HMS Birkenhead (1915)

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For other ships with the same name, see HMS Birkenhead.
HMS Birkenhead (1915).jpg
History
Greece
Name: Antinavarchos Kountouriotis
Namesake: Pavlos Kountouriotis
Builder: Cammell Laird, Birkenhead, England
Laid down: 21 March 1914
Launched: 18 January 1915
Fate: Sold to the United Kingdom, 1915
United Kingdom
Namesake: Birkenhead
Acquired: 1915
Commissioned: May 1915
Renamed: HMS Birkenhead
Fate: Sold for scrap, 26 October 1921
General characteristics (as built)
Class and type: Town-class light cruiser
Displacement: 5,235 long tons (5,319 t)
Length:
  • 430 ft (131.1 m) p/p
  • 456 ft 6 in (139.1 m) o/a
Beam: 49 ft 10 in (15.2 m)
Draught: 15 ft 3 in (4.65 m) (mean)
Installed power:
Propulsion: 4 × shafts; 3 × Parsons steam turbines
Speed: 25.5 kn (47.2 km/h; 29.3 mph)
Complement: about 500
Armament:
Armour:

HMS Birkenhead was one of two Town-class light cruisers originally ordered for the Greek Navy in 1914. She was to be named Antinavarchos Kountouriotis after Vice Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis. The order was placed with Cammell Laird and production continued for the Greek account after the outbreak of World War I in August 1914. In 1915, however, the two cruisers were purchased by the British government, and entered service with the Royal Navy.

Design and description[edit]

Based on the Birmingham sub-class of the Towns, the two Greek ships primarily differed from their British half-sisters in their armament. The Greeks specified that they would use the new BL 5.5-inch (140 mm) Mk I gun built by the Coventry Ordnance Works. This weapon was significantly lighter than the standard 6-inch (152 mm) gun, which allowed the ships to mount ten guns, rather than the nine of the Birminghams, and fired an 85-pound (39 kg) shell rather than the 100-pound (45 kg) shell of the 6-inch weapon. It therefore had a higher rate of fire with little loss in hitting power.[1] The Greeks also specified a secondary armament of two 12-pounder anti-aircraft guns, but these were still under development in 1915 and a pair of 3-pounder guns on high-angle mounts were substituted instead.[2]

Birkenhead was 456 feet 6 inches (139.1 m) long overall, with a beam of 49 feet 10 inches (15.2 m) and a draught of 15 feet 3 inches (4.6 m).[3] Displacement was 5,235 long tons (5,319 t) normal and 5,845 long tons (5,939 t) at full load. Twelve Yarrow boilers fed Birkenhead's Parsons steam turbines, driving four propeller shafts, that were rated at 25,000 shaft horsepower (19,000 kW) for a design speed of 25.5 knots (47.2 km/h; 29.3 mph). The boilers used both fuel oil and coal, with 1,070 long tons (1,087 t) of coal and 352 long tons (358 t) tons of oil carried.[1]

Two of the 5.5-inch guns were mounted on the centreline fore and aft of the superstructure and the remaining eight guns were positioned on the broadside. All these guns were fitted with gun shields. Two Vickers 3-pounder (47 mm) anti-aircraft guns were also fitted. The armament was completed by two submerged 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes.[4]

Service[edit]

Like her sister, Chester, Birkenhead was assigned to the 3rd Light Cruiser Squadron of the Grand Fleet. On 31 May to 1 June 1916, they both took part in the Battle of Jutland. Birkenhead survived the battle, and the war[1] and was sold for scrap on 26 October 1921 to Cashmore, of Newport.[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Gardiner & Gray, p. 58
  2. ^ Lyon, Part 2, p. 57
  3. ^ Friedman 2010, p. 384
  4. ^ Lyon, Part 2, pp. 55–57
  5. ^ Lyon, Part 3, p. 51

Bibliography[edit]

  • Brown, David K. (2010). The Grand Fleet: Warship Design and Development 1906–1922. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-085-7. 
  • Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969]. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475. 
  • Corbett, Julian. Naval Operations to the Battle of the Falklands. History of the Great War: Based on Official Documents. I (2nd, reprint of the 1938 ed.). London and Nashville, Tennessee: Imperial War Museum and Battery Press. ISBN 0-89839-256-X. 
  • Corbett, Julian (1997). Naval Operations. History of the Great War: Based on Official Documents. II (reprint of the 1929 second ed.). London and Nashille, Tennessee: Imperial War Museum in association with the Battery Press. ISBN 1-870423-74-7. 
  • Friedman, Norman (2010). British Cruisers: Two World Wars and After. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-59114-078-8. 
  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. 
  • Gardiner, Robert & Gray, Randal, eds. (1984). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5. 
  • Lyon, David (1977). "The First Town Class 1908–31: Part 1". Warship. London: Conway Maritime Press. 1 (1): 48–58. ISBN 0-85177-132-7. 
  • Lyon, David (1977). "The First Town Class 1908–31: Part 2". Warship. London: Conway Maritime Press. 1 (2): 54–61. ISBN 0-85177-132-7. 
  • Lyon, David (1977). "The First Town Class 1908–31: Part 3". Warship. London: Conway Maritime Press. 1 (3): 46–51. ISBN 0-85177-132-7. 
  • Newbolt, Henry (1996). Naval Operations. History of the Great War Based on Official Documents. V (reprint of the 1931 ed.). Nashville, Tennessee: Battery Press. ISBN 0-89839-255-1. 

External links[edit]