HMS Volcano (1804)
|Builder:||William Rowe, St Peter's, Newcastle|
|Fate:||Sold June 1804|
|Acquired:||by purchase, 1804|
|Fate:||Sold, 28 August 1816|
|Acquired:||1816 by purchase|
|General characteristics |
|Type:||16-gun ship-sloop / bomb vessel|
|Tons burthen:||338, or 339, or 340|
|Beam:||29 ft 0 in (8.8 m)|
HMS Heron was originally the merchant vessel Jason, launched at Newcastle in 1803, that the Admiralty purchased in 1804 for the Royal Navy for use as 16-gun ship-sloop under the name HMS Heron. During the Napoleonic Wars she served as a convoy escort on the Leeward Islands station. Then in 1810 the Admiralty had her converted into a bomb vessel and renamed her HMS Volcano. As Volcano she served during the War of 1812, and in particular participated in the Battle of Baltimore. The Admiralty sold her in 1816. New owners returned her to mercantile service under her original name of Jason. She was wrecked in 1821.
Jason appeared in the Register of Shipping (RS) for 1804 with Otway, master, W. Row, owner, and voyage Newcastle to Liverpool.
The Admiralty purchased Jason in 1804. After the Treaty of Amiens, Britain had disarmed while France rearmed, so on the resumption of war the Admiralty found itself short of vessels for convoy escort. Because of the urgency of the situation, the Admiralty purchased twenty three-masted mercantile vessels; one was Jason. Jason came into service with her original masts and yards even though she was under-canvassed and therefore slow, and without a cargo in her hold tended to roll; she became HMS Heron.
She was commissioned in June 1804 under Commander John Edgecombe. At the end of the year he escorted a convoy of merchantmen from England to Barbados. Once in Barbados Edgecombe faced a dilemma. On the one hand there were reports of an enemy fleet in the Windward Isles that could threaten Barbados. On the other hand, a fleet of 28 merchantmen and two transports had gathered in Carlisle Bay, awaiting a warship to escort them to Halifax or Britain. Edgecombe decided to escort the convoy, risking court martial for leaving his duty station without orders. Five of the ships parted company for Halifax. Argus, off Cape Clear, met six others that were going up the St. Georges Channel. Heron accompanied the remainder to the Downs, where the convoy arrived on 2 August 1805. The captains of the 19 vessels that Edgecombe had convoyed signed a letter, interceding with the Admiralty on his behalf. The letter proved moot as the Admiralty had already approved Edgecombe's actions.
Edgecombe realized that Heron was too slow to catch enemy cruisers; instead he decided to use guile. While she was sailing to Antigua with a convoy he noticed a schooner approaching. He hoisted American colours and dressed a midshipman as a woman. The schooner showed French colours and approached. Unfortunately, the French vessel was too low for Heron's guns to bear and rolled too much for her crew to secure grapnels. All that the British could do was raise the British ensign and discharge a volley of musketry before the French vessel escaped. Cambrian later captured the schooner, which turned out to be Matilde, of 16 guns.
Thereafter, Heron escorted convoys to Halifax, Newfoundland and Bermuda until December 1806 when Edgecombe, whose health had been impaired, left. Heron then remained in ordinary until 1810 when the Admiralty had her converted into a bomb vessel and renamed her Volcano.
Commander David Price assumed command of Volcano on 6 December 1813. In the summer of 1814 he sailed her to North America to join Sir Alexander Cochrane's fleet off the entrance to Baltimore harbour where he joined in the bombardment of Fort McHenry. Along with her were other bomb vessels and a Congreve rocket vessel, Erebus. The entire fleet consisted of 19 vessels, and launched over 1,500 bombs during the attack, but succeeded in killing only four Americans and wounding 24 before giving up the attack.
Later, Volcano served in the Potomac under Rear Admiral Pulteney Malcolm. On 31 October 1814, while escorting a merchantman to Jamaica, Volcano nearly succeeded in capturing the 7-gun American privateer schooner Saucy Jack. The two vessels exchange fire before the American took advantage of her greater speed and escaped. The British lost three men killed; the Americans lost seven killed and 14 wounded.
Volcano was sent up the Mississippi, with another bomb vessel, HMS Aetna, and Herald (18), Thistle (12), and Pigmy (10) to bombard Fort St Philip. After the British retired from New Orleans, Volcano sailed along the Gulf Coast and was present during the siege of Fort Bowyer in February 1815.
After end of the war with America, Volcano sailed for home on 5 April 1815 and arrived at Portsmouth on 31 May. Commander John Watling assumed command in June, but the Navy paid Volcano off in September.
Disposal: The Admiralty sold Volcano on 28 August 1816 for £1,100.
New owners returned Volcano to mercantile service under her original name. She appeared in the Register of Shipping for 1818 with D. Petrie, master, Gardner, owner, and trade London–Miramichi, New Brunswick. She had undergone a "good repair" in 1818.
Jason appeared in the 1822 volume of the Register of Shipping with Thompson, master, Gardiner, owner, and trade Liverpool–Charleston. She had undergone small repairs in 1819.
Lloyd's List reported on 12 June 1821 that Jason, Thomson, master, had been driven ashore on the South Breakers of St Simon's Bar (St. Simons, Georgia), where she had bilged. She had been on a voyage from Falmouth to Savannah.
Citations and references
- RS (1804), Seq.№197.
- Tyne Built Ships – accessed 22 February 2019.
- Winfield (2008), p. 272.
- RS (1818), "J" Supple. pages.
- Winfield (2008), p. 375.
- Marshall (1830), p.38.
- "Royal Marines on the Gulf Coast". Retrieved 3 June 2014.
Extracted information from the log of HMS Volcano
- RS (1822), Seq.№J291.
- Lloyd's List №5600.
- William James, (1837) "Attack on Baltimore" Naval History of Great Britain (Vol. VI)
- Marshall, John (1830). Royal naval biography; or, Memoirs of the services of all the flag-officers, superannuated rear-admirals, retired captains, post-captains, and commanders, whose names appeared on the Admiralty list of sea-officers at the commencement of the year 1823, or who have since been promoted. Supplement. Volume 4. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green.
- Winfield, Rif (2008). British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 1-86176-246-1.