HLA-F

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HLA-F
Identifiers
Aliases HLA-F, CDA12, HLA-5.4, HLA-CDA12, HLA-F, major histocompatibility complex, class I, F
External IDs MGI: 3779381 HomoloGene: 133121 GeneCards: HLA-F
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE HLA-F 221875 x at fs.png

PBB GE HLA-F 204806 x at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001098478
NM_001098479
NM_018950

NM_001199967

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001091948
NP_001091949
NP_061823

NP_001186896

Location (UCSC) n/a Chr 17: 36.06 – 36.06 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-F gene.[3][4]

HLA-F[edit]

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of cell surface proteins that in humans is also called the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) complex. These proteins are encoded by a cluster of genes known as the HLA locus. The HLA locus occupies a ~ 3Mbp stretch that is located on the short arm of chromosome 6, specifically on 6p21.1-21.3.[5] The MHC proteins are classified into three main categories, namely class I, II, and III. There are over 140 genes within the HLA locus and they are often called HLA genes.[6][7] HLA-A, B, and C are the classical class I genes and HLA-E, F and G are the nonclassical class I genes.[8][9] The protein encoded from the gene HLA-F was originally isolated from the human lymphoblastoid cell line 721.[10]

Gene[edit]

The HLA-F gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 6, telomeric to the HLA-A locus.[8] HLA-F has little allelic polymorphism[11] and is highly conserved in other primates.[12] HLA-F appears to be a recombinant between two multigene families, one that comprises conserved sequences found in all class I proteins (single transmembrane span) and another distinct family of genes with a conserved 3’ UTR. Many of these genes are highly transcribed and differentially expressed.[3]

Protein[edit]

The HLA-F protein is a ~40-41 kDa molecule with conserved domains.[13] Exon 7 is absent from the mRNA of HLA-F.[3][14] The absence of this exon produces a modification in the cytoplasmic tail of the protein making it shorter relative to classical HLA class-I proteins.[3] The cytoplasmic tail helps HLA-F exit the endoplasmic reticulum,[15] and that function is primarily done by the amino acid valine found at the C-terminal end of the tail.[15][16]

Expression[edit]

Classic HLA class I molecules interact with HLA-F through their heavy chain.[16] However, HLA class I molecules only interact with HLA-F when they are in the form of an open conformer (free of peptide). Thus, HLA-F is expressed independently of bound peptide.[16][17]

Intracellular expression[edit]

HLA-F is expressed intracellularly in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), resting lymphocyte cells (B, T, NK, and monocytes), tonsils, spleen, thymus, bladder, brain, colon, kidney, liver, lymphoblast, T cell leukemia, choriocarcinoma, and carcinoma.[13][18][19]

Extracellular expression[edit]

HLA-F is expressed on the cell surface of activated lymphocytes, HeLa cells, EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells, and in some activated monocyte cell lines.[15][18] The surface expression of HLA-F coincides with the activated immune response since HLA-F is mostly found on the surface of stimulated T memory cells but not on circulating regulatory T cells.[20]

Expression during pregnancy[edit]

HLA-F is expressed on the cells that surround the forming placenta (called extravillous trophoblasts), which are in direct contact with the maternal uterine cells.[21] In these cells, HLA-F is expressed both intracellularly and on the surface.[21]

Function[edit]

HLA-F belongs to the non-classical HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. Compared to classical HLA class I molecules, it exhibits very few polymorphisms. This class I molecule mainly exists as a heterodimer associated with the invariant light chain beta-2 microglobulin. The heavy chain is approximately 42 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domains, the putative peptide binding sites, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 and 6 encode the transmembrane region and exons 7 and 8 the cytoplasmic tail. However, exons 7 and 8 (the cytoplasmic tail) are not translated due to an in-frame translation termination codon in exon 6.[4]

HLA-F is currently the most enigmatic of the HLA molecules. Hence, its precise functions still remain to be resolved. Though, in contrast to other HLA molecules, it mainly resides intracellularly and rarely reaches the cell surface, e.g. upon activation of NK, B and T cells. Unlike classical HLA class I molecules, which possess ten highly conserved amino acids responsible for antigen recognition, HLA-F only has 5, suggesting a biological function different from peptide presentation. Upon immune cell activation, HLA-F binds free forms of HLA class I molecules and reaches the cell surface as heterodimer. In this way HLA-F stabilizes HLA class I molecules that haven't yet bound peptides, thereby acting as a chaperone and transporting the free HLA class I to, on, and from the cell surface.[22]

Association with specialized ligands[edit]

HLA-F has been observed only in a subset of cell membranes, mostly B cells and activated lymphocytes.[21] As a result, it has been suggested that its role involves association with specialized ligands that become available in the cell membrane of activated cells.[13] For example, HLA-F can act as a peptide binding of ILT2 and ILT4.[19][23] HLA-F can associate with TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing) and with the multimeric complex involved in peptide loading.[13][19][18][20]

Maternal immunity tolerance[edit]

It has been observed that all three non-classical HLA class I proteins are expressed in placental trophoblasts in contact with maternal immune cells.[11] This suggests that these proteins collaborate in the immune response and that HLA-F plays a fundamental role in both normal and maternal immune response.[11] HLA-F is also expressed in decidual extravillous trophoblasts.[21] During pregnancy, HLA-F interacts with T reg cells and extravillous trophoblasts mediating maternal tolerance to the fetus.[20]

Intermolecular communication[edit]

During the interaction between HLA-F and the heavy chain (HC) of HLA class I molecules in activated lymphocytes, HLA-F plays a role as a chaperone, escorting HLA class I HC to the cell surface and stabilizing its expression in the absence of peptide.[16] HLA-F binds most allelic forms of HLA class I open conformers, but it does not bind peptide complexes.[17]

The expression patterns of HLA-F in T cells suggest that HLA-F is involved in the communication pathway between T reg and activated T cells, where HLA-F signals that the immune response has been activated. During this communication, either HLA-F invokes secretion of inhibitory cytokines by the regulatory T cells or it provides a simple inhibitory signal to the regulatory T cells, allowing a normal immune response to proceed.[20]

Exogenous antigen cross-presentation[edit]

Viral proteins and other exogenous antigens decrease surface HLA-F expression because the exogenous proteins interact with HLA class I molecules at the same sites where HLA-F interacts, producing crosslinking. The exogenous proteins trigger an internal co-localization of both HLA-F and HLA class I molecules.[17] Exogenous proteins with higher affinity will interact more readily with HLA class I molecules triggering a dissociation of HLA class I/HLA-F, thereby reducing the surface levels of HLA-F.[17] HLA-F interacts with the open conformer (OC) of HLA class I and they function together in cross-presentation of exogenous antigen. Exogenous antigen binds to a structure on the surface of activated cells; this structure is composed of HLA class I open conformer and HLA-F; the peptide-binding point of contact is a specific HLA class I epitope on the exogenous antigen.[17]

Ligand during inflammatory response[edit]

The complex HLA-F/HLA class I OC has two distinct roles that are central to the inflammatory response: first, it is a ligand for KIR receptors and can both activate and inhibit KIR; second, it is involved in cross-presentation of exogenous antigen.[24][25][26]

The complex HLA-F/HLA class-I OC is a ligand for a subset of KIR (Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) receptors.[24] Specifically, it was demonstrated that HLA-F interacts physically and functionally with three KIR receptors: KIR3DL2, KIR2DS4, and KIR3DS1, particularly during the inflammatory response.[24][25][26] KIR directly interacts with both HLA-F and HLA class-I individually (i.e. no dimerization between HLA-F and HLA class-I is necessary).

Disease association[edit]

HLA-F has been linked to several diseases (Table). For cancer and tumors, HLA-F expression has been found to be enhanced in gastric adenocarcinoma,[27] breast cancer,[28] esophageal carcinoma,[29] lung cancer,[30] hepatocellular carcinoma,[31] and neuroblastoma.[32] HLA-F has also been associated with susceptibility to several diseases: hepatitis B,[33] Systemic Lupus Erythematosus,[34] and Type 1 diabetes (T1D).[35]

Disease associations
disease reference
gastric adenocarcinoma [27]
breast cancer [28]
esophageal carcinoma [29]
lung cancer [30]
hepatocellular carcinoma [31]
neuroblastoma [32]
hepatitis B [33]
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [34]
Type 1 Diabetes [35]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ a b c d Geraghty DE, Wei XH, Orr HT, Koller BH (January 1990). "Human leukocyte antigen F (HLA-F). An expressed HLA gene composed of a class I coding sequence linked to a novel transcribed repetitive element". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 171 (1): 1–18. PMC 2187653Freely accessible. PMID 1688605. doi:10.1084/jem.171.1.1. 
  4. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: HLA-F major histocompatibility complex, class I, F". 
  5. ^ Krebs J, Goldstein E, Kilpatrick S (2014). "Chapter 18: Somatic recombination and hypermutation in the immune system". Lewin's GENES XI. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 459–99. ISBN 978-1-4496-5985-1. 
  6. ^ Pyo CW, Williams LM, Moore Y, Hyodo H, Li SS, Zhao LP, Sageshima N, Ishitani A, Geraghty DE (May 2006). "HLA-E, HLA-F, and HLA-G polymorphism: genomic sequence defines haplotype structure and variation spanning the nonclassical class I genes". Immunogenetics. 58 (4): 241–51. PMID 16570139. doi:10.1007/s00251-005-0076-z. 
  7. ^ Smith WP, Vu Q, Li SS, Hansen JA, Zhao LP, Geraghty DE (May 2006). "Toward understanding MHC disease associations: partial resequencing of 46 distinct HLA haplotypes". Genomics. 87 (5): 561–71. PMID 16434165. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2005.11.020. 
  8. ^ a b Koller BH, Geraghty DE, DeMars R, Duvick L, Rich SS, Orr HT (February 1989). "Chromosomal organization of the human major histocompatibility complex class I gene family". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 169 (2): 469–80. PMC 2189218Freely accessible. PMID 2562983. doi:10.1084/jem.169.2.469. 
  9. ^ Geraghty DE, Wei XH, Orr HT, Koller BH (January 1990). "Human leukocyte antigen F (HLA-F). An expressed HLA gene composed of a class I coding sequence linked to a novel transcribed repetitive element". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 171 (1): 1–18. PMC 2187653Freely accessible. PMID 1688605. doi:10.1084/jem.171.1.1. 
  10. ^ Geraghty DE, Koller BH, Orr HT (December 1987). "A human major histocompatibility complex class I gene that encodes a protein with a shortened cytoplasmic segment". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 84 (24): 9145–9. PMC 299709Freely accessible. PMID 3480534. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.24.9145. 
  11. ^ a b c Pyo CW, Williams LM, Moore Y, Hyodo H, Li SS, Zhao LP, Sageshima N, Ishitani A, Geraghty DE (May 2006). "HLA-E, HLA-F, and HLA-G polymorphism: genomic sequence defines haplotype structure and variation spanning the nonclassical class I genes". Immunogenetics. 58 (4): 241–51. PMID 16570139. doi:10.1007/s00251-005-0076-z. 
  12. ^ Daza-Vamenta R, Glusman G, Rowen L, Guthrie B, Geraghty DE (August 2004). "Genetic divergence of the rhesus macaque major histocompatibility complex". Genome Research. 14 (8): 1501–15. PMC 509259Freely accessible. PMID 15289473. doi:10.1101/gr.2134504. 
  13. ^ a b c d Wainwright SD, Biro PA, Holmes CH (January 2000). "HLA-F is a predominantly empty, intracellular, TAP-associated MHC class Ib protein with a restricted expression pattern". Journal of Immunology. 164 (1): 319–28. PMID 10605026. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.164.1.319. 
  14. ^ O'Callaghan CA, Bell JI (June 1998). "Structure and function of the human MHC class Ib molecules HLA-E, HLA-F and HLA-G". Immunological Reviews. 163: 129–38. PMID 9700506. doi:10.1111/j.1600-065x.1998.tb01192.x. 
  15. ^ a b c Boyle LH, Gillingham AK, Munro S, Trowsdale J (June 2006). "Selective export of HLA-F by its cytoplasmic tail". Journal of Immunology. 176 (11): 6464–72. PMID 16709803. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.176.11.6464. 
  16. ^ a b c d Goodridge JP, Burian A, Lee N, Geraghty DE (June 2010). "HLA-F complex without peptide binds to MHC class I protein in the open conformer form". Journal of Immunology. 184 (11): 6199–208. PMC 3777411Freely accessible. PMID 20483783. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1000078. 
  17. ^ a b c d e Goodridge JP, Lee N, Burian A, Pyo CW, Tykodi SS, Warren EH, Yee C, Riddell SR, Geraghty DE (August 2013). "HLA-F and MHC-I open conformers cooperate in a MHC-I antigen cross-presentation pathway". Journal of Immunology. 191 (4): 1567–77. PMC 3732835Freely accessible. PMID 23851683. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1300080. 
  18. ^ a b c Lee N, Geraghty DE (November 2003). "HLA-F surface expression on B cell and monocyte cell lines is partially independent from tapasin and completely independent from TAP". Journal of Immunology. 171 (10): 5264–71. PMID 14607927. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.171.10.5264. 
  19. ^ a b c Lepin EJ, Bastin JM, Allan DS, Roncador G, Braud VM, Mason DY, van der Merwe PA, McMichael AJ, Bell JI, Powis SH, O'Callaghan CA (December 2000). "Functional characterization of HLA-F and binding of HLA-F tetramers to ILT2 and ILT4 receptors". European Journal of Immunology. 30 (12): 3552–61. PMID 11169396. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200012)30:12<3552::AID-IMMU3552>3.0.CO;2-L. 
  20. ^ a b c d Lee N, Ishitani A, Geraghty DE (August 2010). "HLA-F is a surface marker on activated lymphocytes". European Journal of Immunology. 40 (8): 2308–18. PMC 3867582Freely accessible. PMID 20865824. doi:10.1002/eji.201040348. 
  21. ^ a b c d Ishitani A, Sageshima N, Lee N, Dorofeeva N, Hatake K, Marquardt H, Geraghty DE (August 2003). "Protein expression and peptide binding suggest unique and interacting functional roles for HLA-E, F, and G in maternal-placental immune recognition". Journal of Immunology. 171 (3): 1376–84. PMID 12874228. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.171.3.1376. 
  22. ^ Foroni I, Rita A, Filipe B, Santos M, Lima M, Bruges-Armas J (2014-03-19). HLA-E, HLA-F and HLA-G — The Non-Classical Side of the MHC Cluster. InTech. doi:10.5772/57507. 
  23. ^ Allan DS, Lepin EJ, Braud VM, O'Callaghan CA, McMichael AJ (October 2002). "Tetrameric complexes of HLA-E, HLA-F, and HLA-G". Journal of Immunological Methods. 268 (1): 43–50. PMID 12213342. doi:10.1016/s0022-1759(02)00199-0. 
  24. ^ a b c Goodridge JP, Burian A, Lee N, Geraghty DE (October 2013). "HLA-F and MHC class I open conformers are ligands for NK cell Ig-like receptors". Journal of Immunology. 191 (7): 3553–62. PMC 3780715Freely accessible. PMID 24018270. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1300081. 
  25. ^ a b Burian A, Wang KL, Finton KA, Lee N, Ishitani A, Strong RK, Geraghty DE (2016-09-20). "HLA-F and MHC-I Open Conformers Bind Natural Killer Cell Ig-Like Receptor KIR3DS1". PloS One. 11 (9): e0163297. PMC 5029895Freely accessible. PMID 27649529. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0163297. 
  26. ^ a b Garcia-Beltran WF, Hölzemer A, Martrus G, Chung AW, Pacheco Y, Simoneau CR, Rucevic M, Lamothe-Molina PA, Pertel T, Kim TE, Dugan H, Alter G, Dechanet-Merville J, Jost S, Carrington M, Altfeld M (September 2016). "Open conformers of HLA-F are high-affinity ligands of the activating NK-cell receptor KIR3DS1". Nature Immunology. 17 (9): 1067–74. PMC 4992421Freely accessible. PMID 27455421. doi:10.1038/ni.3513. 
  27. ^ a b Ishigami S, Arigami T, Okumura H, Uchikado Y, Kita Y, Kurahara H, Maemura K, Kijima Y, Ishihara Y, Sasaki K, Uenosono Y, Natsugoe S (April 2015). "Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E and HLA-F expression in gastric cancer". Anticancer Research. 35 (4): 2279–85. PMID 25862890. 
  28. ^ a b Harada A, Ishigami S, Kijima Y, Nakajo A, Arigami T, Kurahara H, Kita Y, Yoshinaka H, Natsugoe S (November 2015). "Clinical implication of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F expression in breast cancer". Pathology International. 65 (11): 569–74. PMID 26332651. doi:10.1111/pin.12343. 
  29. ^ a b Zhang X, Lin A, Zhang JG, Bao WG, Xu DP, Ruan YY, Yan WH (January 2013). "Alteration of HLA-F and HLA I antigen expression in the tumor is associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 132 (1): 82–9. PMID 22544725. doi:10.1002/ijc.27621. 
  30. ^ a b Lin A, Zhang X, Ruan YY, Wang Q, Zhou WJ, Yan WH (December 2011). "HLA-F expression is a prognostic factor in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer". Lung Cancer. 74 (3): 504–9. PMID 21561677. doi:10.1016/j.lungcan.2011.04.006. 
  31. ^ a b Xu Y, Han H, Zhang F, Lv S, Li Z, Fang Z (January 2015). "Lesion human leukocyte antigen-F expression is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma". Oncology Letters. 9 (1): 300–304. PMC 4246689Freely accessible. PMID 25435979. doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2686. 
  32. ^ a b Morandi F, Cangemi G, Barco S, Amoroso L, Giuliano M, Gigliotti AR, Pistoia V, Corrias MV (2013-11-21). "Plasma levels of soluble HLA-E and HLA-F at diagnosis may predict overall survival of neuroblastoma patients". BioMed Research International. 2013: 956878. PMC 3856218Freely accessible. PMID 24350297. doi:10.1155/2013/956878. 
  33. ^ a b Zhang J, Pan L, Chen L, Feng X, Zhou L, Zheng S (March 2012). "Non-classical MHC-Ι genes in chronic hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma". Immunogenetics. 64 (3): 251–8. PMID 22015712. doi:10.1007/s00251-011-0580-2. 
  34. ^ a b Jucaud V, Ravindranath MH, Terasaki PI, Morales-Buenrostro LE, Hiepe F, Rose T, Biesen R (March 2016). "Serum antibodies to human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-E, HLA-F and HLA-G in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during disease flares: Clinical relevance of HLA-F autoantibodies". Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 183 (3): 326–40. PMC 4750595Freely accessible. PMID 26440212. doi:10.1111/cei.12724. 
  35. ^ a b Richardson SJ, Rodriguez-Calvo T, Gerling IC, Mathews CE, Kaddis JS, Russell MA, Zeissler M, Leete P, Krogvold L, Dahl-Jørgensen K, von Herrath M, Pugliese A, Atkinson MA, Morgan NG (November 2016). "Islet cell hyperexpression of HLA class I antigens: a defining feature in type 1 diabetes". Diabetologia. 59 (11): 2448–58. PMC 5042874Freely accessible. PMID 27506584. doi:10.1007/s00125-016-4067-4. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (Jul 2001). "Structure--function relationships in HIV-1 Nef". EMBO Reports. 2 (7): 580–5. PMC 1083955Freely accessible. PMID 11463741. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve141. 
  • Greenway AL, Holloway G, McPhee DA, Ellis P, Cornall A, Lidman M (Apr 2003). "HIV-1 Nef control of cell signalling molecules: multiple strategies to promote virus replication". Journal of Biosciences. 28 (3): 323–35. PMID 12734410. doi:10.1007/BF02970151. 
  • Bénichou S, Benmerah A (Jan 2003). "[The HIV nef and the Kaposi-sarcoma-associated virus K3/K5 proteins: "parasites"of the endocytosis pathway]". Médecine Sciences. 19 (1): 100–6. PMID 12836198. doi:10.1051/medsci/2003191100. 
  • Leavitt SA, SchOn A, Klein JC, Manjappara U, Chaiken IM, Freire E (Feb 2004). "Interactions of HIV-1 proteins gp120 and Nef with cellular partners define a novel allosteric paradigm". Current Protein & Peptide Science. 5 (1): 1–8. PMID 14965316. doi:10.2174/1389203043486955. 
  • Tolstrup M, Ostergaard L, Laursen AL, Pedersen SF, Duch M (Apr 2004). "HIV/SIV escape from immune surveillance: focus on Nef". Current HIV Research. 2 (2): 141–51. PMID 15078178. doi:10.2174/1570162043484924. 
  • Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D (Jan 2005). "Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection". Current HIV Research. 3 (1): 87–94. PMID 15638726. doi:10.2174/1570162052773013. 
  • Anderson JL, Hope TJ (Apr 2004). "HIV accessory proteins and surviving the host cell". Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 1 (1): 47–53. PMID 16091223. doi:10.1007/s11904-004-0007-x. 
  • Kozlowski S, Corr M, Takeshita T, Boyd LF, Pendleton CD, Germain RN, Berzofsky JA, Margulies DH (Jun 1992). "Serum angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activity processes a human immunodeficiency virus 1 gp160 peptide for presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 175 (6): 1417–22. PMC 2119225Freely accessible. PMID 1316930. doi:10.1084/jem.175.6.1417. 
  • Lury D, Epstein H, Holmes N (1991). "The human class I MHC gene HLA-F is expressed in lymphocytes". International Immunology. 2 (6): 531–7. PMID 1707659. doi:10.1093/intimm/2.6.531. 
  • Takahashi H, Merli S, Putney SD, Houghten R, Moss B, Germain RN, Berzofsky JA (Oct 1989). "A single amino acid interchange yields reciprocal CTL specificities for HIV-1 gp160". Science. 246 (4926): 118–21. PMID 2789433. doi:10.1126/science.2789433. 
  • Dianzani U, Bragardo M, Buonfiglio D, Redoglia V, Funaro A, Portoles P, Rojo J, Malavasi F, Pileri A (May 1995). "Modulation of CD4 lateral interaction with lymphocyte surface molecules induced by HIV-1 gp120". European Journal of Immunology. 25 (5): 1306–11. PMID 7539755. doi:10.1002/eji.1830250526. 
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  • Chen YH, Böck G, Vornhagen R, Steindl F, Katinger H, Dierich MP (Jul 1994). "HIV-1 gp41 enhances major histocompatibility complex class I and ICAM-1 expression on H9 and U937 cells". International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 104 (3): 227–31. PMID 7913356. doi:10.1159/000236670. 
  • Chen YH, Böck G, Vornhagen R, Steindl F, Katinger H, Dierich MP (Sep 1994). "HIV-1 gp41 binding proteins and antibodies to gp41 could inhibit enhancement of human Raji cell MHC class I and II expression by gp41". Molecular Immunology. 31 (13): 977–82. PMID 8084338. doi:10.1016/0161-5890(94)90092-2. 
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (Jan 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171–4. PMID 8125298. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. 
  • Howcroft TK, Strebel K, Martin MA, Singer DS (May 1993). "Repression of MHC class I gene promoter activity by two-exon Tat of HIV". Science. 260 (5112): 1320–2. PMID 8493575. doi:10.1126/science.8493575. 
  • Gasparini P, Borgato L, Piperno A, Girelli D, Olivieri O, Gottardi E, Roetto A, Dianzani I, Fargion S, Schinaia G (May 1993). "Linkage analysis of 6p21 polymorphic markers and the hereditary hemochromatosis: localization of the gene centromeric to HLA-F". Human Molecular Genetics. 2 (5): 571–6. PMID 8518796. doi:10.1093/hmg/2.5.571. 
  • Schwartz O, Maréchal V, Le Gall S, Lemonnier F, Heard JM (Mar 1996). "Endocytosis of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules is induced by the HIV-1 Nef protein". Nature Medicine. 2 (3): 338–42. PMID 8612235. doi:10.1038/nm0396-338. 
  • Alexander-Miller MA, Parker KC, Tsukui T, Pendleton CD, Coligan JE, Berzofsky JA (May 1996). "Molecular analysis of presentation by HLA-A2.1 of a promiscuously binding V3 loop peptide from the HIV-envelope protein to human cytotoxic T lymphocytes". International Immunology. 8 (5): 641–9. PMID 8671651. doi:10.1093/intimm/8.5.641.