HMS Erebus (1826)
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
One of the ships of Sir John Franklin's last expedition
|Builder:||Pembroke dockyard, Wales|
|Fate:||Abandoned in Victoria Strait, Canada, 22 April 1848|
|Class and type:||Hecla-class bomb vessel|
|Displacement:||715.3 long tons (726.8 t; 801.1 short tons)|
|Tons burthen:||372 tons (bm)|
|Length:||105 ft (32 m)|
|Beam:||29 ft (8.84 m)|
|Installed power:||30 kW (40 hp) nhp |
|Armament:||1 × 13 in (330 mm) mortar, 1 × 10 in (254 mm) mortar, 8 × 24 pdr (10.9 kg) guns, 2 × 6 pdr (2.7 kg) guns|
|Official name||Erebus and Terror National Historic Site of Canada|
HMS Erebus was a Hecla-class bomb vessel designed by Sir Henry Peake and constructed by the Royal Navy in Pembroke dockyard, Wales in 1826. The vessel was named after the dark region in Hades of Greek mythology called Erebus. The 372-ton ship was armed with two mortars – one 13 in (330 mm) and one 10 in (254 mm) – and 10 guns. The ship took part in the Ross expedition of 1839 to 1843. She was abandoned during the Franklin Expedition and her sunken wreck was discovered in September 2014 after a long search.
After two years service in the Mediterranean Sea, Erebus was refitted as an exploration vessel for Antarctic service, and on 21 November 1840 – captained by James Clark Ross – she departed from Tasmania for Antarctica in company with Terror. In January 1841, the crew of both ships landed on Victoria Land, and proceeded to name areas of the landscape after British politicians, scientists, and acquaintances. Mount Erebus, on Ross Island, was named after one ship and Mount Terror after the other.
They then discovered the Ross Ice Shelf, which they were unable to penetrate, and followed it eastward until the lateness of the season compelled them to return to Tasmania. The following season, 1842, Ross continued to survey the "Great Ice Barrier", as it was called, continuing to follow it eastward. Both ships returned to the Falkland Islands before returning to the Antarctic in the 1842–1843 season. They conducted studies in magnetism, and returned with oceanographic data and collections of botanical and ornithological specimens. The plants were described in the resulting The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the Command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross.
Birds collected on the first expedition were described and illustrated by George Robert Gray and Richard Bowdler Sharpe in The Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Erebus & HMS Terror. Birds of New Zealand, 1875. The revised edition of Gray (1846) (1875). The future renowned botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker, then aged 23, was assistant-surgeon to Robert McCormick.
For their next voyage, to the Arctic under Sir John Franklin, both Erebus and Terror were outfitted with steam engines from the London and Greenwich Railway steam locomotives. That of Erebus was rated at 25 horsepower (19 kW) and could propel the ship at 4 knots (7.4 km/h). The ships carried 12 days' supply of coal. The ships had iron plating added to their hulls. Sir John Franklin sailed in Erebus, in overall command of the expedition, and Terror was again commanded by Francis Crozier. The expedition was ordered to gather magnetic data in the Canadian Arctic and to complete a crossing of the Northwest Passage, which had already been charted from both the east and west but had never been entirely navigated.
The ships were last seen entering Baffin Bay in August 1845. The disappearance of the Franklin expedition set off a massive search effort in the Arctic. The broad circumstances of the expedition's fate were first revealed when Hudson's Bay Company doctor John Rae collected artifacts and testimony from local Inuit in 1853. Later expeditions up to 1866 confirmed these reports.
Both ships had become icebound and had been abandoned by their crews, totaling about 130 men, all of whom died from a variety of causes, including hypothermia, scurvy, and starvation while trying to trek overland to the south. Subsequent expeditions until the late 1980s, including autopsies of crew members, also revealed that their shoddily canned rations may have been tainted by both lead and botulism. Oral reports by local Inuit that some of the crew members resorted to cannibalism were at least somewhat supported by forensic evidence of cut marks on the skeletal remains of crew members found on King William Island during the late 20th century.
A British transport ship, Renovation, spotted two ships on a large ice floe off the coast of Newfoundland in April 1851. The identities of the ships were not confirmed. It was suggested over the years that these might have been Erebus and Terror, though it is now certain they could not have been, and were most likely abandoned whaling ships.
Discovery of the wreckage
On 15 August 2008, Parks Canada, an agency of the Government of Canada, announced a CDN$75,000 six-week search deploying the icebreaker Sir Wilfrid Laurier with the goal of finding the ships and also to reinforce Canada's claims regarding sovereignty over large portions of the Arctic.
The wreckage of one of Franklin's ships was found on 2 September 2014 by a Parks Canada team led by Ryan Harris and Marc-André Bernier  On 1 October 2014 it was announced that the remains were that of Erebus. Recovery of the ship's bell was announced on 6 November 2014.
On 12 September 2016 it was announced that the wreck of HMS Terror had been found submerged in Terror Bay, off the south-west coast of King William Island.
Erebus and Terror are mentioned in numerous fictional works.
- Captain Nemo mentions Erebus and Terror, in the context of Captain Ross' expedition, in Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870), as background to establish the difficulty of reaching the South Pole, while Captain Nemo stands upon its fictional summit.
- Erebus and Terror are mentioned in Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness (1899).
- Ice Blink: The Tragic Fate of Sir John Franklin's Lost Polar Expedition (2001), by Scott Cookman, offers a journalistic account of Franklin's expedition that is up-to-date, factual and scholarly, and seeks to shed new light on this century-and-a-half-old mystery.
- Erebus and Terror appear in Dan Simmons's novel The Terror (2007), which is a fictional account of the expedition's fate.
- Clive Cussler's novel, Arctic Drift (2008), uses Erebus and Terror as part of the plot as well as the establishing backstory of the ill-fated expedition.
In television, radio, and film
- In the Doctor Who Audio Dramas story Terror of the Arctic, Erebus appears alongside her sister ship, Terror.
- Fleming, Fergus (1998). Barrow's Boys. New York: Grove Press. p. 415. ISBN 0-8021-3794-6.
- Bourne, John (1852). "Appendix, Table I: Dimensions Of Screw Steam Vessels In Her Majesty's Navy". A treatise on the screw propeller: with various suggestions of improvement. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
- Murray, Robert (1852). Rudimentary treatise on marine engines and steam vessels. J. Weale. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
- Janet Davison (2015-09-27). "Franklin expedition: New photos of HMS Erebus artifacts, but still no sign of HMS Terror". CBC News. Archived from the original on 2015-11-26. Retrieved 2015-12-19.
A big clue in the mystery is the wreck of HMS Erebus, found last year in a location indicated by Inuit oral histories.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Gow, Harry (2015-02-12). "British loco boiler at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean". Heritage Railway. Horncastle: Mortons Media Group Ltd (199): 84. ISSN 1466-3562.
- Keenleyside, Anne; Bertulli, Margaret & Fricke, Henry C. (March 1997). "The final days of the Franklin Expedition: new skeletal evidence" (PDF). Arctic. 50 (1): 36–46. doi:10.14430/arctic1089. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- "Arctic Blue Books -British Parliamentary Papers Abstract, 1852k.". University of Manitoba Libraries - Archives and Special Collections. 1852.
- Boswell, Randy (2008-01-30). "Parks Canada to lead new search for Franklin ships". Windsor Star. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
- Peter B. Campbell (2015-12-18). "Could Shipwrecks Lead the World to War?". New York Times. p. A23. Archived from the original on 2015-12-19.
“Franklin’s ships are an important part of Canadian history given that his expeditions, which took place nearly 200 years ago, laid the foundations of Canada’s Arctic sovereignty,” Mr. Harper said.
- Watson, Paul (2014-09-09). "How the Franklin Wreck was Finally Found".
- "Franklin expedition ship found in Arctic ID'd as HMS Erebus". CBC News. 2014-10-01.
- "HMS Erebus ship's bell recovered from Franklin expedition". CBC News. 2014-11-06.
- Watson, Paul (2015-03-04). "Navy divers, marine archeologists will study Franklin's ship in winter mission". Toronto Star.
- Summers, Chris (2016-09-12). "Canada finds second ship from doomed 1845 Franklin expedition". Daily Mail. Retrieved 2016-09-24.
- Erebus and Terror. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- "National Historic Sites of Canada System Plan". Parks Canada. 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
- "National Historic Sites of Canada System Plan map". Parks Canada. 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
- Verne, Jules (1962). 20000 Leagues Under the Sea. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-21063-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to HMS Erebus (ship, 1826).|