HLA-DQB1

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HLA-DQB1
1UVQ.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases HLA-DQB1, CELIAC1, HLA-DQB, IDDM1, HLA-DQB1, major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1, HLA-DRB1
External IDs MGI: 103070 HomoloGene: 1603 GeneCards: HLA-DQB1
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE HLA-DQB1 209823 x at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_002123
NM_001243961
NM_001243962

NM_207105

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001230890
NP_001230891
NP_002114

NP_996988

Location (UCSC) Chr 6: 32.66 – 32.67 Mb Chr 17: 34.26 – 34.27 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1, also known as HLA-DQB1, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic locus that contains this gene.[3] The protein encoded by this gene is one of two proteins that are required to form the DQ heterodimer, a cell surface receptor essential to the function of the immune system.

Function[edit]

HLA-DQB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages).[3]

Gene structure and polymorphisms[edit]

The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and it contains 5 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular protein domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain, and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DQ molecule, both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to 4 different molecules. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow transplantation.[3][4]

Disease association[edit]

Diabetes[edit]

Several alleles of HLA-DQB1 are associated with an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.[5][6][7] The locus also has the genetic name IDDM1 as it is the highest genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Again the DQB1*0201 and DQB1*0302 alleles, particularly the phenotype DQB1*0201/*0302 has a high risk of late onset type 1 diabetes. The risk is partially shared with the HLA-DR locus (DR3 and DR4 serotypes).

Celiac disease[edit]

Celiac1 is a genetic name for DQB1, the HLA DQB1*0201, *0202, and *0302 encode genes that mediate the autoimmune coeliac disease. Homozygotes of DQB1*0201 have a higher risk of developing the celiac disease, relative to any other genetic locus.[8]

Multiple sclerosis[edit]

Certain HLA-DQB1 alleles are also linked to a modest increased risk of multiple sclerosis.[9][10]

Narcolepsy[edit]

Other HLA-DQB1 alleles are associated with a predisposition to narcolepsy,[11] specifically HLA-DQB1*0602, which is carried by over 90% of patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy.[12]

Alleles[edit]

HLA-DQB1 alleles
Serotype DQB1 allele
DQ2 *0201
*0202
*0203
DQ4 *0401
*0402
DQ5 *0501
*0502
*0503
*0504
DQ6 *0601
*0602
*0603
*0604
*0605
*0609
DQ7 *0301
*0304
DQ8 *0302
*0305
DQ9 *0303

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: HLA-DQB1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1". 
  4. ^ Lau M, Terasaki PI, Park MS (1994). "International Cell Exchange, 1994". Clinical Transplants: 467–88. PMID 7547576. 
  5. ^ Todd JA (April 1990). "Genetic control of autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes". Immunology Today. 11 (4): 122–9. PMID 2187469. doi:10.1016/0167-5699(90)90049-F. 
  6. ^ Todd JA (March 1997). "Genetics of type 1 diabetes". Pathologie-Biologie. 45 (3): 219–27. PMID 9296067. 
  7. ^ Redondo MJ, Fain PR, Eisenbarth GS (2001). "Genetics of type 1A diabetes". Recent Progress in Hormone Research. 56: 69–89. PMID 11237226. doi:10.1210/rp.56.1.69. 
  8. ^ Murray JA, Moore SB, Van Dyke CT, Lahr BD, Dierkhising RA, Zinsmeister AR, Melton LJ, Kroning CM, El-Yousseff M, Czaja AJ (December 2007). "HLA DQ gene dosage and risk and severity of celiac disease". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 5 (12): 1406–12. PMC 2175211Freely accessible. PMID 17919990. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2007.08.013. 
  9. ^ Dyment DA, Sadovnick AD, Ebers GC, Sadnovich AD (1997). "Genetics of multiple sclerosis". Human Molecular Genetics. 6 (10): 1693–8. PMID 9300661. doi:10.1093/hmg/6.10.1693. 
  10. ^ Schmidt H, Williamson D, Ashley-Koch A (May 2007). "HLA-DR15 haplotype and multiple sclerosis: a HuGE review". American Journal of Epidemiology. 165 (10): 1097–109. PMID 17329717. doi:10.1093/aje/kwk118. 
  11. ^ Kadotani H, Faraco J, Mignot E (May 1998). "Genetic studies in the sleep disorder narcolepsy". Genome Research. 8 (5): 427–34. PMID 9582188. doi:10.1101/gr.8.5.427. 
  12. ^ "Narcolepsy Research - FAQs". Retrieved 3 January 2014.