HTTP Live Streaming
|Internet media type||
|Developed by||Apple Inc.|
|Initial release||May 2009|
|Type of format||Playlist|
|Extended from||extended M3U|
HTTP Live Streaming (also known as HLS) is an HTTP-based media streaming communications protocol implemented by Apple Inc. as part of its QuickTime, Safari, OS X, and iOS software. It is similar to MPEG-DASH in that it works by breaking the overall stream into a sequence of small HTTP-based file downloads, each download loading one short chunk of an overall potentially unbounded transport stream. As the stream is played, the client may select from a number of different alternate streams containing the same material encoded at a variety of data rates, allowing the streaming session to adapt to the available data rate. At the start of the streaming session, it downloads an extended M3U playlist containing the metadata for the various sub-streams which are available.
Since its requests use only standard HTTP transactions, HTTP Live Streaming is capable of traversing any firewall or proxy server that lets through standard HTTP traffic, unlike UDP-based protocols such as RTP. This also allows content to be offered from conventional HTTP servers as origin and delivered over widely available HTTP-based content delivery networks.
HLS also specifies a standard encryption mechanism using AES and a method of secure key distribution using HTTPS with either a device specific realm login or HTTP cookie which together provide a simple DRM system. Later versions of the protocol also provide for trick mode fast-forward and rewind and integration of subtitles. upLynk has also added the AES scrambling and base-64 encoding of the DRM content key with a 128-bit device specific key for registered commercial SWF applications together with a sequential initialization Vector for each chunk to its implementation of the standard.
Apple has documented HTTP Live Streaming as an Internet Draft (Individual Submission), the first stage in the process of submitting it to the IETF as an Informational Request for Comments. However, while Apple has submitted occasional minor updates to the draft, no additional steps appear to have been taken towards IETF standardization.
HTTP Live Streaming uses a conventional web server to distribute audiovisual content and requires specific software to fit into the proper format transmission in real time. The service architecture comprises:
- Codify and encapsulate the input video flow in a proper format for the delivery. Then, it is prepared for distribution by segmenting it into different files. In the process of intake, the video is coded and segmented to generate video fragments and index file.
- Encoder: codify video files in H.264 format and audio in MP3, HE-AAC or AC-3. This is encapsulated by MPEG-2 Transport Stream to carry it
- Segmenter: divides the MPEG-2 TS file into fragments of equal length, kept as .ts files. It also creates an index file that contains references of the fragmented files, saved as .m3u8
- Formed by standard web Server, accepts requests from clients and delivers all the resources needed for streaming.
- Request and download all the files and resources, assembling them so that they can be presented to the user as a continuous flow video. The client software downloads first the index file through a URL and then the several media files available. The playback software assembles the sequence to allow continued display to the user.
HTTP Live Streaming provides mechanisms to provide a scalable and adaptable to network, allowing playback quality in wireless networks with high bandwidth and low quality playback on 3G networks, where the bandwidth is reduced. HTTP Live Streaming also provides protection against errors, generating alternative different flows video to use them if there are any errors in segment.
HLS streams can carry generic ID3 data as a separate pid in the transport stream (see ). ID3 metadata is specified by Apple in separate audio streams for the purposes of synchronisation with video. Timed ID3 metadata in the base streams can be used to carry generic timed metadata with the stream; for example Screen Systems have used ID3 information to reference the time that the frame on the client's system was encoded, allowing code external to the player to act in sync with the video. The number of players able to export the ID3 information is growing, examples being hls.js, flashls (flash plugin which works with a number of flash players), and JWPlayer (paid version).
To make the system scalable and adaptable to the bandwidth of the network, the video flow is coded in different qualities. Thus, depending on the bandwidth and transfer network speed, the video will play at different qualities.
To implement this, the system must encode the video in different qualities and generate an index file that contains the locations of the different quality levels.
The client software internally manages the different qualities, making requests to the highest possible quality within the bandwidth of the network. Thus always play the video the highest possible quality, viewing lower quality on 3G networks and highest quality in Wi-Fi broadband.
One issue that can arise by relying on the client-side system is that a user may experience different bitrates throughout the duration of playback. This can be avoided by delaying the responsiveness of the player to changes in client-side bandwidth.
To keep a stream available HLS includes features to recover from outages. To achieve this, multiple flows are listed in the index file for the same quality level. If the client can't load a flow it tries the next, repeating until either a working flow is found or all flows fail.
This can be combined with scalability by listing multiple flows for each separate quality.
Using fragmented MP4
On WWDC2016 Apple announced the inclusion of byte-range addressing for fragmented MP4 files, or fMP4, allowing content to be played in HLS without the need to multiplex it into MPEG-2 Transport Stream. The industry considered this as a step towards compatibility between HLS and MPEG-DASH.
- Adobe Media Server supports HLS for iOS devices (HLS) and Protected HTTP Live Streaming (PHLS).
- Akamai supports HLS for live and on-demand streams.
- Amazon CloudFront supports HLS for on-demand streams.
- bitmovin provides the cloud transcoding service bitcodin.com which supports HLS for on-demand and live streaming.
- CDNetworks supports HLS for live and on-demand streams.
- Cisco Systems: Supports full end to end delivery for Live/TSTV/VOD/HLS and Cloud DVR services.
- EdgeCast Networks supports cross-device streaming using HLS.
- Edgeware: Supports full end to end delivery for Live/TSTV/VOD/HLS.
- Exterity: AvediaStream o7500 Origin Server supports HLS (HTTP Live Streaming)
- Helix Universal Server from RealNetworks supports iPhone OS 3.0 and later for live and on-demand HTTP Live or On-Demand streaming of H.264 and AAC content to iPhone, iPad and iPod.
- IIS Media Services from Microsoft supports live and on-demand Smooth Streaming and HTTP Live Streaming.
- Keepixo Genova Live does both transcoding to H.264 & HEVC and packaging to HLS, MPEG-DASH, MS Smooth Streaming
- Level 3 supports HLS live and on-demand streams.
- Limelight Networks supports HLS for some accounts.
- Nginx with the RTMP Module supports HLS in live mode.
- Nimble Streamer supports HLS in live and VOD mode.
- Tata Communications CDN supports HLS for live and on-demand streams.
- TVersity supports HLS in conjunction with on-the-fly transcoding for playback of any video content on iOS devices.
- Unified Origin supports HLS in live and VOD mode.
- Unreal Media Server supports low latency HLS as of version 9.5.
- Ustream supports HLS delivery of live broadcasts. The ingested stream is re-transcoded if the original audio and video codec falls outside HLS requirements.
- VLC Media Player supports HLS for serving live and on-demand streams as of version 2.0
- Wowza Streaming Engine from Wowza Media Systems supports HLS and encrypted HLS for live (with DVR) and on-demand streaming.
- Adobe Systems demonstrated an update to its Adobe Flash Media Server product supporting HTTP Live Streaming at the NAB Show in April 2011
- Apple Inc. used this on September 1, 2010 to stream its iPod Keynote event live over the internet, and on October 20, 2010 to stream its 'Back to the Mac' Keynote event live over the internet.
- Google added HTTP Live Streaming support in Android Honeycomb and later.
- Helix Universal Server from RealNetworks supports iPhone OS 3.0 and later for live and on-demand HTTP Live or On-Demand streaming of H.264 and AAC content to iPhone, iPad and iPod initial release April 2010, latest release November 2012
- flashls is an open-source Adobe Flash/Adobe AIR plugin that provides HTTP Live Streaming support for Chromeless Flash/Air Player, Flowplayer, Video.js, mediaelement.js and Open Source Media Framework 2.0
- HP added HTTP Live Streaming support in webOS 3.0.5.
- Microsoft added support for HTTP Live Streaming in EdgeHTML rendering engine in Windows 10 in 2015
- Microsoft added support for HTTP Live Streaming in IIS Media Services 4.0.
- Yospace added HTTP Live Streaming support in Yospace HLS Player and SDK for flash version 1.0
- Sling Media added HTTP Live Streaming support to its Slingboxes and its SlingPlayer apps
- In 2014/15, the BBC introduced HLS-AAC streams for its live internet radio and on-demand audio services, and supports those streams with its iPlayer Radio clients.
- hls.js implements HLS in MSE compatible browsers; ability to read ID3 from video pid 
- hasplayer.js implements HLS in MSE compatible browsers
Supported players and servers
|Product||Platform||Live Streaming||DRM||As of Version||Editor|
|Safari (web browser)||OS X, iOS||Yes||Yes||6.0+
Has full HLS support.
|Google Chrome (web browser)||Windows, OS X, Android, iOS||Partial||Yes||30+
Supported on Android and iOS. Unsupported on desktop OSes.
|Microsoft Edge (web browser)||Windows 10||Yes||Yes||Microsoft|
|QuickTime Player (media player)||OS X||Yes||Yes||10.0+
Has full HLS support.
|iTunes (music player)||Windows, OS X||Yes||Yes||10.1+
Has full HLS support. To play a HLS stream, go to File > Open Stream and replace "http://" with "itls://" (for video streams) or "itals://" (for audio streams) in the stream URL.
|VLC media player (media player)||Windows, OS X, Linux, Android, iOS, Windows Phone||Partial||No||2.0
Has partial HLS support. VLC may load the playlist as individual chunks instead of a gapless live stream for some server configurations. This causes a slight pause or missing audio between each file segment.
|Media Player Classic Home Cinema (media player)||Windows||Yes||Yes||Gabest, Doom9 forum users|
|PotPlayer (media player)||Windows||Yes||Yes||Daum Communications|
|MPlayer / SMPlayer / mpv (media player)||Windows, Linux||Yes||Yes||Ricardo Villalba|
|GOM Player (media player)||Windows||Yes||Yes||Gretech|
|Audacious (software) (music player)||Windows, Linux||Yes||Yes||Audacious|
|Radio Tray (radio player)||Linux||Yes||Yes||Carlos Ribeiro|
|Kodi (software) (home entertainment application)||Windows, OS X, Linux, Android, iOS||Yes||Partial||12.0 Alpha 5 and later
DRM support requires a monthly/nightly build
|MythTV (home entertainment application)||Windows, OS X, Linux, FreeBSD||Yes||Yes||0.26||MythTV|
|JRiver Media Center (home entertainment application)||Windows, OS X||Yes||Yes||JRiver|
|XiiaLive (radio player)||Android, iOS||Yes||Yes||3.0+
Plays internet radio streams (audio only).
|Visual Blasters LLC|
|Tunein radio (radio player)||Android, iOS||Yes||Yes||3.3+
Plays internet radio streams (audio only).
|myTuner Radio (radio player)||Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Windows 8, OS X||Yes||Yes||AppGeneration Software|
|Internet Radio Player (radio player)||Android||Yes||Yes||MuserTech|
|GuguRadio (radio player)||iOS||Yes||Yes||Leon Fan|
|MX Player (media player)||Android, iOS||Yes||Yes||J2 Interactive|
|RockPlayer (media player)||Android, iOS||Yes||Yes||Shanghai ChangeTech Co. Ltd.|
|DicePlayer (media player)||Android 2.2+||Yes||Yes||Diceplayer 1.0+||INISOFT|
|Amino x4x STB||Amino set-top boxes||Yes||Yes||2.5.2 Aminet||Aminocom.com|
|Dune HD TV||Dune HD set-top boxes||Yes||Yes||TV Series||dunehd.com|
|nangu.TV||Motorola set-top boxes||Yes||Yes||2.0||nangu.TV|
|Roku Digital Video Player||Roku set-top boxes||Yes||Yes||Roku OS / SDK 2.6||Roku|
|Telebreeze Player (online service)||HTML, Android, iOS, Windows, MacOS, Roku STB, MAG250, Samsung SmartTV, LG SmartTV, T503, Enigma||Yes||Yes||3.2||Telebreeze|
|bitdash (SDK)||HTML5 or Flash, Web and Mobile||Yes||Yes||Version 3.0+||bitmovin|
|3ivx (SDK)||Windows 8, Windows Phone 8 & Xbox One||Yes||Yes||2.0||3ivx|
|Viblast Player (SDK)||HTML5, iOS, Android||Yes||Partial||Viblast Ltd|
|Flowplayer (SDK)||Adobe Flash, iOS, Android||Yes||Yes||The Flash HLS plugin is available from GitHub.||Flowplayer Ltd|
|JW Player (SDK)||Adobe Flash, iOS, Android||Yes||Yes||A Premium or Enterprise license is required for HLS support.||JW Player|
|Radiant Media Player (SDK)||Adobe Flash, HTML5||Yes||Yes||1.5.0||Radiant Media Player|
|Yospace (SDK)||Adobe Flash||Yes||Yes||2.1||Yospace|
|Onlinelib (SDK)||Adobe Flash||Yes||Yes||2.0||Onlinelib.de|
|VODOBOX HLS Player (online service)||Adobe Flash, HTML5, iOS, Android||Yes||Yes||Vodobox|
|NexPlayer (SDK)||iOS, Android, Windows Phone||Yes||Yes||NexStreaming|
|ffplay/avplay (multimedia framework)||Yes||Partial||FFmpeg/Libav|
|GPAC (multimedia framework)||Yes||No||0.5.0||Telecom ParisTech inc.|
|QuickPlayer (SDK)||Android, iOS, Windows 7, 8, 8,1 and 10||Yes||Yes||Squadeo|
|hls.js (MSE)||MSE Browsers||Yes||Unknown||Daily Motion open source |
|hasplayer.js (MSE)||MSE Browsers||Yes||Unknown||open source |
|Hola Player (video player)||HTML5, Adobe Flash, iOS, Android||Yes||Yes||All versions||Hola Ltd open source |
|Product||Technology||As Of Version||Editor||Free||Notes|
|Keepixo Genova Live||Bundled software for transcoding to H.264 & HEVC, and packaging to HLS, MPEG-DASH, MS Smooth Streaming||Keepixo||No|
|Unicorn Once||SaaS||Unicorn Media||No|
|IIS Media Services||4.0||Microsoft||No|
|Antik Media Streamer||Ingest Module (UDP/HTTP Transport Stream, Backup Stream with auto-switching, stream status monitoring and logging), Stream replication UDP/HTTP, HLS streaming, Video archive with snapshots, Server-side Timeshift, Timezone Shifting with multi-timezones, Stream Encryption using AES and key-rotation (with Antik Key Server)||3.0||Antik technology||No|
|Adobe Media Server||Live and VOD streaming as origin and edge server||5.0||Adobe||No|
|Evostream Media Server||Cross-platform including embedded systems such as encoders, IP cameras, DVRs, and more. Supports: Adobe Flash RTMP, RTMPS, LiveFLV, full transcoder for creating lower bitrate streams, HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) for streaming to iPhones, iPads and Androids, HTTP Dynamic Streaming (HDS) for Adobe Air, Microsoft Smooth Streaming (MSS) for Microsoft devices, RTSP with RTP or MPEG-TS, MPEG-TS (unicast/multicast), compatible Live Encoding, strong security for your content ( Verimatrix DRM, HLS AES encryption, Stream Aliasing, Watermarking), built-in clustering mechanism and more.||1.6.5||EvoStream||No|
|Anevia ViaMotion Servers||Transcapsulation: from one input, several outputs
(HLS, MS Smooth Streaming, ADS Flash, MPEG DASH)
|Packet Ship OverView:Origin Server||Capture from IPTV multicast and chunking to HLS for multi-bandwidth live streams, with AES encryption||2.1||Packet Ship||No|
|nangu.TV Streamers||on-the-fly adaptation: content is stored once enabling several outputs
(HLS, MS Smooth Streaming, ADS Flash, MPEG DASH)
|TVersity Media Server||1.9||TVersity||No||Pro Edition only|
|Helix Universal Server||Live + VOD HLS with Verimatrix DRM integration, ABR, Multi-Resolution, AES encryption||15.0+||RealNetworks||No||High performance HLS (12,000+ concurrent devices)|
|Wowza Streaming Engine||Live and VOD streaming as origin and edge server with DVR, DRM Integration and Transcoding for adaptive delivery. Outputs to MPEG-DASH, HLS, HDS, Smooth Streaming, RTMP, and RTSP||2.0+||Wowza Media Systems||No|
|Unified Streaming Platform||Muxes media content from one unified source to multiple outputs (Smooth Streaming, HDS, HLS and MPEG DASH)||Unified Streaming||No|
|VODOBOX Live Server||Outputs HTTP Live Streaming with Adaptive bitrate streaming (up to 6 simultaneous qualities).
Video codecs : AVC H.264 / HEVC H.265
Audio codecs : MP3 / AAC
Transport layers : HTTP / FTP / Amazon AWS S3 / Microsoft Azure Web Storage / writing to disk (NetBios / Samba)
Hostings : internal HTTP Web server and/or external Web servers (ex: Apache HTTP server, Microsoft IIS, Nginx, etc.)
|1.0||Vodobox||Yes||Supports input live streams from DVB-T devices, satellite receivers (Dreambox), IP streams (RTSP, RTMP, MMS, HTTP), Microsoft DirectShow drivers (video capture cards, live production software, camera). Encoder is compliant with Intel Quick Sync Video and Nvidia NVENC hardware acceleration.|
|Flixwagon Platform Video Server||Flixwagon||No|
|StreamCoder Live Encoder||Realtime video encoder (inputs : DVB/IP stream or video signal). Supports multi-bitrates and multi-languages||Ektacom||No|
|Apache HTTP Server||Apache Software Foundation||Yes|
|Unreal Media Server||9.5||Unreal Streaming Technologies||No||Latency of live streams can be as low as 2.5 seconds over the Internet|
|Nimble Streamer||RTMP / RTSP / Icecast / MPEG-TS to ABR HLS. MP4 / MP3 to VOD HLS||1.0.0-x||WMSPanel||No|
|Nginx-rtmp-module||Free module for nginx server with support of HLS live streaming. Compliant with iOS and Android.||0.9.x||Roman Arutyunyan||Yes|
|Nginx Plus||VOD HLS as origin||NGINX, Inc.||No|
|Flussonic Media Server||Multi-platform support for HTTP, RTSP, RTMP, Time Shifting, DVR Functions with Unlimited Rewind Capabilities HLS streaming specific to iOS platform support.||3.0+||Flussonic, LLC.||No||Supporting a magnitude of features with full HTTP support.|
|VBrick Distributed Media Engine ("DME")||2.0||VBrick Systems, Inc.||No||Live and stored HLS. Live can be transmuxed from several input mux including RTP, RTMP, and MPEG-TS using H.264 encoding|
|Telebreeze Coder / Media Server||HLS, MPEG-TS, RTMP, TimeShift, VoD, DVR, Hardware Acceleration||2.0||Telebreeze||No|
|LEADTOOLS Media Streaming Server SDK||Converts files on the fly to Adobe HDS, Apple HLS, MPEG-DASH, Microsoft Smooth Streaming, RTSP.||19.0||LEAD Technologies||No|
|Product||Technology||As Of Version||Editor||Free||Notes|
|VODOBOX HLS Encoder||Converts video files into pre-encoded HLS Adaptive bitrate streaming, ready to be hosted and broadcast through Apache HTTP server / Microsoft IIS / Nginx Web servers. Supports AVC H.264 / HEVC H.265 / Alternate Audio / Alternate Subtitles.||1.0||Vodobox||Yes||Transcode classic video files (avi, mp4, m2ts, mkv, ...) into HLS streams with multi-qualities for VOD or replay usage. Hardware encoding can be accelerated by Intel Quick Sync Video and Nvidia NVENC technologies.|
- Pantos, R.P. (April 2014). "HTTP Live Streaming draft-pantos-http-live-streaming-13". Network Working Group: 1.
- Jordan, Larry (10 June 2013). "The Basics of HTTP Live Streaming". Larry's Blog. Larry Jordan & Associates. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- MPEG-DASH vs. Apple HLS vs. Smooth Streaming vs. Adobe HDS
- Pantos, R. (30 September 2011). "HTTP Live Streaming". Internet Engineering Task Force. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Application keys". Digital rights management (DRM). upLynk Support. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- van Kesteren, Anne (2010-09-01). "Internet Drafts are not Open Standards". annevankesteren.nl. Self-published. Retrieved 2015-03-22.
- https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/AudioVideo/Conceptual/HTTP_Live_Streaming_Metadata_Spec/2/2.html ID3 in PES
- https://developer.apple.com/videos/play/wwdc2016/504/ What's New in HTTP Live Streaming
- http://www.streamingmedia.com/Articles/ReadArticle.aspx?ArticleID=111796 HLS Now Supports Fragmented MP4, Making it Compatible With DASH
- https://bitmovin.com/hls-news-wwdc-2016/ WWDC16: HLS supports Fragmented MP4 – and gets MPEG-DASH compatible!
- "Limelight Orchestrate Video Support". Limelight Networks. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- "Android 3.0 Platform Highlights".
- "webOS 3.0.5 Updates".
- Simplified Adaptive Video Streaming: Announcing support for HLS and DASH in Windows 10
- "First Look: Microsoft IIS Media Services 4". StreamingMedia.com. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
- Blogcritics, November 26, 2010. iPad App Review: SlingPlayer (Retrieved April 14, 2014)
- Scott, Andrew (27 Feb 2015). "Audio Factory: an overview". Internet Blog. BBC.
the only on-demand assets will be AAC HLS. ... We are still talking to manufacturers and many are confident that they will be able to provide their users with access to all 57 of our HLS AAC streams at 320kb/s within a few weeks or months.
- hls.js demo page
- Supported Media Formats | Android Developers
- Hints of 'iTunes Live Stream' Service Found in iTunes 10.1 - Mac Rumors
- https://trac.videolan.org/vlc/ticket/2943 VLC Ticket #2943 (Support for HTTP Live Streaming as a client)
- THEOplayer | HLS Support
- Radiant Media Player version history
- StreamingMedia Review bitcodin