.1
Mongolia Khalha 7.0
South Africa Natal Tamil 7.0
Mexico Zaptotec Oaxaca 6.7
Mongolia Khoton Tarialan 6.5
India Khandesh Pawra 6.0
Mongolia Oold 5.8
Saudi Arabia 5.7
China Inner Mongolia 5.4
South Korea 5.4
Papua New Guinea Madang 5.1
Finland 5.0
Chuvash 4.9
USA Hispanic 4.9
France South East 4.7
Sakhalin Island Nivkhi 4.7
Pakistan Sindhi 4.4
Belgium 4.2
Pakistan Kalash 4.2
Portugal South 4.1
Brazil 4.0
India Jalpaiguri Toto 3.8
Spain North Cabuernigo 3.8
Sweden Uppsala County 3.8
China Beijing 3.7
German Essen 3.6
Sri Lanka Colombo Sinhale… 3.5
Zambia Lusaka 3.5
Spain Catalonia Girona 3.4
Sweden Stockholm 3.4
Algeria1 3.0
Croatia 3.0
India New Delhi 3.0
Papua New Guinea Karimui … 3.0
Spain Basque Gipuzkoa Pro… 3.0
Sudanese 3.0
Wales 3.0
England Sheffield 2.8
China South Han 2.8
Czech Republic 2.8
Thailand 2.8
USA San Antonio Caucasian… 2.7
Italy Bergamo 2.7
Brazil Belo Horizonte 2.6
Ireland Northern 2.6
England Liverpool 2.6
China Yunnan Nu 2.5
Italy 2.5
Oman 2.5
Scotland Orkney 2.5
Uganda Kampala 2.5
England Newcastle 2.4
Mexico Mestizos 2.4
New Caledonia 2.4
Romanian 2.3
Iran Baloch 2.2
Ireland South 2.2
Morocco 'Berber' Nador Me… 2.1
Serbia 2.1
Burkina Faso Fulani 2.0
Georgia Svaneti Svans 1.9
Russia Northwest 1.8
Bulgaria 1.8
Georgia Tibilisi Kurds 1.7
Jordan Amman 1.7
Greece North 1.6
Tunisia 1.5
Thailand Northeast 1.4
Spain Basque Arratia Vall… 1.3
USA African Americans 1.3
Israel Gaza Palestinians 1.2
Allele frequencies presented, only

Haplotypes[edit]

HLA A31 haplotype frequencies
freq
ref. Population (%)
A31-B35
(A*310102:Cw*0401:B*3501)
Lakota Sioux (USA) 4.1
Indig American (USA) 3.7
Mestizo (Guad. Mexico) 1.5[4]
Tibetan 1.1
Jews (England) 1.3
Tibetan 1.1
Italian 0.6
Japanese 0.5
French 0.5
Choushan (China) 0.4
German 0.3
A31-B39
(A*310102:Cw*0701:B*3901)
Mixtec (Oax. Mexico) 10.0
Lakota Souix (USA) 1.6
Japanese 0.3
German 0.1
A31-B48
(A*310102:B*4801)
Orochon (Russia) 6.0
Maya (Guatemala) 3.5
Buriat 3.4
Japanese 0.3
A31-B51
(A*310102:B*5101)
Ainu (Hokkaido Japan) 8.9
Indig. Brazil 5.8
Orochon (Russia) 5.3
Indig American (USA) 4.3
Tibetan 3.3
Inner Mongolian 3.0
Japanese 3.0
Portuguese 1.6
Korean 1.2
Italian 0.9
French 0.5
German 0.3
Choushan (China) 0.2
(A*310102:B*5102)
Tarahumura (Mexico) 5.7
Vietnamese 1.0
A31-B60
(A*310102:Cw*0304:B*4001)
Lusaka (Zambia) 2.3
Yakuts (Russia) 2.0
Irish 0.7
Choushan (China) 0.7
Japan 0.6
Dutch 0.6
German 0.4
A31-B62
(A*310102:B*1501)
Nivkhi (Sakalin, Russia) 12.5
Yakut(Russia) 5.5
Indig. Brazil 4.1
Manchu 1.1
Japan 0.4
German 0.2
Choushan (China) 0.2

Examination of A31 haplotypes reveals a probable connection across northern Eurasia during the prehistoric period. Frequencies of the more 'tale-tell' haplotypes (A31-B60, B61, and B62) fall from NE to SW Europe. Other haplotypes appears to have spread from the Middle East (A31-B51 and A31-B35).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arce-Gomez B, Jones EA, Barnstable CJ, Solomon E, Bodmer WF (February 1978). "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in somatic cell hybrids: requirement for beta2 microglobulin". Tissue Antigens. 11 (2): 96–112. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978.tb01233.x. PMID 77067. 
  2. ^ Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European Bioinformatics Institute
  3. ^ Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003). "New allele frequency database: http://www.allelefrequencies.net". Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403–7. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00062.x. PMID 12753660. 
  4. ^ B*3512