HOTHEAD (gene)

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HOTHEAD is an Arabidopsis thaliana gene that encodes a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing oxidoreductase. This gene has a role in the creation of the carpel during the formation of flowers through the fusion of epidermal cells.[1] Observations of reversion of the hothead phenotype and genotype led to the suggestion that the plants were able to "remember" the sequences of genes present in their ancestors, possibly through a cache of complementary RNA.[2] This report attracted broad attention,[3] and alternative explanations were suggested.[4][5] Later research suggested that the supposed reversion phenomenon was due to the plants having a pronounced bias towards outcrossing (because of their floral defects), rather than self-fertilizing at high rates, as is typical for A. thaliana.[6][7][8][9]

External links and further reading[edit]


  1. ^ Krolikowski KA, Victor JL, Wagler TN, Lolle SJ, Pruitt RE (August 2003). "Isolation and characterization of the Arabidopsis organ fusion gene HOTHEAD". Plant J. 35 (4): 501–11. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x.2003.01824.x. PMID 12904212. 
  2. ^ Lolle SJ, Victor JL, Young JM, Pruitt RE (March 2005). "Genome-wide non-mendelian inheritance of extra-genomic information in Arabidopsis". Nature. 434 (7032): 505–9. doi:10.1038/nature03380. PMID 15785770. 
  3. ^ Wade, Nicholas (2005-03-23). "Startling scientists, plant fixes its flawed gene". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-10-24. 
  4. ^ Chaudhury, A. (2005). "Hothead healer and extragenomic information". Nature. 437 (7055): E1–E2. Bibcode:2005Natur.437E...1C. doi:10.1038/nature04062. PMID 16136082. 
  5. ^ Comai L, Cartwright RA (2005). "A toxic mutator and selection alternative to the non-Mendelian RNA cache hypothesis for hothead reversion". Plant Cell. 17 (11): 2856–8. doi:10.1105/tpc.105.036293. PMC 1276014Freely accessible. PMID 16267378.  summary
  6. ^ Peng P, Chan SW, Shah GA, Jacobsen SE (September 2006). "Plant genetics: increased outcrossing in hothead mutants". Nature. 443 (7110): E8; discussion E8–9. doi:10.1038/nature05251. PMID 17006468. 
  7. ^ Lolle S. J.; et al. (2006). "Increased outcrossing in hothead mutants (Reply)". Nature. 443 (7110): E8–E9. Bibcode:2006Natur.443E...8L. doi:10.1038/nature05252. 
  8. ^ Pennisi E (2006). "Genetics. Pollen contamination may explain controversial inheritance". Science. 313 (5795): 1864. doi:10.1126/science.313.5795.1864. PMID 17008492. 
  9. ^ Mercier R, Jolivet S, Vignard J, et al. (December 2008). "Outcrossing as an explanation of the apparent unconventional genetic behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana hth mutants". Genetics. 180 (4): 2295–7. doi:10.1534/genetics.108.095208. PMC 2600959Freely accessible. PMID 18845842.