HMS Sheffield (D80)
|Laid down:||15 January 1970|
|Launched:||10 June 1971|
|Sponsored by:||Queen Elizabeth II|
|Commissioned:||16 February 1975|
|Identification:||Pennant number: D80|
|Fate:||Sunk on 10 May 1982 after Argentine air attack on 4 May 1982 during Falklands War|
|Class and type:||Type 42 destroyer|
|Length:||125 m (410 ft)|
|Beam:||14.3 m (47 ft)|
|Draught:||5.8 m (19 ft)|
|Propulsion:||4 Rolls-Royce (2 Olympus TM3B and 2 Tyne) producing 36 MW COGOG (combined gas or gas) arrangement|
|Speed:||30 knots (56 km/h)|
|Aircraft carried:||Lynx HAS1|
HMS Sheffield was the second Royal Navy ship to be named after the city of Sheffield in Yorkshire. She was a Type 42 guided missile destroyer laid down by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering at Barrow-in-Furness on 15 January 1970. She was launched by Queen Elizabeth II on 10 June 1971 and commissioned on 16 February 1975.
An explosion during construction killed two dockyard workers and damaged a section of hull which was replaced with a section from an identical ship, Hércules, being built for the Argentine Navy. As the first of a new class of Royal Navy destroyers, Sheffield spent its first years trialing its new systems and the Sea Dart missile system, particularly as the intended Sea Dart trials ship HMS Bristol, suffered serious fires and problems with its steam systems restricting its use in the late 1970s. It was not until 1980 that Sheffield became effective, with Sea Dart and partial installation of electronic warfare Abbey Hill systems  The ship was part of the task force sent to the Falkland Islands during the Falklands war. She was struck by an Exocet air-launched anti-ship missile from a Super Etendard aircraft belonging to the Argentine Navy on 4 May 1982 and foundered on 10 May 1982.
Sheffield was first detected by an Argentine Naval Aviation patrol aircraft Lockheed SP-2H Neptune (2-P-112) at 7:50 AM on 4 May 1982. The Neptune kept the British ships under surveillance, verifying Sheffield's position again at 8:14 and 8:43. Two Argentine Navy Super Étendards (3-A-202 and 3-A-203) both armed with Exocets took off from Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego at 9:45 and met with an Argentine Air Force tanker KC-130H Hercules at 10:00 hours.
At 10:35, the Neptune climbed to 1,170 metres (3,840 ft) and detected a large and two medium-sized contacts at the coordinates 52°33′55″S, 57°40′55″W map. A few minutes later, the Neptune contacted both Super Étendards with this information. Flying at very low altitude, around 10:50, both Super Étendards climbed to 160 metres (520 ft) to verify these contacts, but, not finding any, decided to continue. 25 miles (40 km) later they climbed again and, after a few seconds of scanning, the targets appeared on their radar screens.
Both pilots loaded the coordinates in their weapons systems, returned to low level, and after last minute checks, launched their AM39 Exocet missiles at 11:04 from 20 to 30 miles (32 to 48 km) away from their targets. The Super Étendards did not need to refuel from the KC-130 again, which had been waiting, and landed at Rio Grande at 12:04. Supporting the mission were an Argentine Air Force Learjet 35 as a decoy and two IAI Daggers as the KC-130 escorts
At approximately 10 a.m. on 4 May, Sheffield was at defence watches, second degree readiness, as part of the British task force dispatched to the Falkland Islands during the Falklands War. HMS Sheffield was one of three Type 42 destroyers operating as a forward AW picket for the task force, south east of the Falklands. On some task force ships including HMS Sheffield the threat from the 209 submarine was seen as higher priority than the threat from the air, and the destroyer's 965 screen operators seem unable to distinguish Mirage and Super Entendard aircraft and Sheffield may have lacked an effective IFF as well as jammers  HMS Glasgow was operating at high readiness and detected, two Super Etendard, 'Agave' Targets, 40nm out on 965M Main surveillance LRAW  immediately communicated the warning codeword 'Handbrake' by UHF and HF to all task force ships. Sheffield had assessed the Exocet threat overrated, for the previous two days, and assessed another, false alarm, as did HMS Invincible. The destroyer apparently never heard the incoming aircraft and missiles nor detected them on its ESM (Electronic Support Measures) sets, nor saw a radar contact on its screens swept by its own radar. No detections were reported via data link from Glasgow. Sheffield failed to go to General_quarters launch chaff nor prepare the 4.5" gun and Sea Dart missles nor go to action stations or indeed take any action or even inform the captain  Sheffield had relieved her sister ship Coventry as the latter was having technical trouble with her Type 965 radar. Sheffield and Coventry were chatting over UHF. Communications ceased until an unidentified message was heard flatly stating "Sheffield is hit".
The flagship, Hermes dispatched the escorts Arrow and Yarmouth to investigate, and a helicopter was launched. Confusion reigned until Sheffield's Lynx helicopter unexpectedly landed aboard Hermes carrying the air operations officer and operations officer, confirming the strike.
Sheffield picked up the incoming missiles on her Type 965 radar (an interim fitting until the Type 1022 set was available) and the operations officer informed the missile director, who queried the contacts in the ADAWS 4 fire control system. Critically, the Sheffield did not have an ECM jammer fitted and lacked other critical ECM equipment, but failed to go to action stations or a heightened state of readiness or to do anything to prepare weapons or the Decoy system. The launch aircraft had not been detected as the British had expected, and it was not until smoke was sighted that the target was confirmed as sea skimming missiles. Five seconds later, an Exocet hit Sheffield amidships, approximately 8 feet (2.4 m) above the waterline on deck 2, tearing a gash in the hull. The other missile splashed into the sea half a mile off her port beam.
Damage caused by the missile impact severed the high-pressure fire main on board. The resultant fire caused by burning propellant ignited diesel oil from the ready-use tanks in the engine room, and other inflammable materials used in the ship's construction. These fires burned unchecked for a number of days after the ship was abandoned.
The Exocets were fired from two Super Étendards launched from Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego, naval air base. The aircraft were piloted by Teniente (Lieutenant) Armando Mayora and Capitán de Fragata (Lt Commander) Augusto Bedacarratz, who commanded the mission. Such was the lack of warning that there was no time to engage in defensive manoeuvres, leading to a change in British policy whereby any Royal Navy vessel that suspected it might be under missile attack would turn toward the threat, accelerate to maximum speed and fire chaff to prevent a ship being caught defenceless again. The codeword used to start this procedure was "handbrake", which had to be broadcast once the signal of the Agave radar of the Super Étendard was picked up.
The MOD Board of Inquiry on the sinking of the Sheffield concluded that: "Evidence indicates that the warhead did not detonate". Some of the crew and members of the task force believe that the missile's 165 kilogram warhead had detonated. This was supported by a MOD re-assessment of the loss of Sheffield which reported in summer 2015. In a paper delivered to the RINA Warship Conference in Bath in June 2015 it was concluded that the Exocet warhead did detonate inside Sheffield, with the conclusion supported by analysis using modern damage analysis tools not available in 1982 and evidence from weapon hits and trials conducted since the end of the Falklands campaign.
Irrespective of this, the impact of the missile and the burning rocket motor set Sheffield ablaze. Some accounts suggest that the initial impact of the missile immediately crippled the ship's onboard electricity generating systems, but this only affected certain parts of the ship, which caused ventilation problems. The missile strike fractured the water main, preventing the anti-fire mechanisms from operating effectively, and thereby dooming the ship to be consumed by the raging fire. The RN Court of Inquiry suggested the critical factors leading to loss of Sheffield were the failure to respond to HMS Glasgow's detection and communication of two approaching Super Entendard detected by 965 and Exocets by ESM, by Sheffield, immediately, going to action stations Zulu 1, and launching chaff decoys - 'Chaff D just might have prevented the Exocet hitting the ship' - and the lack of an ECM jammer and a CIWS and the slow response of the available 909 Sea Dart tracking radar and its operator limited the possible response. The spread of the fire had not been checked due to wrong ignitable material covering and lack of adequate curtains and sealing to restrict smoke and fires. Captain Salt's handing of ship, during the four hours the fires were fought were not faulted or his correct decision to abandon ship due to the risk of fires igniting the Sea Dart magazine, the exposed position to air attack of HMS Arrow and Yarmouth, assisting the fire fighting and fact the combat capability of the destroyer was irredeemably lost.
After the ship was struck and as her crew were waiting to be rescued, Sub Lieutenant Carrington-Wood led the crew in singing "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life" from Monty Python’s Life of Brian. Over the six days from 4 May 1982, five inspections were made to see if any equipment was worth salvaging. Orders were issued to shore up the hole in Sheffield's starboard side and tow the ship to South Georgia.
However, before these orders were effected the burnt-out hulk had already been taken in tow by the Rothesay-class frigate Yarmouth. The high seas that the ship was towed through caused slow flooding through the hole in the ship's side, which eventually sank her. The ship sank at 53°04′S, 56°56′W on 10 May 1982, the first Royal Navy vessel sunk in action since World War II. Twenty of her crew (mainly on duty in the galley area and in the computer room) died as a result of the attack. The wreck is a war grave and designated as a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986.
The sinking of Sheffield is sometimes blamed on a superstructure made wholly or partially from aluminium, the melting point and ignition temperature of which are significantly lower than those of steel. However, this is incorrect as Sheffield's superstructure was made entirely of steel. The confusion is related to the US and British Navies abandoning aluminium after several fires in the 1970s involving ships that had aluminium superstructures. The sinking of the Type 21 frigates Antelope and Ardent, both of which had aluminium superstructures, probably also had an effect on this belief though these cases are again incorrect and the presence of aluminium had nothing to do with their loss.   
The fires on Sheffield and other ships damaged by fire caused a later shift by the Royal Navy from the nylon and synthetic fabrics then worn by British sailors. The synthetics had a tendency to melt on to the skin causing more severe burns than if the crew had been wearing non-synthetic clothing.
The official report into the sinking of Sheffield, disclosed in 2006 under UK Freedom of Information laws after an extensive campaign by ex-RN personnel, severely criticised the ship's fire-fighting equipment, training and procedures and certain members of the crew.
- 1973–75: Captain Robin Heath RN
- 1975–76: Captain Michael Prest RN
- 1976–78: Captain Sandy Woodward RN
- 1978–79: Captain Christopher Argles RN
- 1979–82: Captain Peter Erskine RN
- 1982: Captain James Salt RN
- A Rip in Time for Sheffield Navy News, April 2007
- Commons debate – 4 May 1971
- A Rip in Time for Sheffield Navy News, April 2007
- A. Preston. Sea Combat off the Falklands. Willow Collins (1982)London, p112,
- Argentine Account of the role of the Exocet during the War
- Argentine Air Force 4 May mission
- A. Preston. Sea Combat off the Falklands. Willis Collin. (1982),
- Report of Board of Inquiry at HMS Nelson 7 June 1982 into loss of HMS Sheffield, May 1982, Released by CIC Fleet Northwood, Sept 1982
- Admiral S. Woodward and P. Robinson. One Hundred Days. Memoirs of a Falklands Battle Group Commander. Naval Institute Press. Annapolis. US (1992)p 172-3.
- The Battle for the Falklands, Max Hastings & Simon Jenkins, Pan Grand Strategy, 1983
- Report of Board of Inquiry at HMS Nelson, 7 June 1982 into loss of Sheffield. Released by CIC Fleet, Northwood. UK, Sept 82
- Narrative of the attack, page 6
- Argentine Aircraft in the Falklands
- Woodward, Sandy & Robinson, Patrick (1992). One hundred days: the memoirs of the Falklands battle group commander. Naval Institute Press, p. 11. ISBN 1-55750-651-5
- Official MOD report into the sinking
- David Manley. "The Loss of HMS Sheffield – A Technical Re-assessment" RINA Warship Conference, Bath, June 2015
- Łukasz Golowanow. "Rakieta, która nie wybuchła – czyli o zatopieniu HMS Sheffield" [The Missile that Did Not Detonate: On the Sinking of HMS Sheffield] (in Polish). Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- Report of HMS Nelson Board of Inquiry into the loss of HMS Sheffield, 1982. Released CIC Fleet Northwood Sept 82
- "Icons of England, "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life"". Archived from the original on 2011-07-17.
- "Statutory Instrument 2008/0950". Office of Public Sector Information, 1 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
- "sci.military.naval FAQ, Part F – Surface Combatants Section F.7: Aluminum in warship construction". hazegray.org. Archived from the original on 2014-04-08.
- Crum, Kyle A.; McMichael, Jerri; Novak, Miloslav. "Advances in Aluminum Relative to Ship Survivability" (PDF). navalengineers.org. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Aluminum Hull Structure in Naval Applications" (PDF). AUSTAL. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Aluminum's Not to Blame For Warship Loss". New York Times. 3 July 1982. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Sunk Falklands ship safety 'poor'". BBC News. 2 November 2006. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to HMS Sheffield.|
- BBC article about the sinking
- Debunking of aluminium myth
- Official MOD Report into the sinking
- http://www.hmssheffieldassociation.com Official Website
- Sources for the study of HMS Sheffield Produced by Sheffield City Council's Libraries and Archives