HMS Arethusa (1882)
|Laid down:||14 June 1880|
|Launched:||23 December 1882|
|Commissioned:||8 July 1887|
|Decommissioned:||3 April 1903 (as sea-going warship)|
|Fate:||Sold 4 April 1905.|
|Class and type:||Leander-class second-class partially protected cruiser|
|Displacement:||4,300 tons (4,400 tonnes) load.|
|Tons burthen:||3,750 tons (B.O.M.).|
|Beam:||46 ft (14 m).|
|Installed power:||12 cylindrical boilers, 5,500 ihp (4,100 kW).|
|Propulsion:||Sails and screw. Two shafts. Two cylinder horizontal direct acting compound engines,|
HMS Arethusa was a second class cruiser of the Leander class, which served with the Royal Navy. She was built at Napier, Glasgow, being laid down in 1880, launched in 1882 and completed in Financial Year 1886-87. She remained in ordinary reserve at Chatham, being commissioned for the 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890, and 1892 annual manoeuvres. She served in the Mediterranean from 1893 to 1896, was commissioned for the 1899 annual manoeuvres, then recommissioned for the Pacific, and later sent as a reinforcement to the China Station during the Boxer Rebellion until she came home for the last time in 1903.
- 1 Construction
- 2 Sea-going career
- 3 Disposal
- 4 References
- 5 Footnotes
- 6 Arethusa Logbooks in the UK National Archives
Arethusa was built at Napier, Glasgow, and completed in Financial Year 1886-87.
The December 1885 Navy List listed her as at Chatham, with her commissioned and warrant officers borne in Pembroke as follows:
|Post||Name||Date of appointment|
|Staff Commander||Francis Rowlatt||24 October 1883|
|Chief Engineer||George A. Haddy||16 December 1886|
|Engineer||Stephen Hockey||12 January 1885|
|Gunner||William Avent||3 December 1883|
|Boatswain||John Hawkes||24 October 1883|
|Carpenter||William T. Searle||20 April 1886|
She lay in ordinary at Chatham after completion.
1887 annual manoeuvres
Arethusa was commissioned for the 1887 annual manoeuvres on 8 July 1887, and paid off on 1 September 1887.
1888 annual manoeuvres
Arethusa was commissioned for the 1888 annual manoeuvres on 4 July 1888, and paid off on 31 August 1888. Arethusa was part of Vice Admiral John K.E. Baird's fleet. In the manoeuvres, hostilities broke out at noon on 24 July 1888, and ended at noon on 20 August. Baird's force represented the British fleet, and England, Scotland and Wales were considered friendly to the British fleet and hostile to the enemy. Opposing Baird was the 'Achil' fleet, led by Rear Admiral George Tryon, and based in Berehaven on the south-west coast of Ireland and Lough Swilly on the north coast. All Irish territory was considered hostile to the British fleet and friendly to the enemy. At the outset Baird's fleet was concentrated on keeping Tryon's fleet shut up in their base ports. They failed. Both Tryon and his second in command broke the blockade on 4 August, and swooping round the extremities of Ireland, made a descent on British commerce and British ports. In the manoeuvres, the Arethusa was assessed as lost on 5 August.
The committee appointed to inquire into all circumstances connected with the 1888 British naval manoeuvres reported as follows:
- In the 1888 manoeuvres, "the proportion of untrained (2nd Class) stokers which were draughted to several of the ships appears to have been too large." The opinion of the captain of Arethusa was that the "engine room complement [was] insufficient by 2 engine room artificers, 2 leading stokers, and 23 stokers."
- "...the Committee think it right to call special attention to certain remarks contained in the report of the captain who lately commanded this ship.
- He considers the Arethusa a good sea-boat, and that she steams well against a moderate head sea and strong wind, but that she rolls heavily when the sea is abeam or abaft; she is therefore unsteady as a gun-platform under these conditions, and, on account of her quick and heavy rolling, 'accurate shooting would be an impossibility, and machine guns in the tops would be useless.'
- Among the many suggestions made for improving her efficiency, the following refer especially to the reduction of top weight:-
- Removal of square rig on foremast.
- Removal of fighting tops.
- The captain does not himself suggest that the armament should be lightened; but Admiral Baird's opinion, that all cruisers appear to be too heavily armed, applies to this vessel as well as to the Mersey class, and in this opinion the Committee concur.
- Three other suggestions from the same officer are noted as specially worthy of consideration, viz.:-
- To enlarge the rudder.
- To extend the upper bridge out to the ship's side in order to obtain a view right aft.
- To fit a search light on the poop, as a torpedo-boat coming up astern cannot be kept in the beam of the ones on the fore-bridge."
The First Naval Lord, Admiral Sir Arthur Hood commented on this as follows:
- "The proposal to remove the square rig on the foremast, and the fighting tops, in order to reduce top weight I do not concur in; the square rig on the foremast is a decided advantage to vessels of this class, and would enable them to save coal when cruising on a foreign station; the value of the guns mounted in the fighting tops would be considerable when engaged with cruisers, and therefore I would retain them."'
1889 annual manoeuvres
Arethusa was commissioned for the 1889 annual manoeuvres on 18 July 1889, and paid off on 14 September 1889.
1890 annual manoeuvres
Arethusa was commissioned for the 1890 annual manoeuvres on 22 July 1890, and paid off on 11 September 1890.
1892 annual manoeuvres
Arethusa was commissioned for the 1892 annual manoeuvres on 21 July 1892, and paid off on 8 September 1892.
Arethusa was commissioned at Chatham, 16 May 1893, and the served in the Mediterranean. She paid off at Chatham on 22 July 1896. The January 1895 Navy List listed her commissioned and warrant officers as follows:
|Post||Name||Date of appointment|
|Captain||Gerald C Langley||16 May 1893|
|Lieutenant||Henry F. Alplin||16 May 1893|
|(G) Philip G. Tillard||9 May 1894|
|(N) John D. Daintree||18 January 1894|
|Francis G. St. John||16 May 1893|
|Francis W. Caulfield||16 May 1893|
|Lieutenant R.N.R.||Charles Bissett (lent to Achilles)||27 October 1894|
|Lieutenant Marine||William M Johnston-Stewart||18 May 1894|
|Chaplain||Wilfred W. Nicholson B.A.||November 1894|
|Staff Surgeon||Thomas M. Sibbald||16 May 1893|
|Staff Engineer||George T. Simmons||16 May 1893|
|Paymaster||William G.E. Penfold||16 May 1893|
|Engineer||Thomas H. Pounds||16 May 1893|
|Assistant Engineer||Alfred Saunders||16 May 1893|
|Gunner||Thomas J. Browning||16 May 1893|
|(T) Alfred J. Beams||16 May 1893|
|Boatswain||Walter E. Bracey||11 September 1893|
|William T. Nicholls||16 May 1893|
(in lieu of a Sub-Lieutenant)
|16 May 1893|
|Carpenter||John D. Holmes||26 April 1894|
Arethusa laid in ordinary at Chatham from 23 July 1896 to 10 July 1899.
1899 annual manoeuvres
Arethusa was commissioned at Chatham on 11 July 1899 for the annual manoeuvres, and paid off on 13 August. The August 1899 Navy List listed her commissioned and warrant officers for the annual manoeuvres as follows:
|Captain||Hon. Alexander E Bethell|
|Lieutenant||George W. Cornish|
|(N) Francis A.L. Andrews (lent)|
|(G) James T. Bush (lent)|
|Albert T. Addison (lent)|
|Andrew E.M. Hook|
|Lieutenant R.N.R.||Herbert G.H. Lewellin|
|Lieutenant R.M.||Arthur G.C. Milner|
|Chief Engineer||James Barber (b) (lent)|
|Sub-lieutenant||Raymond Fitzmaurice (act) (lent)|
|Henry C. Bridges (act) (lent)|
|Surgeon||Edward H. McSherry M.D. (lent)|
|Assistant Paymaster||William J.P. Pettit|
|Assistant Engineer||George J. Sisley (tempy) (lent)|
|Harry C. Reed (proby) (lent)|
|Gunner||(T) William Barlow (lent)|
|Boatswain||Freke Payne (lent)|
|Frederick C. Monk (act) (lent)|
|Carpenter||Frederick Lawrence (lent)|
Arethusa was commissioned at Chatham on 14 November 1901 by Captain James Startin. Initially she served on the Pacific Station, but then was sent out as a reinforcement to the China Station for the protection of the lives and property of British subjects during the Boxer Rebellion. Arethusa remained on the China Station until she was relieved by Thetis, then she returned to England and paid off for the last time on 3 April 1903. This commission was the subject of a book in the 'Log' series, entitled: HMS Arethusa, went Round the World, 1899-1903.
The British fleet on the China Station in March 1901 was commanded by Vice-Admiral Sir Edward H. Seymour, G.C.B. in Centurion, with Rear-Admiral Sir James A.T. Bruce, K.C.M.G. second in command, and consisted of:
- Battleships: Barfleur, Centurion , Glory, Goliath, Ocean.
- 1st Class cruisers: Argonaut, Aurora, Blenheim, Endymion, Orlando , Terrible, Undaunted **.
- 2nd Class cruisers: Arethusa ‡, Astraea ‡, Bonaventure, Dido ‡, Hermione, lsis ‡, Pique.
- 3rd Class cruisers: Alacrity, Wallaroo ‡.
- Destroyers: Fame, Hart, Otter, Whiting.
- Sloops: Algerine, Daphne, Phoenix, Rosario.
- Gunvessel: Linnet.
- Gunboats: Bramble, Brisk, Britomart, Esk , Lizard ‡, Pigmy, Plover, Redpole.
- Storeship: Humber.
- Receiving ship Hong Kong: Tamar (flagship of the Commodore in charge at Hong Kong, Commodore Francis Powell, C.B)
- River steamers: Robin, Sandpiper, Snipe, Woodcock, Woodlark.
** Ordered home.
‡ Temporarily attached to China Station.
The March 1901 Navy List listed her commissioned and warrant officers as follows (she was temporarily attached to the China Station at the time):
|Post||Name||Date of appointment|
|Captain||James Startin||14 November 1899|
|Lieutenant||(G) Percy M.R. Royds||14 November 1899|
|(N) Henry Butterworth||14 November 1899|
|Claude A. Rombulow Pearse||14 November 1899|
|Edward L. Hughes||14 November 1899|
|Augustine E. Ruxton||14 November 1899|
|Francis F. Chapman||12 July 1900|
|Lieutenant R.N.R.||Martin O'Connor (act)||12 March 1900|
|Lieutenant R.M.||William G. Simpson||14 November 1899|
|Chaplain||Rev. Michael Longridge B.A.||14 November 1899|
|Paymaster||John E. Jones||14 November 1899|
|Chief Engineer||Charles J.James||14 November 1899|
|Surgeon||Arthur Gaskell||15 February 1901|
|Assistant Paymaster||Richard H. Hamer||14 November 1899|
|Engineer||Thomas Pearce||14 November 1899|
|Assistant Engineer||Frank A.Butler||14 November 1899|
|Gunner||(T) William Barlow||14 November 1899|
|Boatswain||William Rumbsy||14 November 1899|
|Edward Penny||14 November 1899|
|Carpenter||Frederick Lawrence||14 November 1899|
|Clerk||Geoffrey M. French
Lent to Orlando 14 August 1900
|21 November 1899|
- The Naval Annual, various issues.
- Brown, David K. Warrior to Dreadnought, Warship Development 1860–1905, published Chatham Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-86176-022-1
- Chesneau, Roger, and Eugene M. Kolesnik, eds. All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905, published Conway Maritime Press, 1979. ISBN 0-8317-0302-4
- Jane, Fred T All the World's Fighting Ships, 1900
- Lyon, David and Winfield, Rif The Sail and Steam Navy List, All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815-1889, published Chatham, 2004, ISBN 1-86176-032-9
- Lyon & Winfield The Sail and Steam Navy List, All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815-1889 pages 270-271
- Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905, page 75.
- The Arethusa's first logbook covers 8 July 1887 to 1 September 1887, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12513
- The Arethusa's final logbook covers 28 November 1902 to 3 April 1903, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM 53/17281 B
- Log of HMS Leander 29 May 1885 – 22 May 1886, UK National Archives file ADM 53/14282
- Jane, All the World's Fighting Ships, 1900, page 102.
- Conway's lists her complement as 278, which appears to be an error. See Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905, page 75.
- Navy Estimates for the Year 1889-90, page 281.
- Arethusa's second logbook covers 4 July 1888 to 31 August 1888, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12514
- New York Times, 2 July 1893, Tryon's brilliant tactics; dazing his opponents in the manoeuvres of 1888
- The Naval Annual, 1888-89 – extracts from the report of the committee on the naval manoeuvres, 1888, pages 427.
- The Naval Annual, 1888-89 – supplementary report of the committee on the naval manoeuvres, pages 439.
- The Naval Annual, 1888-89 – supplementary report of the committee on the naval manoeuvres, pages 440.
- The Naval Annual, 1888-89 – supplementary report of the committee on the naval manoeuvres, pages 436-7.
- The Naval Annual, 1888-89 – observations by Admiral Sir Arthur Hood on the supplementary report of the committee on the naval manoeuvres of 1888, pages 445.
- Arethusa's third logbook covers 18 July 1889 to 14 September 1889, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12515
- The Arethusa's fourth logbook covers 22 July 1890 to 11 September 1890, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12516
- The Arethusa's fifth logbook covers 21 July 1892 to 8 September 1892, and is UK National Archives catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12517
- The UK National Archives has logbooks for Arethusa covering 16 May 1893 to 22 July 1896, in the catalogue reference ADM ADM 53/12518 to 12520.
- The UK National Archives does not have logbooks for Arethusa for the period 23 July 1896 to 10 July 1899.
- UK National Archives has a logbook for Arethusa covering 11 July to 13 August 1899, in the catalogue reference ADM 53/17281 A.
- UK National Archives has logbooks for Arethusa covering 14 November 1899 to 3 April 1903, in the catalogue reference ADM 53/12521 to 12522, and 17281 B.
- Navy List, July 1900, corrected to 18 June 1900, page 225.
- Hansard HC Deb 20 July 1900 vol 86 cc640-1, China—Anti-Foreign Outbreak— Increase of British Forces. The Under Secretary of State, for Foreign Affairs, William Brodrick (MP for Guildford) said: "The reinforcements in ships which have been sent out to China since the present outbreak consist of: Goliath, battleship; Argonaut, Ms [sic], Dido, Marathon, Wallaroo, Arethusa, and Mohawk, cruisers; Lizard, Bramble, and Britomart, gunboats; besides 860 seamen and marines by transport. The despatch of reinforcements will naturally depend upon the course of events. Ten thousand men have been despatched from India, and the troops withdrawn from Hong Kong are being made up. Further troops have been placed under orders in India, and can be immediately despatched if necessity arises. Troops will be available in this country to replace any troops withdrawn."
- Navy List, January 1903, corrected to 18 December 1902, page 227.
- Navy List March 1901, corrected to 18 February 1901, page 218
- The name of this ship is given as HMS Redpole in the 1901 Navy List, but HMS Redpoll in Conways 1860-1905.
- Hansard, HC Deb 24 October 1906 vol 163 cc179-83 Obsolete War-Ships
Arethusa Logbooks in the UK National Archives
|ADM 53/12513||8 July 1887||1 September 1887|
|ADM 53/12514||4 July 1888||31 August 1888|
|ADM 53/12515||18 July 1889||14 September 1889|
|ADM 53/12516||22 July 1890||11 September 1890|
|ADM 53/12517||21 July 1892||8 September 1892|
|ADM 53/12518||16 May 1893||11 May 1894|
|ADM 53/12519||12 May 1894||14 August 1895|
|ADM 53/12520||15 August 1895||22 July 1896|
|ADM 53/17281 A||11 July 1899||13 August 1899|
|ADM 53/12521||14 November 1899||15 April 1901|
|ADM 53/12522||16 April 1901||27 November 1902|
|ADM 53/17281 B||28 November 1902||3 April 1903|