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HSMG (High Strength Metallurgical Graphene) is polycrystalline graphene, grown from a liquid phase.[1]

This process, in comparison to other methods based on using solid substrates, allows to manufacture defect-free graphene structures. HSMG is formed on a perfectly flat surface - liquid metal. While growing graphene on solid substrates is difficult due to surface irregularities and defects. Growing graphene on a liquid metal matrix enables the rotation of graphene grains, resulting in forming a continuous graphene sheet.[2] Because of that, the grain disorientation angle is close to zero. Large-area graphene sheets formed with this method have high mechanical durability, close to graphene's theoretical values. This production method has been developed and patented by a team of scientists from the Institute of Materials Science of Lodz University of Technology, under the direction of Piotr Kula.[3] HSMG graphene's commercialisation and applications are being handled by a spin-off institution - Advanced Graphene Products sp. z o.o.[4]


  1. ^ "The growth of a polycrystalline graphene from a liquid phase". www.nsti.org. Retrieved 2015-07-01.
  2. ^ "Single and Multilayer Growth of Graphene from the Liquid Phase". www.scientific.net. Retrieved 2015-07-01.
  3. ^ "Polish scientists find way to make super-strong graphene sheets | Graphene-Info". www.graphene-info.com. Retrieved 2015-07-01.
  4. ^ "Engineering graphene : Compute Scotland". www.computescotland.com. Retrieved 2015-07-01.