Human T-lymphotropic virus 2

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A virus closely related to HTLV-I, human T-lymphotropic virus 2 (HTLV-II) shares approximately 70% genomic homology (structural similarity) with HTLV-I.

It is found predominantly in Native Americans,[1] and South American Indian groups. And also in Asian countries. More common in Japan and Korea.[citation needed] It can be passed down from mother to child through breastmilk and genetically as well from either parent.

HTLV-II entry in target cells is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT1.[2]

Clinical significance[edit]

HTLV-II has not been clearly linked to any disease, but has been associated with several cases of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)- like neurological disease.

An impact on platelet count has been observed.[3]

In the 1980s, HTLV-2 was identified in a patient with an unidentified T cell lymphoproliferative disease that was described as having characteristics similar to the B cell disorder, hairy cell leukemia.[4] HTLV-2 was identified in a second patient with a T cell lymphoproliferative disease; this patient later developed hairy cell leukemia, but HTLV-2 was not found in the hairy cell clones.[5] The cause of hairy cell leukemia is not known, but it is no longer believed to be related to viral infections.


  1. ^ Roucoux DF, Murphy EL (2004). "The epidemiology and disease outcomes of human T-lymphotropic virus type II". AIDS Rev. 6 (3): 144–54. PMID 15595431. 
  2. ^ Manel N, Kim FJ, Kinet S, Taylor N, Sitbon M, Battini JL (November 2003). "The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a receptor for HTLV". Cell. 115 (4): 449–59. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00881-X. PMID 14622599. 
  3. ^ Bartman MT, Kaidarova Z, Hirschkorn D, et al. (November 2008). "Long-term increases in lymphocytes and platelets in human T-lymphotropic virus type II infection". Blood. 112 (10): 3995–4002. doi:10.1182/blood-2008-05-155960. PMC 2581993Freely accessible. PMID 18755983. 
  4. ^ Kalyanaraman VS, Sarngadharan MG, Robert-Guroff M, Miyoshi I, Golde D, Gallo RC (November 1982). "A new subtype of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-II) associated with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukemia". Science. 218 (4572): 571–3. doi:10.1126/science.6981847. PMID 6981847. 
  5. ^ Rosenblatt JD, Giorgi JV, Golde DW, et al. (February 1988). "Integrated human T-cell leukemia virus II genome in CD8 + T cells from a patient with "atypical" hairy cell leukemia: evidence for distinct T and B cell lymphoproliferative disorders". Blood. 71 (2): 363–9. PMID 2827811. 

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