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(MHC Class I, A cell surface antigen)
Illustration HLA-A.png
Protein transmembrane receptor/ligand
Structure αβ heterodimer
Subunits HLA-A*69--, β2-microglobulin
Older names A28
Available structures
A69 *6901
{{{cNick2}}} *69{{{cAllele2}}}
{{{cNick3}}} *69{{{cAllele3}}}
{{{cNick4}}} *69{{{cAllele4}}}
Alleles link-out to IMGT/HLA database at EBI

HLA-A69 (A69) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of α69 subset of HLA-A α-chains. For A69, the alpha "A" chain are encoded by the HLA-A*69 allele group and the β-chain are encoded by B2M locus.[1] This group currently is dominated by A*6901. A69 and A*69 are almost synonymous in meaning. A69 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A28. A69 is a sister serotype of A68.

A69 is more common in Levant. A69 (A*6901) is a derivative of the A*6801 allele that has undergone gene conversion with A*02. The recombination took place no more than 330,000 years ago[2].


A69 recognition of some HLA A*69 gene products[3]
A*69 A69 A28 A68 A2 Sample
allele  %  %  %  % size (N)
*6901 7 56 3 6 289

A69 is poor, with low specific detection, high non-specific identification by A28, and false recognition by A68 and A2.


HLA A*6901 frequencies
ref. Population (%)
[4] Palestinian (Gaza) 4.8
[5] North Isl. (Cape Verde) 4.0
[6] Druse-Arab (Israel) 3.0
[5] South Isl. (Cape Verde) 2.4
[7] Mossi (Burkino Faso) 1.9
[8] Bulgaria 1.8
[9] Jew (Israel) 1.2
[10] Tunis (Tunisia) 1.1
[11] Bergamo (Italy) 1.1
[12] N. Delhi (India) 1.1
[13] Amman (Jordon) 1.0
[14] Sardinia (Italy) 1.0
[15] Central Portugal 1.0
[15] Shanghai (China) 0.7
[16] Girona (Catalon, Spain) 0.6
[17] Baloch (Iran) 0.6
[15] Greece 0.6
[15] Czech 0.5
[15] SE France 0.4
[18] Kampala (Uganda) 0.3
[15] N. Greece 0.3
[15] Romania 0.3
[15] Sudanese 0.25
[15] U. Arab Emerates 0.25
[15] Japan 0.0
[15] Croatia 0.0
[15] N. Ireland 0.0
[15] Zambia 0.0
[15] Luo (Kenya) 0.0
[15] Nandi (Kenya) 0.0
[15] Bandiagara (Mali) 0.0

Distribution of A69 places nodal center in the Levant, but high levels in West Africa. The model of human genetic origin places first migrations from Eastern Africa. However, in many east African populations the frequency of A69 is zero. A more consistent model of A69 distribution is either a subsequent migration from West Africa, supported by A36 and HLA DR3-DQ2. The higher levels in the Gaza Palestinians supports this hypothesis.

Disease associations[edit]

A69 may be associated with sarcoidosis.[19]


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  2. ^ Holmes N, Parham P (1985). "Exon shuffling in vivo can generate novel HLA class I molecules". EMBO J. 4 (11): 2849–54. PMC 554588Freely accessible. PMID 3877632. 
  3. ^ Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European Bioinformatics Institute
  4. ^ Arnaiz-Villena A, Elaiwa N, Silvera C, et al. (2001). "The origin of Palestinians and their genetic relatedness with other Mediterranean populations". Hum. Immunol. 62 (9): 889–900. PMID 11543891. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(01)00288-9.  (Retracted. If this is intentional, please replace {{Retracted}} with {{Retracted|intentional=yes}}.)
  5. ^ a b Spínola H, Bruges-Armas J, Middleton D, Brehm A (2005). "HLA polymorphisms in Cabo Verde and Guiné-Bissau inferred from sequence-based typing". Hum. Immunol. 66 (10): 1082–92. PMID 16386651. doi:10.1016/j.humimm.2005.09.001. 
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  14. ^ Grimaldi MC, Crouau-Roy B, Amoros JP, et al. (2001). "West Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Balearic islands, Sardinia) and the Basque population: contribution of HLA class I molecular markers to their evolutionary history". Tissue Antigens. 58 (5): 281–92. PMID 11844138. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.580501.x. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003). "New allele frequency database: http://www.allelefrequencies.net". Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403–7. PMID 12753660. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00062.x.  External link in |title= (help)
  16. ^ Comas D, Mateu E, Calafell F, et al. (1998). "HLA class I and class II DNA typing and the origin of Basques". Tissue Antigens. 51 (1): 30–40. PMID 9459501. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1998.tb02944.x. 
  17. ^ Farjadian S, Naruse T, Kawata H, Ghaderi A, Bahram S, Inoko H (2004). "Molecular analysis of HLA allele frequencies and haplotypes in Baloch of Iran compared with related populations of Pakistan". Tissue Antigens. 64 (5): 581–7. PMID 15496201. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2004.00302.x. 
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  19. ^ Bilir M, Sipahi S, Yilmaz E, et al. (2007). "Analysis of HLA antigens in Turkish sarcoidosis patients". South. Med. J. 100 (4): 356–9. PMID 17458393. doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e31802f3763.