HMS Arethusa (1882)

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British Cruiser Leander.jpg
Arethusa's sister ship Leander in 1897.
History
United Kingdom
Name: HMS Arethusa
Ordered: 1880[1]
Builder: Napier, Glasgow[2]
Laid down: 14 June 1880[2]
Launched: 23 December 1882[2][3]
Commissioned: 8 July 1887[2][4]
Decommissioned: 3 April 1903 (as sea-going warship)[5]
Fate: Sold 4 April 1905.[2][6]
General characteristics
Class and type: Leander-class second-class partially protected cruiser
Displacement: 4,300 tons (4,400 tonnes) load.[2][3]
Tons burthen: 3,750 tons (B.O.M.).[7]
Length:
  • 300 ft (91 m) between perpendiculars.[2]
  • 315 ft 96.01 m) overall.[2][3]
Beam: 46 ft (14 m).[2][3]
Draught:
  • 20 ft 8 in (6.30 m) aft, 19 ft 6 in (5.94 m) forward
  • with 950 tons (970 tonnes) of coal and complete with stores and provisions.[8]
Installed power: 12 cylindrical boilers, 5,500 ihp (4,100 kW).
Propulsion: Sails and screw. Two shafts. Two cylinder horizontal direct acting compound engines,[2][3]
Speed:
  • 16.5 knots (30.6 km/h; 19.0 mph) designed[2]
  • 17-18 knots after funnels raised[2]
Range:
  • 11,000 nmi (20,000 km; 13,000 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).[2]
  • 725 tons coal normal, 1000 tons maximum = c. 6,000 nmi at economical speed.[9]
Complement: (1885): 275[8][10]
Armament:
Armour:
  • 1.5 in (40mm) steel armoured deck (with sloped sides) over 165 ft.[2][9]
  • 1.5 in (40mm) gun shields.[2][9]
Notes:
  • Carried 2 second class torpedo boats.[8]
  • Carried 7-pounder and 9-pounder boat guns and field guns.[8]

HMS Arethusa was a second class cruiser of the Leander class, which served with the Royal Navy. She was built at Napier, Glasgow, being laid down in 1880, launched in 1882 and completed in Financial Year 1886-87. She remained in ordinary reserve at Chatham, being commissioned for the 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890, and 1892 annual manoeuvres. She served in the Mediterranean from 1893 to 1896, was commissioned for the 1899 annual manoeuvres, then recommissioned for the Pacific, and later sent as a reinforcement to the China Station during the Boxer Rebellion until she came home for the last time in 1903.

Construction[edit]

Arethusa was built at Napier, Glasgow, and completed in Financial Year 1886-87.[11]

The December 1885 Navy List listed her as at Chatham, with her commissioned and warrant officers borne in Pembroke as follows:[12]

Post Name Date of appointment
Staff Commander Francis Rowlatt 24 October 1883
Chief Engineer George A. Haddy 16 December 1886
Engineer Stephen Hockey 12 January 1885
Gunner William Avent 3 December 1883
Boatswain John Hawkes 24 October 1883
Carpenter William T. Searle 20 April 1886

Sea-going career[edit]

She lay in ordinary at Chatham after completion.

1887 annual manoeuvres[edit]

Arethusa was commissioned for the 1887 annual manoeuvres on 8 July 1887, and paid off on 1 September 1887.[4]

1888 annual manoeuvres[edit]

Arethusa was commissioned for the 1888 annual manoeuvres on 4 July 1888, and paid off on 31 August 1888.[13] Arethusa was part of Vice Admiral John K.E. Baird's fleet. In the manoeuvres, hostilities broke out at noon on 24 July 1888, and ended at noon on 20 August. Baird's force represented the British fleet, and England, Scotland and Wales were considered friendly to the British fleet and hostile to the enemy. Opposing Baird was the 'Achil' fleet, led by Rear Admiral George Tryon, and based in Berehaven on the south-west coast of Ireland and Lough Swilly on the north coast. All Irish territory was considered hostile to the British fleet and friendly to the enemy. At the outset Baird's fleet was concentrated on keeping Tryon's fleet shut up in their base ports. They failed. Both Tryon and his second in command broke the blockade on 4 August, and swooping round the extremities of Ireland, made a descent on British commerce and British ports.[14] In the manoeuvres, the Arethusa was assessed as lost on 5 August.[15]

The committee appointed to inquire into all circumstances connected with the 1888 British naval manoeuvres reported as follows:

In the 1888 manoeuvres, "the proportion of untrained (2nd Class) stokers which were draughted to several of the ships appears to have been too large."[16] The opinion of the captain of Arethusa was that the "engine room complement [was] insufficient by 2 engine room artificers, 2 leading stokers, and 23 stokers."[17]
"...the Committee think it right to call special attention to certain remarks contained in the report of the captain who lately commanded this ship.
He considers the Arethusa a good sea-boat, and that she steams well against a moderate head sea and strong wind, but that she rolls heavily when the sea is abeam or abaft; she is therefore unsteady as a gun-platform under these conditions, and, on account of her quick and heavy rolling, 'accurate shooting would be an impossibility, and machine guns in the tops would be useless.'
Among the many suggestions made for improving her efficiency, the following refer especially to the reduction of top weight:-
  • Removal of square rig on foremast.
  • Removal of fighting tops.
The captain does not himself suggest that the armament should be lightened; but Admiral Baird's opinion, that all cruisers appear to be too heavily armed, applies to this vessel as well as to the Mersey class, and in this opinion the Committee concur.
Three other suggestions from the same officer are noted as specially worthy of consideration, viz.:-
  • To enlarge the rudder.
  • To extend the upper bridge out to the ship's side in order to obtain a view right aft.
  • To fit a search light on the poop, as a torpedo-boat coming up astern cannot be kept in the beam of the ones on the fore-bridge."[18]

The First Naval Lord, Admiral Sir Arthur Hood commented on this as follows:

"The proposal to remove the square rig on the foremast, and the fighting tops, in order to reduce top weight I do not concur in; the square rig on the foremast is a decided advantage to vessels of this class, and would enable them to save coal when cruising on a foreign station; the value of the guns mounted in the fighting tops would be considerable when engaged with cruisers, and therefore I would retain them."'[19]

1889 annual manoeuvres[edit]

Arethusa was commissioned for the 1889 annual manoeuvres on 18 July 1889, and paid off on 14 September 1889.[20]

1890 annual manoeuvres[edit]

Arethusa was commissioned for the 1890 annual manoeuvres on 22 July 1890, and paid off on 11 September 1890.[21]

1892 annual manoeuvres[edit]

Arethusa was commissioned for the 1892 annual manoeuvres on 21 July 1892, and paid off on 8 September 1892.[22]

1893-1896[edit]

Arethusa was commissioned at Chatham, 16 May 1893, and the served in the Mediterranean.[23] She paid off at Chatham on 22 July 1896.[24] The January 1895 Navy List listed her commissioned and warrant officers as follows:[23]

Post Name Date of appointment
Captain Gerald C Langley 16 May 1893
Lieutenant Henry F. Alplin 16 May 1893
(G) Philip G. Tillard 9 May 1894
(N) John D. Daintree 18 January 1894
Francis G. St. John 16 May 1893
Francis W. Caulfield 16 May 1893
Lieutenant R.N.R. Charles Bissett (lent to Achilles) 27 October 1894
Lieutenant Marine William M Johnston-Stewart 18 May 1894
Chaplain Wilfred W. Nicholson B.A. November 1894
Staff Surgeon Thomas M. Sibbald 16 May 1893
Staff Engineer George T. Simmons 16 May 1893
Paymaster William G.E. Penfold 16 May 1893
Engineer Thomas H. Pounds 16 May 1893
Assistant Engineer Alfred Saunders 16 May 1893
Gunner Thomas J. Browning 16 May 1893
(T) Alfred J. Beams 16 May 1893
Boatswain Walter E. Bracey 11 September 1893
William T. Nicholls 16 May 1893
George Kingston
(in lieu of a Sub-Lieutenant)
16 May 1893
Carpenter John D. Holmes 26 April 1894

1896-1899[edit]

Arethusa laid in ordinary at Chatham from 23 July 1896 to 10 July 1899.[25]

1899 annual manoeuvres[edit]

Arethusa was commissioned at Chatham on 11 July 1899 for the annual manoeuvres, and paid off on 13 August.[26][27] The August 1899 Navy List listed her commissioned and warrant officers for the annual manoeuvres as follows:[26]

Post Name
Captain Hon. Alexander E Bethell
Lieutenant George W. Cornish
(N) Francis A.L. Andrews (lent)
(G) James T. Bush (lent)
Albert T. Addison (lent)
Andrew E.M. Hook
Lieutenant R.N.R. Herbert G.H. Lewellin
Lieutenant R.M. Arthur G.C. Milner
Chief Engineer James Barber (b) (lent)
Sub-lieutenant Raymond Fitzmaurice (act) (lent)
Henry C. Bridges (act) (lent)
Surgeon Edward H. McSherry M.D. (lent)
Assistant Paymaster William J.P. Pettit
Assistant Engineer George J. Sisley (tempy) (lent)
Harry C. Reed (proby) (lent)
Gunner (T) William Barlow (lent)
Boatswain Freke Payne (lent)
Frederick C. Monk (act) (lent)
Carpenter Frederick Lawrence (lent)

1899-1903[edit]

Arethusa was commissioned at Chatham on 14 November 1901 by Captain James Startin.[28][29] Initially she served on the Pacific Station,[30] but then was sent out as a reinforcement to the China Station for the protection of the lives and property of British subjects during the Boxer Rebellion.[31] Arethusa remained on the China Station until she was relieved by Thetis,[32] then she returned to England and paid off for the last time on 3 April 1903.[29] This commission was the subject of a book in the 'Log' series, entitled: HMS Arethusa, went Round the World, 1899-1903.

The British fleet on the China Station in March 1901 was commanded by Vice-Admiral Sir Edward H. Seymour, G.C.B. in Centurion, with Rear-Admiral Sir James A.T. Bruce, K.C.M.G. second in command,[33] and consisted of:[34]

** Ordered home.

‡ Temporarily attached to China Station.

The March 1901 Navy List listed her commissioned and warrant officers as follows (she was temporarily attached to the China Station at the time):[28]

Post Name Date of appointment
Captain James Startin 14 November 1899
Lieutenant (G) Percy M.R. Royds 14 November 1899
(N) Henry Butterworth 14 November 1899
Claude A. Rombulow Pearse 14 November 1899
Edward L. Hughes 14 November 1899
Augustine E. Ruxton 14 November 1899
Francis F. Chapman 12 July 1900
Lieutenant R.N.R. Martin O'Connor (act) 12 March 1900
Lieutenant R.M. William G. Simpson 14 November 1899
Chaplain Rev. Michael Longridge B.A. 14 November 1899
Paymaster John E. Jones 14 November 1899
Chief Engineer Charles J.James 14 November 1899
Surgeon Arthur Gaskell 15 February 1901
Assistant Paymaster Richard H. Hamer 14 November 1899
Engineer Thomas Pearce 14 November 1899
Assistant Engineer Frank A.Butler 14 November 1899
Gunner (T) William Barlow 14 November 1899
Boatswain William Rumbsy 14 November 1899
Edward Penny 14 November 1899
Carpenter Frederick Lawrence 14 November 1899
Clerk Geoffrey M. French
Lent to Orlando 14 August 1900
21 November 1899

Disposal[edit]

Arethusa was sold on 4 April 1905.[2][6][36]

References[edit]

  • The Naval Annual, various issues.
  • Brown, David K. Warrior to Dreadnought, Warship Development 1860–1905, published Chatham Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-86176-022-1
  • Blueprints
  • Chesneau, Roger, and Eugene M. Kolesnik, eds. All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905, published Conway Maritime Press, 1979. ISBN 0-8317-0302-4
  • Jane, Fred T All the World's Fighting Ships, 1900
  • Lyon, David and Winfield, Rif The Sail and Steam Navy List, All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815-1889, published Chatham, 2004, ISBN 1-86176-032-9

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Lyon & Winfield The Sail and Steam Navy List, All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815-1889 pages 270-271
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905, page 75.
  3. ^ a b c d e www.worldnavalships.com Leander class
  4. ^ a b The Arethusa's first logbook covers 8 July 1887 to 1 September 1887, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12513
  5. ^ The Arethusa's final logbook covers 28 November 1902 to 3 April 1903, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM 53/17281 B
  6. ^ a b www.britainsnavy.co.uk HMS Arethusa
  7. ^ Navy List,December 1884, page 230.
  8. ^ a b c d e Log of HMS Leander 29 May 1885 – 22 May 1886, UK National Archives file ADM 53/14282
  9. ^ a b c Jane, All the World's Fighting Ships, 1900, page 102.
  10. ^ Conway's lists her complement as 278, which appears to be an error. See Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905, page 75.
  11. ^ Navy Estimates for the Year 1889-90, page 281.
  12. ^ Navy List, December 1885, page 195
  13. ^ Arethusa's second logbook covers 4 July 1888 to 31 August 1888, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12514
  14. ^ New York Times, 2 July 1893, Tryon's brilliant tactics; dazing his opponents in the manoeuvres of 1888
  15. ^ The Naval Annual, 1888-89 – extracts from the report of the committee on the naval manoeuvres, 1888, pages 427.
  16. ^ The Naval Annual, 1888-89 – supplementary report of the committee on the naval manoeuvres, pages 439.
  17. ^ The Naval Annual, 1888-89 – supplementary report of the committee on the naval manoeuvres, pages 440.
  18. ^ The Naval Annual, 1888-89 – supplementary report of the committee on the naval manoeuvres, pages 436-7.
  19. ^ The Naval Annual, 1888-89 – observations by Admiral Sir Arthur Hood on the supplementary report of the committee on the naval manoeuvres of 1888, pages 445.
  20. ^ Arethusa's third logbook covers 18 July 1889 to 14 September 1889, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12515
  21. ^ The Arethusa's fourth logbook covers 22 July 1890 to 11 September 1890, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12516
  22. ^ The Arethusa's fifth logbook covers 21 July 1892 to 8 September 1892, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12517
  23. ^ a b Navy List, January 1895, corrected to 18th December 1894, page 200
  24. ^ The UK National Archives has logbooks for Arethusa covering 16 May 1893 to 22 July 1896, in the catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12518 to 12520.
  25. ^ The UK National Archives does not have logbooks for Arethusa for the period 23 July 1896 to 10 July 1899.
  26. ^ a b Navy List, August 1899, corrected to 18 July 1899 - Supplement: Ships and Officers Engaged in the Naval Manoeuvres, page 28.
  27. ^ UK National Archives has a logbook for Arethusa covering 11 July to 13 August 1899, in the catalogue reference ADM 53/17281 A.
  28. ^ a b Navy List, March 1901, corrected to 18 February 1901, page 225
  29. ^ a b UK National Archives has logbooks for Arethusa covering 14 November 1899 to 3 April 1903, in the catalogue reference ADM 53/12521 to 12522, and 17281 B.
  30. ^ Navy List, July 1900, corrected to 18 June 1900, page 225.
  31. ^ Hansard HC Deb 20 July 1900 vol 86 cc640-1, China—Anti-Foreign Outbreak— Increase of British Forces. The Under Secretary of State, for Foreign Affairs, William Brodrick (MP for Guildford) said: "The reinforcements in ships which have been sent out to China since the present outbreak consist of: Goliath, battleship; Argonaut, Ms [sic], Dido, Marathon, Wallaroo, Arethusa, and Mohawk, cruisers; Lizard, Bramble, and Britomart, gunboats; besides 860 seamen and marines by transport. The despatch of reinforcements will naturally depend upon the course of events. Ten thousand men have been despatched from India, and the troops withdrawn from Hong Kong are being made up. Further troops have been placed under orders in India, and can be immediately despatched if necessity arises. Troops will be available in this country to replace any troops withdrawn."
  32. ^ Navy List, January 1903, corrected to 18 December 1902, page 227.
  33. ^ a b Navy List March 1901, corrected to 18 February 1901, page 217
  34. ^ Navy List March 1901, corrected to 18 February 1901, page 218
  35. ^ The name of this ship is given as HMS Redpole in the 1901 Navy List, but HMS Redpoll in Conways 1860-1905.
  36. ^ Hansard, HC Deb 24 October 1906 vol 163 cc179-83 Obsolete War-Ships

Arethusa Logbooks in the UK National Archives[edit]

Catalogue Number Start End
ADM 53/12513 8 July 1887 1 September 1887
ADM 53/12514 4 July 1888 31 August 1888
ADM 53/12515 18 July 1889 14 September 1889
ADM 53/12516 22 July 1890 11 September 1890
ADM 53/12517 21 July 1892 8 September 1892
ADM 53/12518 16 May 1893 11 May 1894
ADM 53/12519 12 May 1894 14 August 1895
ADM 53/12520 15 August 1895 22 July 1896
ADM 53/17281 A 11 July 1899 13 August 1899
ADM 53/12521 14 November 1899 15 April 1901
ADM 53/12522 16 April 1901 27 November 1902
ADM 53/17281 B 28 November 1902 3 April 1903