HMS Mahratta (G23)
HMS Mahratta at a buoy
|Name:||HMS Mahratta (Ex-HMS Marksman)|
|Laid down:||18 August 1941|
|Launched:||28 July 1942|
|Commissioned:||8 April 1943|
|Fate:||Sunk by U-990, 25 February 1944|
|General characteristics (as built)|
|Class and type:||M-class destroyer|
|Length:||362 ft 3 in (110.4 m) (o/a)|
|Beam:||37 ft (11.3 m)|
|Draught:||14 ft (4.3 m)|
|Speed:||36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph)|
|Range:||5,500 nmi (10,200 km; 6,300 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)|
HMS Mahratta was an M-class destroyer of the Royal Navy which served during World War II. Begun as Marksman, she was damaged while under construction, and dismantled to be rebuilt on a new slipway. She was launched as Mahratta in 1942, completed in 1943, and quickly pressed into service. After a short but busy career in the North Atlantic and Arctic, largely guarding merchant convoys, she was torpedoed and sunk on 25 February 1944.
- 1 History
- 2 Loss
- 3 Memorial
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Mahratta was originally to have been named Marksman. She was laid down on 21 January 1940 but the incomplete ship was blown off the slipway during an air raid in May 1941. Marksman was to have been the lead ship of the M-class destroyers, and the class was sometimes known as the Marksman class. Damage sustained by Marksman was so bad that she had to be dismantled and transferred to an alternative site. The new ship was laid down on 18 August 1941, but she was renamed Mahratta at her launch in July 1942, after the Maratha Empire of India, as a recognition of the financial support given by India to the war effort. Mahratta was adopted by the people of Walsall, who held a "Warship Week" from 7–14 February 1942, aiming to raise £700,000 – the cost of a warship. She was completed on 8 April 1943 and entered service on that date. During trials in May 1943 HMS Mahratta escorted RMS Queen Mary part way across the Atlantic.
HMS Mahratta departed Scapa Flow on 2 June 1943 with HMS Musketeer and HMS Onslaught, arriving back at Scapa Flow the same day. On 4 June Mahratta left Seidisfjord, Iceland bound for Spitsbergen, Norway as part of Operation FH, which was the relief of the garrison at Spitsbergen.
Operation Camera was a war game off the coast of Iceland to test the defences against an attempt by Tirpitz to break out from Kåfjord. The operation was based at Scapa Flow, departing on 7 July 1943. The other participants were HMS Duke of York, USS Ellyson, USS Emmons, USS Fitch, HMS Furious, HMS Glasgow, USS Macomb, HMS Meteor, HMS Milne, HMS Musketeer, USS Rodman, and USS South Dakota.
Operation Governor was an attempt to lure Tirpitz and other heavy battleships out of harbour by simulating a raid on southern Norway. Operation Governor departed Hvalfjord on 26 July 1943. HMS Mahratta was part of Force A, other participants of Force A were HMS Anson, USS Alabama, USS Emmons, USS Fitch, HMS Illustrious, USS Macomb, HMS Meteor, HMS Milne, HMS Musketeer, and USS Rodman.
Operation Lorry departed Skaalefjord on 26 August 1943. Mahratta was part of the 10th Cruiser Squadron. Operation Lorry enabled the passage of destroyers and stores to Kola in northern Russia. Tirpitz left her base in Kåfjord with several destroyers to attack the convoy, but was a few hours too late. Operation Lorry delivered parts and crew that were to service the Spitfires used for photo-reconnaissance in preparation for Operation Source.
In September 1943, Mahratta was sent to the Mediterranean with HMS Matchless to escort HMS Valiant to Plymouth for repairs. Matchless broke down on the way back, and was taken in tow by Mahratta. The chain later broke, and after this Mahratta rescued some survivors from a Coastal Command Halifax aircraft that had been shot down by a German U-boat. They had spent eleven days in the water. Mahratta arrived in Plymouth on 11 October 1943 and later that month sailed north again to Scapa Flow and Seidisfjord to escort Convoy JW 54A as part of Operation FR.
Operation FR was the delivery of escort ships to northern Russia to act as escorts for the first of the winter 1943 season convoys, Convoy RA 54A. Other participants were HNoMS Eglantine, HMS Harrier, HMS Matchless, HMS Milne, HMS Musketeer, HMS Saumarez, HMS Savage, HMS Scorpion, HMS Scourge, HMS Seagull, and HMS Westcott. Cover was provided by USS Augusta, HMS London, and HMS Middleton.
Convoy RA 54A
Convoy RA 54A, including the aircraft carrier Formidable and the battleship Anson, sailed from Kola Inlet on 1 November 1943. The departure of the convoy was delayed by thick fog, but allowed the convoy to reach Loch Ewe without being attacked.
Convoy JW 54A
Convoy RA 54B
Convoy JW 56B
Convoy RA 56
Convoy JW 57
On 23 February a Focke-Wulf Condor aircraft was spotted. Wildcats were flown from HMS Chaser and it was thought that they had driven the Condor away, but it kept watch at a distance. Several U-boats were spotted by the Wildcats and Swordfish aircraft were sent to attack any U-boats they could find. HMS Kessel was successful in sinking U-713 with depth charges.
On 25 February 1944, a Catalina aircraft of 210 Squadron attacked and sank U-601 which was trailing the convoy. Mahratta was struck by two T5 Gnat torpedoes fired by U-990 off the coast of Denmark
some 200 miles (320 km) off Esbjerg, Denmark
Although Mahratta was lost, the convoy was a success. It was the largest convoy ever sent to Russia.
- "HMS MAHRATTA – M-class Destroyer". naval-history.net. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- "HMS Musketeer: White Ensign Models 1:350 scale". naval-history.net. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- "The Russian Convoy Club; The Arctic Lookout.". Kieron Hoare. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- "Convoy and Operation Details 1943–44.". Kieron Hoare. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- "Navy and Merchant ships on Convoy RA-54A". Kieron Hoare. Archived from the original on 2010-07-23. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- "Navy and Merchant ships on Convoy JW-54A". Kieron Hoare. Archived from the original on 2007-10-25. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- "Navy and Merchant ships on Convoy RA-54B". Kieron Hoare. Archived from the original on 2009-01-21. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- "Navy and Merchant ships on Convoy JW-56B". Kieron Hoare. Archived from the original on 2010-07-22. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- "Navy and Merchant ships on Convoy RA-56". Kieron Hoare. Archived from the original on 2010-07-23. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- "Navy and Merchant ships on Convoy JW-57". Kieron Hoare. Archived from the original on 2010-07-29. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- "In Memory of HMS Mahratta G23.". Kieron Hoare. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) . Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475.
- English, John (2001). Afridi to Nizam: British Fleet Destroyers 1937–43. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-64-9.
- Friedman, Norman (2006). British Destroyers & Frigates: The Second World War and After. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-86176-137-6.
- Lenton, H. T. (1998). British & Empire Warships of the Second World War. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-048-7.
- March, Edgar J. (1966). British Destroyers: A History of Development, 1892-1953; Drawn by Admiralty Permission From Official Records & Returns, Ships' Covers & Building Plans. London: Seeley Service. OCLC 164893555.
- Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939-1945: The Naval History of World War Two (Third Revised ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
- Whitley, M. J. (1988). Destroyers of World War 2. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-326-1.
- Crew list of HMS Mahratta
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "HMS Mahratta". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net.
- Wartime tale of Halifax aircrew shot down over Atlantic and saved by the Mahratta