Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi
|Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi|
The Hànyǔ Shuǐpíng Kǎoshì (HSK) (Chinese: 汉语水平考试), translated as the Chinese Proficiency Test or the Chinese Standard Exam, is China's only standardized test of Standard Chinese language proficiency for non-native speakers such as foreign students and overseas Chinese.
It is not uncommon to refer to a standard or level of proficiency by the HSK level number, or score. For example, a job description might ask for foreign applicants with "HSK5 or better."
The test is administered by Hanban, an agency of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China.
Background, purpose and use
Development began in 1984 at Beijing Language and Culture University and in 1992 the HSK was officially made a national standardized test. By 2005, over 120 countries had participated as regular host sites and the tests had been taken around 100 million times (domestic ethnic minority candidates included). The general count of candidates from outside of China is stated as being around 1.9 million. In 2011, Beijing International Chinese College became the first HSK testing center to conduct the HSK test online.
The HSK test approximates the English TOEFL, and an HSK certificate is valid without any limitation in China. The test aims to be a certificate of language proficiency for higher educational and professional purposes.
Each year HSK certificates are issued to those who meet required scores. Unlike the Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language offered in Taiwan and administered in traditional Chinese characters, the HSK is administered in Simplified Chinese. In addition, test takers with outstanding results can win a scholarship for short-term language study in China.
Current structure (since 2010)
The current format was introduced in 2010, with a philosophy of testing "comprehensive language and communication ability". Most notable is the inclusion of written segments at all levels (not just Advanced, as in the pre-2010 test), reformation of the ranking system, and use of new question structures. Complete vocabulary lists, previous tests, and simulated tests are available as preparation materials. A minor update of the vocabulary lists was made in 2012.
(cumulative / new)
(cumulative / new)
|1||150||150||174||174||20 questions, 15 min||20 questions, 17 min||Not tested||Designed for learners who can understand and use some simple Chinese characters and sentences to communicate, and prepares them for continuing their Chinese studies. In HSK 1 all characters are provided along with Pinyin.|
|2||300||150||347||173||35 questions, 25 min||25 questions, 22 min||Designed for learners who can use Chinese in a simple and direct manner, applying it in a basic fashion to their daily lives. In HSK 2 all characters are provided along with Pinyin.|
|3||600||300||617||270||40 questions||30 questions||10 items||Designed for learners who can use Chinese to serve the demands of their personal lives, studies and work, and are capable of completing most of the communicative tasks they experience during their Chinese tour.|
|4||1200||600||1064||447||45 questions||40 questions||15 items||Designed for learners who can discuss a relatively wide range of topics in Chinese and are capable of communicating with Chinese speakers at a high standard.|
|5||2500||1300||1685||621||45 questions||45 questions||10 items||Designed for learners who can read Chinese newspapers and magazines, watch Chinese films and are capable of writing and delivering a lengthy speech in Chinese.|
|6||5000||2500||2663||978||50 questions||50 questions||1 composition||Designed for learners who can easily understand any information communicated in Chinese and are capable of smoothly expressing themselves in written or oral form.|
The Listening, Reading and Writing tests each have a maximum score of 100. HSK 1 and 2 therefore have a maximum score of 200 with 120 points required to pass. The higher levels have a maximum of 300 points with 180 points required to pass. There is no minimum amount of points required for each of the sections as long as the sum is over 120 or 180 points respectively.
Hanban provides examples of the exam for the different levels together with a list of words that need to be known for each level. These examples are also available (together with the audio for the Listening Test) on the websites of the Confucius Institute at QUT and HSK Academy.
Estimates of equivalent CEFR levels
In 2010, Hanban stated that the HSK's six levels correspond on a one-to-one basis with the six levels of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) This statement has been rejected by both the German and the French association of Chinese language teachers, which argue that HSK level 6 is equivalent to CEFR level B2 or C1.
|HSK level||Hanban estimate||German association estimate||French association estimate|
|1||A1||Below A1||Below A1|
The HSKK test is a separate test. However, the three HSKK levels correspond with the six HSK levels of the written test.
|HSK level||HSKK level||ECR||Words||Questions||Minutes|
Former structure (before 2010)
|Test Rank (等第)||Vocabulary
|*Generally signifies a professional level.
**Generally required for non-language academic programs.
Formerly, there were 11 possible ranks (1-11) and 3 test formats (Basic, Elementary/Intermediate, and Advanced). A rank of between 3 and 8 was needed to enroll in a Chinese university, depending on the subject being studied. A score of 9 or higher was a common business standard.
A student taking the Basic test (基础HSK) could attain a rank of 1 through 3 (1级-3级), or fail to meet requirements and thus not receive a rank. The Elementary/Intermediate test (初中等HSK) covered ranks 3-8 (3级-8级), with ranks below 3 not considered. Likewise, the Advanced test (高等HSK) covered ranks 9-11 (9级-11级), with scores below 9 not considered.
The previous format for both Basic and Elementary/Intermediate HSK included four sections: listening comprehension, grammar structures, reading comprehension, and written expressions. Aside from written expressions portion (which requires writing of Chinese characters), these two tests were completely multiple-choice. The Advanced HSK however, added an additional two portions: spoken and written.
Test dates and locations
The HSK is held at designated test centers in China and abroad. A list of test centers can be found at the HSK website. Test dates are published annually and written tests are more frequently held than spoken ones, generally around once a month, depending on the test center. Test registration is usually open until 30 days prior to the actual test date for the paper-based test or around 10 days prior the actual test date for the computer-based test. Results are generally available around 30 days after completion (but no definite date is given for results).
- Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language – the Chinese language test used in Taiwan
- ZHC – a Chinese language test intended for native speakers in China
- List of language proficiency tests
- 汉语水平考试2007年起将增加口语写作, 2006-12-26 www.eol.cn, "The 2007 HSK Revision Will Add Spoken and Writing Portions."
- Official HSK Center Introduction, HSK Center
- , China Education center
- "汉语水平口语考试(HSKK) - Confucius Institute at Western Michigan University - 西密歇根大学孔子学院". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "Chinese Character Lists by New HSK Level". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- Introduction on New HSK Test
- "Chinese Tests_HSK". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "资源中心--汉语考试服务网". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- Character lists are not published separately, but can be derived from the published word lists.
- "HSK Test - HSK 1 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "HSK Test - HSK 2 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "HSK Test - HSK 3 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "HSK Test - HSK 4 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "HSK Test - HSK 5 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "HSK Test - HSK 6 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "HSK Test - Vocabulary List and Information". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "QUT - The Confucius Institute - New Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK and YCT)". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- HSK Vocabulary Lists from HSK Academy, an international non-governmental organization promoting Mandarin Chinese and providing resources to prepare for the HSK tests (En, Fr)
- Statement of the German Association of Chinese Teachers on the new HSK structure and its equivalent levels in the European CEFR (in German, Chinese and English)
- Introduction on New HSK Test, 2010, retrieved 26 July 2010
- German Association of Chinese Language Teachers (2010), Erklärung des Fachverbands Chinesisch e.V. zur neuen Chinesischprüfung HSK (PDF)
- Bellassen 2011
- HSK Level, 2010, retrieved 26 July 2010,
It is the counterpart of the Level I of the Chinese Language Proficiency Scales for Speakers of Other Languages and the A1 Level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEF).
- "HSK Test Preparation & Practice - Free Trial - HSK Practice Tests - HSK Practice Questions - HSK Score Improvement". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "考试计划--汉语考试服务网". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "HSK Test Regulations". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- Bellassen, Joël (2011), "Is Chinese Europcompatible? Is the Common European Framework Common?: The Common European Framework of References for Languages Facing Distant Language", New Prospect for Foreign Language Teaching in Higher Education —Exploring the Possibilities of Application of CECR—, Tokyo: World Language and Society Education Center (WoLSEC), pp. 23–31, ISBN 978-4-925243-85-8