HM Prison Wormwood Scrubs
|Location||Wormwood Scrubs, London, England|
|Coordinates||51°31′00″N 0°14′25″W / 51.5167°N 0.2403°W|
|Security class||Adult Male/Category B|
|Population||1,079 (as of 21 June 2021)|
|Managed by||His Majesty's Prison Service|
HM Prison Wormwood Scrubs (nicknamed "The Scrubs") is a Category B men's local prison, located beside Hammersmith Hospital and W12 Conferences on Du Cane Road in the White City in West London, England. The prison is operated by His Majesty's Prison Service.
The prison lies at the southern end of the ancient park of the same name. The name "Scrubs" refers to scrubland while Wormwood — Artemisia absinthium — is a grey-foliaged sub-shrub, common on wasteland, which was traditionally used as a herb for the treatment of parasitic worms.
The initial steps in the winter of 1874 involved the construction of a small prison made of corrugated iron and a temporary shed to serve as a barracks for the warders. Nine specially picked prisoners, all within a year of release, completed the buildings, after which 50 more prisoners were brought to erect a second temporary prison wing. Building then began on the permanent prison, with bricks being manufactured on site.
By the summer of 1875, enough bricks had been prepared to build the prison's first block and its ground floor was finished as winter began. Construction was completed in 1891. The designer was Sir Edmund Frederick Du Cane, who gave his name to the prison's road.
The First World War
The prison housed a number of conscientious objectors in the First World War, one of whom, the Quaker journalist Hubert W. Peet, wrote about the conditions there in 112 Days' Hard Labour (1917).
The Second World War
During the Second World War, the prison was taken over by the War Department and the prisoners were evacuated to other prisons. The Security Service (MI5) was based at Wormwood Scrubs from 1939 to 1940.
In 1979, IRA prisoners staged a rooftop protest over visiting rights. Sixty inmates and several prison officers were injured. In 1982, an inquiry blamed much of the difficulties on failings in prison management. The Governor, John McCarthy, had quit before the rioting. In a letter to The Times, he had described Wormwood Scrubs as a "penal dustbin".
In the 1990s, a police investigation into allegations of staff brutality resulted in the suspension of 27 prison officers and the conviction of six for assault, though three later won appeals against conviction. The Prison Service paid out more than three million pounds in out-of-court settlements with ex-prisoners who had alleged brutality. The Chief Inspector of Prisons delivered a damning report on the conditions, in which the prison was told to improve or close.
In March 2004, a further report from the Chief inspector stated that Wormwood Scrubs had greatly improved after making fundamental changes. Three quarters of inmates at the prison had said that staff treated them with respect, which was better than the national average. However, the report also stated that inmates spent too much time in their cells, and that only 36 per cent of eligible inmates were involved in education or work.
In November 2008, another report from the Chief Inspector stated that conditions at Wormwood Scrubs had deteriorated since the last inspection. Heightened prison gang activity had been detected, and 20 per cent of prisoners had failed drugs tests.
The prison cell blocks are Grade II listed, with the gatehouse given the higher Grade II* rating.
Major structural changes to the prison's management took place in 2013. In 2014, another report by the Inspectorate of Prisons was critical of the prison, describing it as "filthy". The inspectors also stated that there had been a failure to put into place recommendations by the Prisons and Probation Ombudsman to deal with suicide and self-harm. The Chief Executive of the Howard League for Penal Reform, a charitable body, said "I have never seen a public service deteriorate so rapidly and so profoundly."
In 2017, the prison was reportedly overcrowded and some areas were strewn with litter and infested with rats and cockroaches. At the time of the inspection, there were 1,258 prisoners. Some were locked in their cells for 23 hours a day. The prison was reportedly dangerous for staff and inmates, and officers were concerned for their safety. There were 40 to 50 violent incidents a month. Chief Inspector Peter Clarke described “an extremely concerning picture” including, "intractable failings" continuing since earlier inspections from 2014.
In 2018, a prisoner was stabbed to death and three other prisoners were charged with his murder. On August 30, 2018, prisoner Winston Augustine committed suicide in the segregation unit after spending two days locked in a showerless cell with no food and without the tramadol prescribed for kidney stones that caused him pain. He was suffering from ketoacidosis due to starvation. A 2021 inquest subsequently identified the prison's failure to provide food and medication as contributing factors to the death; the facility's head of safer custody told the inquest she was "horrified" by the "wrongdoing".
In 2019, HM Inspectorate of Prisons found that although improvements had been made to make the prison safer, "the work was often not sufficiently embedded to have yet made enough difference to outcomes". Another inspection in 2021 reported that improvements had been maintained and there were reductions in the level of violence, though this was partly because many prisoners were locked in their cells for most of the day. At the time of the inspection there were 1,079 prisoners.
The prison today
Wormwood Scrubs is a Category B prison for adult males, sentenced or on remand from the local courts. The prison has five main wings and a number of smaller dedicated units. All accommodation includes electricity, integral sanitation, a TV, and accompanying bedroom furniture:
- A wing – remand and sentenced prisoners
- B wing – induction wing
- C wing – remand and sentenced prisoners
- D wing – remand and sentenced prisoners and high risk prisoner requiring single cells
- E wing – remand and sentenced prisoners
- Super enhanced wing – enhanced prisoners who are considered to be trustworthy
- Conibeere Unit – prisoners who require a substance misuse stabilisation regime
- First Night Centre – for prisoners during their first day(s) in custody
There is a contracted prison shop previously run by Aramark, but now run by DHL Supply Chain, which provides a selection of consumables for purchase by prisoners.
The two oval plaster reliefs on the front of the prison depict Elizabeth Fry and John Howard, both well known figures in prison reform.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2019)
- Paul Blackburn
- George Blake
- Reginald Horace Blyth
- Horatio Bottomley
- Ian Brady
- Charles Bronson
- Basil Bunting
- Morris Cohen (alias Peter Kroger)
- Fred Copeman
- Peter Samuel Cook aka The Cambridge Rapist
- Pete Doherty
- Lord Alfred Douglas
- Leslie Grantham
- John Hampson
- Nicholas van Hoogstraten
- John Hopkins
- Thomas Jones, Baron Maelor
- Mike Lesser
- Saunders Lewis
- Konon Molody (alias Gordon Lonsdale)
- Dennis Nilsen
- Mark Morrison
- Timmy Murphy
- Lord William Beauchamp Nevill.
- Joseph Pearce
- Owen Philipps, 1st Baron Kylsant
- Count Geoffrey Potocki de Montalk
- Keith Richards
- Nikos Sampson
- Richard Starkie
- John Stonehouse
- Michael Tippett
- Nines (rapper)
- Lewis Valentine
- David John Williams
- Koci Selamaj
In popular culture
This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2018)
- Death of a Train (1946) An Inspector French Mystery by Freeman Wills Crofts
- "The Kite" (1946), short story by W. Somerset Maugham published in The Strand Magazine
- "Episode" (1947), short story by W. Somerset Maugham published in Good Housekeeping
- One of the main characters in Sarah Waters's novel "The Night Watch" (2006) served his sentence at the Scrubs.
- Peter Wildeblood was imprisoned in the Scrubs in 1954. His book "Against the Law", describes his trial and imprisonment.
- The prison is mentioned in the Russian novel Figurehead, by Danil Koretsky (Данил Корецкий, Подставная фигура). The parents of the principal character are held in the Scrubs and are unsuccessfully sought-out by the Russian SVR.
- Bunny Manders, the narrator of the A. J. Raffles stories by E. W. Hornung, serves his sentence at Wormwood Scrubs.
- Julet Armstrong, protagonist of the 2018 Kate Atkinson World War II novel Transcription, works for MI5 for a time in the Scrubs.
- This prison is also mentioned in the book "Stay where you are and then leave", by Irish writer John Boyne, as the place where character Joe Patience stayed for almost two years while refusing to be a soldier in the first world war (chapter 6).
- The autobiography 'Psychic Screw' of former Prison Officer John G. Sutton details events at the prison including the specifics concerning the rooftop protest by the IRA. Sutton served as an Officer at the jail from 1975 to late 1976.
Film and television
In films and TV programmes set in Britain the front entrance of Wormwood Scrubs is frequently chosen as a location for scenes showing a character being released from prison, as, for example, in:
- Billy Liar
- The Man In Possession
- The Spy Who Came in from the Cold
- The Horse's Mouth
- Hot Millions
- A Very British Coup
- The Sweeney – "One of Your Own"
- The Italian Job
- The Baron – "Something for a Rainy Day"
- Minder, in the episodes "Bury My Half at Waltham Green" and "The Birdman of Wormwood Scrubs"; Terry McCann, the titular minder, also served his time in the Scrubs before the series began and the front of the prison can be seen in the opening credits.
- Danger Man – in the episode "Such Men Are Dangerous" John Drake (played by Patrick McGoohan) is substituted for a man being released and is shown leaving the Scrubs.
- Steptoe and Son
- Rumpole of the Bailey series 2 "Rumpole and the Age for Retirement" 1979
- The Slammer used the prison doors to show winners of the Freedom Show being released.
A two-part documentary, Wormwood Scrubs, was shown on ITV1 in May 2010.
- Gary Moore is shown being escorted out of the prison entrance by a guard on the cover of his 1978 album Back on the Streets.
- The prison is mentioned in The Jam's song "Down in the Tube Station at Midnight" and in Billy Bragg's "Rotting on Remand" from the Workers Playtime album.
- The Pete Doherty song "Broken Love Song" is about the singer's tenure in the prison in early 2008.
- Spike Milligan recorded "The Wormwood Scrubs Tango" about an elderly car thief in the prison.
- In 2018, Murdoc Niccals, fictional bassist for the virtual band Gorillaz, was sent to the prison in the story surrounding the album The Now Now.
- The Lucksmiths' "Train Robbers' Wives" opening verse is about a Scrubs inmate being visited by his wife.
- ^ Conference Venue in West London - W12 Conferences
- ^ Sims, George R. (1978). Living London. Рипол Классик. ISBN 9785878036856. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- ^ Weinreb, Ben; Hibbert, Christopher (1992). The London Encyclopaedia (reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 1000.
- ^ Andrew, Christopher (2009). The Defence of the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5. Allen Lane. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-713-99885-6.
- ^ "Troubled history of the Scrubs". BBC News. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- ^ "Jail conditions at Scrubs improve". BBC News. 23 March 2004. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- ^ "'Urgent' changes needed at prison". BBC News. 18 November 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- ^ "Cell blocks at HMP Wormwood Scrubs". Historic England. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
- ^ "HMP Wormwood Scrubs 'Filthy and Unsafe', According to Report". BBC News. 3 September 2014.
- ^ a b Travis, Alan (8 December 2017). "Inspector finds dramatic increase in violence inside London prison". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- ^ a b "Wormwood Scrubs 'dangerous for inmates and officers'". BBC News. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- ^ "HMP Wormwood Scrubs – very concerning". www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- ^ "Wormwood Scrubs prison sees 'surge in violence'". BBC News. 8 December 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- ^ "Three men charged with inmate's murder". BBC News. 3 February 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- ^ Sullivan, Rory (25 May 2021). "Man took his life in jail 'in state of starvation' after being left without food for 48 hours". The Independent. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ^ "HMP Wormwood Scrubs – impressive, though fragile, improvement". www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- ^ "Wormwood Scrubs – safer and cleaner but prisoners locked in cells for too long". www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- ^ "Report on an unannounced inspection of HMP Wormwood Scrubs" (PDF). HM Inspectorate of Prisons. June 2021.
- ^ "DHL: Supporting prisoner rehabilitation by enhancing the employability of prisoners and ex offenders". www.igd.com. 19 October 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
- ^ "DHL wins new prison 'canteen' contract". insidetime & insideinformation. 11 April 2022. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
- ^ "John 'Hoppy' Hopkins obituary". The Guardian. 15 February 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
- ^ a b c Evans, Geraint; Fulton, Helen (2019). The Cambridge History of Welsh Literature. Cambridge University Press. p. 513. ISBN 978-1316-2272-06.
- ^ Nevill, Lord William Beauchamp (28 January 1903). Penal Servitude. London: William Heinemann.. (7 weeks in 1898 before transfer to Parkhurst)
- ^ "Joseph Pearce". Catholic.com. Archived from the original on 7 December 2004. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- ^ "Nicos Sampson". The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- ^ "Sabina Nessa: Man accused of 'predatory' murder of teacher". BBC News. 30 September 2021. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
- ^ Smith, Thomas (17 July 2018). "Gorillaz: Murdoc hits back at 2D in exclusive prison interview - NME". NME. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- ^ Crewther, Joseph (31 May 2018). "We Visited Murdoc in Jail to Learn about the New Gorillaz Album". Noisey. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- Government buildings completed in 1891
- Infrastructure completed in 1891
- Prisons in London
- Category B prisons in England
- Grade II listed buildings in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham
- White City, London
- Grade II listed prison buildings
- 1874 establishments in England
- Men's prisons
- World War II prisoner-of-war camps in England