Heme oxygenase, an essential enzyme in heme catabolism, cleaves heme to form biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and ferrousiron. The biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Heme oxygenase activity is induced by its substrate heme and by various nonheme substances. Heme oxygenase occurs as 2 isozymes, an inducible heme oxygenase-1 and a constitutive heme oxygenase-2. HMOX1 and HMOX2 belong to the heme oxygenase family.
The HMOX gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.3, from base pair 34,101,636 to base pair 34,114,748.
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