HMS Victory

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For other ships of the same name, see List of ships named HMS Victory.
Victory Portsmouth um 1900.jpg
HMS Victory in Portsmouth, 1900
Career (UK)
Name: HMS Victory
Ordered: 14 July 1758
Builder: Chatham Dockyard
Laid down: 23 July 1759
Launched: 7 May 1765
Commissioned: 1778
Honours and
awards:

Participated in:
First Battle of Ushant (1778)
Second Battle of Ushant (1781)
Battle of Cape Spartel (1782)
Battle of Cape St Vincent (1797)

Battle of Trafalgar (1805)
Status: Active, Flagship of the First Sea Lord
Preserved at Portsmouth, England50°48′06.52″N 1°06′34.5″W / 50.8018111°N 1.109583°W / 50.8018111; -1.109583Coordinates: 50°48′06.52″N 1°06′34.5″W / 50.8018111°N 1.109583°W / 50.8018111; -1.109583
General characteristics [1]
Class and type: 104-gun first-rate ship of the line
Displacement: 3,500 tons
Tons burthen: 2,142 tons bm
Length: 186 ft (57 m) (gundeck),
227 ft 6 in (69.34 m)(overall)
Beam: 51 ft 10 in (15.80 m)
Draught: 28 ft 9 in (8.76 m)
Depth of hold: 21 ft 6 in (6.55 m)
Propulsion: Sails—6,510 sq yd (5,440 m²)
Sail plan: Full-rigged ship
Speed: 8 to 9 knots (15 to 17 km/h) maximum
Complement: Approximately 850
Armament: Trafalgar:

Gundeck: 30 × 2.75 ton long pattern Blomefield 32 pounders (15 kg)
Middle gundeck: 28 × 2.5 ton long 24 pounders (11 kg)
Upper gundeck: 30 × 1.7 ton short 12 pounders (5 kg)
Quarterdeck: 12 × 1.7 ton short 12 pounder (5 kg)
Forecastle: 2 × medium 12 pounder (5 kg), 2 × 68 pounder (31 kg) carronade

Marines armed with muskets
Armour: None, although oak hull thickness at waterline 2 ft (0.6 m)
Notes: Height from waterline to top of mainmast: 205 ft (62.5 m)

HMS Victory is a 104-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, ordered in 1758, laid down in 1759 and launched in 1765. She is best known as Lord Nelson's flagship at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

She was also Keppel's flagship at Ushant, Howe's flagship at Cape Spartel and Jervis's flagship at Cape St Vincent. After 1824, she served as a harbour ship.

In 1922, she was moved to a dry dock at Portsmouth, England, and preserved as a museum ship. She is the flagship of the First Sea Lord since October 2012 and is the world's oldest naval ship still in commission.[Note 1]

Construction[edit]

In December 1758, the commissioner of Chatham Dockyard was instructed to prepare a dry dock for the construction of a new first-rate ship.[2] This was an unusual occurrence at the time, as the Royal Navy preferred smaller and more manoeuvrable ships, and it was unusual for more than two to be in commission simultaneously; during the whole of the 18th century, only ten were constructed.[3] Then Prime Minister Pitt the Elder placed the order for Victory on 13 December 1758, along with 11 other ships.[4]

The outline plans were based on HMS Royal George which had been launched at Woolwich Dockyard in 1756, and the naval architect chosen to design the ship was Sir Thomas Slade who, at the time, was the appointed Surveyor of the Navy.[5] She was designed to carry at least 100 guns and was established with that number of guns; in practice, her armament varied from 104 to 106 guns and carronades. In January 1808, the Victory was reduced to a 98-gun second rate, but was reclassed as a 104-gun first rate in February 1817.[6]

The keel was laid on 23 July 1759 in the Old Single Dock (since renamed No. 2 Dock and now Victory Dock), and the name was finally chosen in October 1760.[7] In 1759, the Seven Years' War was going well for Britain; land victories had been won at Quebec and Minden and naval battles had been won at Lagos and Quiberon Bay. It was the Annus Mirabilis, or Year of Miracles (or Wonders), and the ship's name may have been chosen to commemorate the victories[8][9] or it may have been chosen simply because out of the seven names shortlisted, Victory was the only one not in use.[10][11] There were some doubts whether this was a suitable name since the previous first-rate Victory had been lost with all on board in 1744.[11]

Once the frame had been built, it was normal to cover the ship up and leave it for several months to season but the end of the Seven Years' War meant that she remained in this condition for nearly three years, which helped her subsequent longevity.[12][13] Work restarted in autumn 1763 and she was finally launched on 7 May 1765,[14] having cost £63,176 and 3 shillings,[6] the equivalent of £7.71 million today.[15] Around 6000 trees were used in her construction, of which 90% were oak and the remainder elm, pine and fir, together with a small quantity of Lignum Vitae.[16]

On the day of the launch, shipwright Hartly Larkin, designated "foreman afloat" for the event, suddenly realised that the ship might not fit though the dockyard gates. Measurements at first light confirmed his fears: the gates were at least 9½ inches too narrow. He told the dreadful news to his superior, master shipwright John Allin, who considered abandoning the launch. Larkin asked for the assistance of every available shipwright, and they hewed away enough wood from the gates with their adzes for the ship to pass safely through. Larkin petitioned the Navy for some reward for his decisive action, "he having a large family": but, he was denied. He retired on a small pension in 1779, and died in 1803.[17]

Because there was no immediate use for her, she was placed in ordinary—in reserve, roofed over, dismasted and placed under general maintenance—moored in the River Medway for 13 years until France joined the American War of Independence.[18] She was commissioned in March 1778 under Captain John Lindsay but he was transferred to HMS Prince George in May 1778 when Admiral the Honourable Augustus Keppel decided to raise his flag in her, and appoint Rear Admiral John Campbell (1st Captain) and Captain Jonathan Faulknor (2nd Captain).[6]

The Victory was armed with smooth bore, cast iron cannon. Initially she carried thirty 42-pounders (19 kg) on her lower deck, twenty-eight 24-pounders (11 kg) on her middle deck, and thirty 12-pounders (5 kg) on her upper deck, together with twelve 6-pounders on her quarterdeck and forecastle. In May 1778, the 42-pounders were replaced by 32-pounders (15 kg), but the 42-pounders were reinstated in April 1779; eventually, in 1803, the 42-pounders were permanently replaced by 32-pounders. In 1782, all the 6-pounders were replaced by 12-pounders. Later, she also carried two carronade guns, firing 68-lb (31 kg) round shot.[19]

In service[edit]

First battle of Ushant[edit]

The first battle of Ushant (1778) by Theodore Gudin. Admiral Keppel was later court martialed for allowing the French fleet to escape but was acquitted.

Keppel put to sea from Spithead on 9 July 1778 with a force of around twenty-nine ships of the line and, on 23 July, sighted a French fleet of roughly equal force 100 miles (160 km) west of Ushant.[20][21] The French admiral, Louis Guillouet, comte d'Orvilliers, who had orders to avoid battle, was cut off from Brest, but retained the weather gage. Maneuvering was made difficult by changing winds and driving rain, but eventually a battle became inevitable, with the British more or less in column and the French in some confusion. However, the French managed to pass along the British line with their most advanced ships. At about a quarter to twelve, Victory opened fire on the Bretagne of 110 guns, which was being followed by the Ville de Paris of 90 guns.[22] The British van escaped with little loss, but Sir Hugh Palliser's rear division suffered considerably. Keppel made the signal to follow the French, but Palliser did not conform and the action was not resumed.[22] Keppel was court martialled and cleared and Palliser criticised by an inquiry before the affair turned into a political argument.[22]

Second battle of Ushant[edit]

In March 1780, Victory‍ '​s hull was sheathed with 3,923 sheets of copper below the waterline to protect it against shipworm.[16] On 2 December 1781, the ship, now commanded by Captain Henry Cromwell and bearing the flag of Rear Admiral Richard Kempenfelt, sailed with eleven other ships of the line, a 50-gun fourth-rate, and five frigates,[23] to intercept a French convoy that had sailed from Brest on 10 December. Not knowing that the convoy was protected by twenty-one ships of the line under the command of Luc Urbain de Bouexic, comte de Guichen, Kempenfelt ordered a chase when they were sighted on 12 December and began the battle.[23] When he noted the French superiority, he contented himself with capturing fifteen sail of the convoy. The French were dispersed in a gale and forced to return home.[23]

Siege of Gibraltar[edit]

In October 1782, Victory under Admiral Richard Howe was the fleet flagship of a powerful escort flotilla for a convoy of transports which resupplied Gibraltar in the face of a blockade by the French and Spanish navies. No resistance was encountered on entering the straits and the supplies were successfully unloaded. There was a minor engagement at the time of departure, in which Victory did not fire a shot. The British ships were under orders to return home and did so without major incident.[24][25]

Battle of Cape St. Vincent[edit]

The Battle of Cape Saint Vincent, Richard Brydges Beechey, 1881

In 1796, Captain Robert Calder (First Captain) and Captain George Grey (Second Captain), commanded Victory under Admiral Sir John Jervis's flag.[6][26] By the end of 1796, the British position in the Mediterranean had become untenable. Jervis had stationed his fleet off Cape St Vincent to prevent the Spanish sailing north, whilst Horatio Nelson was to oversee the evacuation of Elba.[27][28] Once the evacuation had been accomplished, Nelson, in HMS Minerve, sailed for Gibraltar. On learning that the Spanish fleet had passed by some days previous, Nelson left to rendezvous with Jervis on 11 February.[29] The Spanish fleet, which had been blown off course by easterly gales, was that night working its way to Cadiz.[28] The darkness and a dense fog meant Nelson was able to pass through the enemy fleet without being spotted and join Jervis on 13 February.[30] Jervis, whose fleet had been reinforced on 5 February by five ships from Britain under Rear-Admiral William Parker, now had 15 ships of the line.[31] The following morning, having drawn up his fleet into two columns, Jervis impressed upon the officers on Victory‍ '​s quarterdeck how, "A victory to England is very essential at the moment". Jervis was not aware of the size of the fleet he was facing, but at around 0630 hrs, received word that five Spanish battleships were to the south-east.[26] By 0900 hrs. the first enemy ships were visible from Victory‍ '​s masthead, and at 1100 hrs, Jervis gave the order to form line of battle.[32] As the Spanish ships became visible to him, Calder reported the numbers to Jervis, but when he reached 27, Jervis replied, "Enough Sir. No more of that. The die is cast and if there are 50 sail, I will go through them".[33] The Spanish were caught by surprise, sailing in two divisions with a gap that Jervis aimed to exploit.[26] The ship's log records how Victory halted the Spanish division, raking ships both ahead and astern, while Jervis' private memoirs recall how the Victory‍ '​s broadside so terrified the Principe de Asturias that she "..squared her yards, ran clear out of the battle and did not return".[34] Jervis, realising that the main bulk of the enemy fleet could now cross astern and reunite, ordered his ships to change course, but Sir Charles Thompson, leading the rear division, failed to comply. The following ships were now in a quandary over whether to obey the Admiral's signal or follow their divisional commander. Nelson, who had transferred to HMS Captain, was the first to break off and attack the main fleet as Jervis had wanted and other ships soon followed his example.[35][36] The British fleet not only achieved its main objective, that of preventing the Spanish from joining their French and Dutch allies in the channel, but also captured four ships.[36] The dead and wounded from these four ships alone amounted to 261 and 342 respectively; more than the total number of British casualties of 73 dead and 327 wounded.[37] There was one fatality aboard Victory; a cannonball narrowly missed Jervis and decapitated a nearby sailor.[36]

Reconstruction[edit]

Victory from the starboard side showing the black and yellow-ochre paint scheme first displayed in 1800 and later adopted by all Royal Navy warships.

By late 1797, Victory was stationed at Chatham under the command of Lieutenant J. Rickman. In December, unfit for service as a warship, she was ordered to be converted to a hospital ship to hold wounded French and Spanish prisoners of war.[6][38]

However, on 8 October 1799, HMS Impregnable was lost off Chichester, having run aground on her way back to Portsmouth after escorting a convoy to Lisbon.[38] She could not be refloated and so was stripped and dismantled. Now short of a first rate, the Admiralty decided to recondition Victory. Work started in 1800, but as it proceeded, an increasing number of defects were found and the repairs developed into a very extensive reconstruction.[38] The original estimate was £23,500, but the final cost was £70,933.[10] Extra gun ports were added, taking her from 100 guns to 104, and her magazine lined with copper. Her figurehead was replaced along with her masts and the paint scheme changed from red to the black and yellow seen today. Her gun ports were originally yellow to match the hull, but later repainted black, giving a pattern later called the "Nelson chequer", which was adopted by all Royal Navy ships after the Battle of Trafalgar.[39] The work was completed in April 1803, and the ship left for Portsmouth the following month under her new captain, Samuel Sutton.[6][40]

Nelson and Trafalgar[edit]

Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson twice flew his flag in Victory
Main article: Trafalgar Campaign

Vice-Admiral Nelson hoisted his flag in Victory on 18 May 1803, with Samuel Sutton as his flag captain.[6] The ship was not ready to sail, however, so Nelson transferred to the frigate Amphion on 20 May and left to assume command in the Mediterranean.[41] Victory later sailed to Ushant to serve as flagship to Cornwallis, but was not required and so went to the Mediterranean in search of Nelson.[41]

On 28 May, Captain Sutton captured the French Embuscade of 32 guns, bound for Rochefort.[42]Victory rejoined Lord Nelson off Toulon, where on 31 July, Captain Sutton exchanged commands with the captain of Amphion, Thomas Masterman Hardy and Nelson raised his flag in Victory once more.[41]

Victory was passing the island of Toro on 4 April 1805, when HMS Phoebe brought the news that the French fleet under Pierre-Charles Villeneuve had escaped from Toulon. While Nelson made for Sicily to see if the French were heading for Egypt, Villeneuve was entering Cádiz to link up with the Spanish fleet.[43] On 9 May, Nelson received news from HMS Orpheus that Villeneuve had left Cadiz a month earlier. The British fleet completed their stores in Lagos Bay, Portugal and, on 11 May, sailed westward with ten ships and three frigates in pursuit of the combined Franco-Spanish fleet of 17 ships.[44] They arrived in the West Indies to find that the enemy was sailing back to Europe, where Napoleon Bonaparte was waiting for them with his invasion forces at Boulogne.[45]

The Franco-Spanish fleet was involved in the indecisive Battle of Cape Finisterre in fog off Ferrol with Admiral Sir Robert Calder's squadron on 22 July, before taking refuge in Vigo and Ferrol.[46] Calder on 14 August and Nelson on 15 August joined Admiral Cornwallis's Channel Fleet off Ushant.[47] Nelson continued on to England in Victory, leaving his Mediterranean fleet with Cornwallis[48] who detached twenty of his thirty-three ships of the line and sent them under Calder to find the combined fleet at Ferrol. On 19 August came the worrying news that the enemy had sailed from there, followed by relief when they arrived in Cádiz two days later. On the evening of Saturday, 28 September, Lord Nelson joined Lord Collingwood's fleet off Cádiz, quietly, so that his presence would not be known.[49]

Battle of Trafalgar[edit]

Main article: Battle of Trafalgar
The Battle of Trafalgar, a composite of several moments during the battle, by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1822–1824).

After learning he was to be removed from command, Villeneuve put to sea on the morning of 19 October and when the last ship had left port, around noon the following day, he set sail for the Mediterranean.[50] The British frigates, which had been sent to keep track of the enemy fleet throughout the night, were spotted at around 1900 hrs and the order was given to form line of battle.[51] On the morning of 21 October, the main British fleet, which was out of sight and sailing parallel some 10 miles away, turned to intercept.[52] Nelson had already made his plans: to break the enemy line some two or three ships ahead of their commander-in-chief in the centre and achieve victory before the van could come to their aid.[53] At 0600 hrs, Nelson ordered his fleet into two columns. Fitful winds made it a slow business, and for more than six hours, the two columns of British ships slowly approached the French line before Royal Sovereign, leading the lee column, was able to open fire on Fougueux. Around 30 minutes later, Victory broke the line between Bucentaure and Redoutable firing a treble shotted broadside into the stern of the former from a range of a few yards.[54] At a quarter past one, Nelson was shot, the fatal musket ball entering his left shoulder and lodging in his spine.[55] He died at half past four.[56] Such killing had taken place on Victory‍ '​s quarter deck that Redoutable attempted to board her, but they were thwarted by the arrival of Eliab Harvey in the 98-gun HMS Temeraire, whose broadside devastated the French ship.[57] Nelson's last order was for the fleet to anchor, but this was countermanded by Vice Admiral Collingwood.[58] Victory suffered 57 killed and 102 wounded.[59]

After Trafalgar[edit]

Final years afloat[edit]

HMS Victory‍ '​s bow and figurehead, 2007

Victory had been badly damaged in the battle and was not able to move under her own sail. She was therefore towed to Gibraltar by HMS Neptune for repairs.[60] She then took Nelson's body to England, where, after lying in state at Greenwich, he was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral on 9 January 1806.[61]

Victory bore many admirals' flags after Trafalgar, and sailed on numerous expeditions, including two Baltic campaigns under Admiral Sir James Saumarez.[62] Her active career finally ended on 7 November 1812, when she was moored in Portsmouth Harbour off Gosport and used as a depot ship.[63]

It is said that when Thomas Hardy was First Sea Lord, he told his wife on returning home that he had just signed an order for Victory to be broken up. She burst into tears and sent him straight back to his office to rescind the order. Though this story may be apocryphal, the page of the 1831 duty log containing the orders for that day has been torn out.[64] Victory was largely forgotten, except for a brief period during 1833 when she was visited by the queen in waiting, Princess Victoria and her mother, the Duchess of Kent.[63]

In 1889, Victory was fitted up as a Naval School of Telegraphy. She soon became a proper Signal School, and signal ratings from ships paying off were sent to Victory, instead of the barracks, for a two-month training course. The school remained on Victory until 1904, when training was transferred temporarily to HMS Hercules, and in 1906 the whole school was moved to a permanent establishment at the Royal Naval Barracks, Portsmouth.[65]

As the years passed by, Victory slowly deteriorated at her moorings. In 1903, HMS Neptune was being towed to the breakers yard when she broke free and ploughed into Victory, holing her below the waterline. Emergency repairs were carried out to stop her sinking, but it was only the personal intervention of Edward VII that prevented Victory from being scrapped.[66] Interest in the ship was revived in 1905 when, as part of the centenary celebrations of the Battle of Trafalgar, she was decorated with electric lights powered by a submarine moored alongside.[66] In 1910, the Society for Nautical Research was created to try to preserve her for future generations, but the Admiralty was unable to help, having become embroiled in an escalating arms race; thus by the time Frank H. Mason published The Book of British Ships in 1911, Victory's condition was described as "..nothing short of an insult".[67][68] By 1921, she was in a very poor state, and the Save the Victory campaign was started, with shipping magnate Sir James Caird becoming a major contributor.[69]

In dry dock[edit]

Restoring HMS Victory (William Lionel Wyllie, 1925)

On 12 January 1922, she was moved into No. 2 dock at Portsmouth, the oldest drydock in the world still in use,[70] her condition having deteriorated to the extent that she could no longer safely remain afloat.[69] During the initial restoration period from 1922 to 1929, a considerable amount of structural repair work was carried out above the waterline and mainly above the middle deck. In 1928, King George V was able to unveil a tablet celebrating the completion of the work, although restoration and maintenance still continued under the supervision of the Society for Nautical Research.[69]

Restoration was suspended during the Second World War, and in 1941, Victory sustained further damage when a bomb dropped by the Luftwaffe destroyed one of the steel cradles and part of the foremast. On one occasion, German radio propaganda claimed that the ship had been destroyed by a bomb, and the Admiralty had to issue a denial.[71]

In the 1950s, a number of preventive measures were instigated, including the removal of bulkheads to increase airflow and the fumigating of the ship against the deathwatch beetle. The following decade saw the replacement of much of the decayed oak with oily hardwoods such as teak and Iroko, which were believed to be more resistant to fungus and pests.[72] The decision to restore Victory to her Battle of Trafalgar configuration was taken in 1920, but the need to undertake these important repairs meant this was not achieved until 2005, in time for the Trafalgar 200 celebrations.[73] Victory‍ '​s foretopsail was severely damaged during the Battle of Trafalgar, perforated by upwards of 90 cannonballs and other projectiles. It was replaced after the battle, but was preserved and eventually displayed in the Royal Naval Museum.[74]

Current status[edit]

Listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, HMS Victory has been the flagship of the First Sea Lord since October 2012. Prior to this, she was the flagship of the Second Sea Lord.[75][76] She is the oldest commissioned warship in the world[Note 1] and attracts around 350,000 visitors per year in her role as a museum ship.[77] The current and 100th commanding officer is Lieutenant Commander Rod Strathern Royal Navy, who assumed command in September 2011.[78]

HMS Victory, officially, has a surprisingly large crew complement, though visitors are unlikely to see any naval personnel. It is a legacy of naval legislation that all naval ratings and officers must be assigned to a ship[79] (which may include a shore establishment – still regarded as Her Majesty's Ships by the navy). Any navy person allocated to work in a non-HMS location (such as the Ministry of Defence in London) is recorded as being a member of the crew of HMS Victory.

Current support arrangements[edit]

Panorama HMS Victory. Note, her figurehead is missing in this picture.

In December 2011, Defence Equipment and Support awarded an initial five-year project management contract to BAE Systems, with an option to extend to ten years. The restoration is worth £16 million over the life of the contract and will include work to the masts and rigging, replacement side planking, and the addition of fire control measures. It is expected to be the most extensive refit since the ship returned from Trafalgar.[80][81]

Since this contract was placed, the most significant change has been on 6 March 2012, when ownership of the ship was transferred from the Ministry of Defence to a dedicated HMS Victory Preservation Trust, established as part of the National Museum of the Royal Navy.[82] According to the Royal Navy website, the move was "heralded by the announcement of a £25 million capital grant to support the new Trust by the Gosling Foundation – a donation which has been matched by a further £25 million from the MOD".[83]

Admirals who have hoisted their flag on Victory[edit]

Over the two centuries since Victory‍ '​s launch, numerous admirals have hoisted their flag on her:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ a b USS Constitution was the oldest commissioned warship still afloat until going in to drydock in 2015, where she is expected to stay for three years.
Citations
  1. ^ Lavery, Ships of the Line, vol. 1, p. 175.
  2. ^ Eastland & Ballantyne (2011) p.13
  3. ^ Christopher (2010) p.16
  4. ^ Mckay (2000) p.9
  5. ^ Christopher (2010) pp.15 & 16
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Winfield (2007) p.6
  7. ^ Christopher (2010) pp.17 & 20
  8. ^ Stilwell (2005) p.145
  9. ^ English/British Naval History to 1815: A Guide to the Literature. p. 129. 
  10. ^ a b "Service Life". HMS-Victory. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Christopher (2010) p.19
  12. ^ Eastland & Ballantyne (2011) p.15 & 16
  13. ^ Christopher (2010) pp. 20–21
  14. ^ Christopher (2010) p.21
  15. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2015), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  16. ^ a b "Facts & Figures". HMS-Victory. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  17. ^ Kennedy, Maev (22 February 2015). "How HMS Victory nearly never made it to the Battle of Trafalgar". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  18. ^ Christopher (2010) p.20
  19. ^ "Armament". HMS-Victory. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  20. ^ Dull (2009) p.101
  21. ^ Rodger (2005) pp. 336–337
  22. ^ a b c Christopher (2010) p.38
  23. ^ a b c Christopher (2010) p.42
  24. ^ Sayer, Capt Frederick The history of Gibraltar and of its political relation to events in Europe ... pp. 398–403. Saunders, Otley & Co., 1862
  25. ^ Wharton, Capt. W. J. L. A short history of HMS Victory pp. 12–15. Griffin & Co, 1884
  26. ^ a b c Willis (2013) p.91
  27. ^ Wilson (2013) p.399
  28. ^ a b Willis (2013) p.90
  29. ^ Vincent (2003) p.180
  30. ^ Willis (2013) p.102
  31. ^ Vincent (2003) p.163
  32. ^ Eastland & Ballantyne (2011) p.19
  33. ^ Willis (2013) pp. 102–103
  34. ^ Eastland & Ballantyne (2011) pp. 19–20
  35. ^ Willis (2013) pp. 92–93
  36. ^ a b c Eastland & Ballantyne (2011) p.20
  37. ^ Willis (2013) pp.104,105 & 109
  38. ^ a b c Christopher (2010) p.43
  39. ^ Christopher (2010) pp. 43–44
  40. ^ Christopher (2010) p.85
  41. ^ a b c Stilwell (2005) p.149
  42. ^ Winfield (2005) p.194
  43. ^ Best (2005) pp. 109–110
  44. ^ Best (2005) pp. 115–116
  45. ^ Best (2005) p.121
  46. ^ Best (2005) pp. 135–137
  47. ^ Best (2005) pp. 143–144
  48. ^ Best (2005) p.144
  49. ^ Best (2005) pp. 169–170
  50. ^ Best (2005) pp.189 & 192
  51. ^ Best (2005) p.199
  52. ^ Best (2005) p.206
  53. ^ Best (2005) p.154
  54. ^ Stilwell (2005) pp. 178–179
  55. ^ Stilwell (2005) p.181
  56. ^ Best (2005) p.285
  57. ^ Warwick. Voices from the Battle of Trafalgar. pp. 200–1. 
  58. ^ Best (2005) p.295
  59. ^ Stilwell (2005) p.159
  60. ^ Christopher (2010) pp. 99–100
  61. ^ Christopher (2010) pp. 101–104
  62. ^ Christopher (2010) p.106
  63. ^ a b Christopher (2010) p.107
  64. ^ Eastland & Ballantyne (2011) p.28
  65. ^ "The First Signal Schools". Royal Naval Communications Association. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  66. ^ a b Christopher (2010) p.111
  67. ^ Christopher (2010) p.112
  68. ^ Christopher (2010) p.113
  69. ^ a b c Christopher (2010) p.114
  70. ^ Sarton, George (1946), "Floating Docks in the Sixteenth Century", Isis 36 (3/4): 153–154
  71. ^ Christopher (2010) pp. 114–115
  72. ^ Christopher (2010) p.115
  73. ^ David Prudames (1 July 2004). "HMS Victory's Reconstructed Grand Magazine Is Unveiled". Culture 24. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  74. ^ "Trafalgar Sail". Portsmouth Historic Dockyard. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  75. ^ "Appendix B - Historic fleet core collection" (PDF). First Annual Report April 2006 - March 2007. National Historic Ships Register. p. 46. Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  76. ^ "HMS Victory handed to First Sea Lord in Portsmouth". BBC News. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012. 
  77. ^ "Victory welcomes 25 millionth visitor". Southern Daily Echo. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  78. ^ Royal Navy HMS VICTORY minisite "Commanding Officer"
  79. ^ The precise wording in the Naval Acts is that men "... must serve afloat". The relevant legislation for the Army and the RAF is that "... men can serve ashore or afloat".
  80. ^ "HMS Victory to be restored". UK Government. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  81. ^ "HMS Victory at Portsmouth Dockyard in £16m restoration". BBC Hampshire and Isle of Wight. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  82. ^ "Press Release" (PDF). Royal Navy. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  83. ^ "£50million boost for HMS Victory". Retrieved 23 June 2012. 

References[edit]

  • Best, Nicholas (2005). Trafalgar - The Untold Story of the Greatest Sea Battle in History. London: The Orion Publishing Group Ltd. ISBN 0-297-84622-1. 
  • Christopher, John (2010). The HMS Victory Story. Stroud: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5605-8. 
  • Dull, Jonathan R. (2009). The Age of the Ship of the Line. Barnsley: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-549-4. 
  • Eastland, Jonathan; Ballantyne, Iain (2011). HMS Victory – First Rate 1765. Barnsley: Seaforth Publishing, Pen and Sword Books. ISBN 978-1-84832-094-9. 
  • Lavery, Brian (2003) The Ship of the Line Volume 1: The development of the battlefleet 1650–1850. Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-252-8.
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  • McKay, John (2000). The 100-Gun Ship Victory. Anova Books Ltd. ISBN 9781844862238. 
  • Rodger, N.A.M (2005). The Command of the Ocean. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-028896-1. 
  • Stilwell, Alexander (2005). The Trafalgar Companion. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-835-9. 
  • Vincent, Edgar (2003). Nelson: Love & Fame. London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10260-7. 
  • Warwick, Peter. Voices from the Battle of Trafalgar. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-2000-9. 
  • Willis, Sam (2013). In the Hour of Victory - The Royal Navy at War in the Age of Nelson. London: Atlantic Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85789-570-7. 
  • Wilson, Ben (2013). Empire of the Deep. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-86408-0. 
  • Winfield, Rif (2007) British Warships in the Age of Sail 1714–1792: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84415-700-6.
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